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Proceedings of the Fourth Congress at Atlanta, GA., April 28 to May 1, 1892
The Inventors of the Scotch-Irish Race.

By Dr. John H. Bryson, of Huntsville, Ala.

In the year 1856 a very remarkable book was published by Rev. Mr. Blakely, a Scottish clergyman, which bore the striking title: "The Theology of Inventions." He maintains, with great force, the proposition that there is a divine providence in all inventions. His argument is a strong one, characterized by much ability and research. He claims that God has bestowed all the powers possessed by the inventor; that he is the creator of the material world out of which every invention is produced, and so there must be a divine providence in all inventions, as they appear in human history.

The endowments of the human mind, as well as the nature and laws of matter, being qualities bestowed by a wise and beneficent Creator, they cannot legitimately be divorced from the designs had in view by their author.

If human life in all generations is under the guidance of divine providence, then all inventions and discoveries, which so modify and change the currents and developments of human life can no longer be considered as matters of accident, but results, which find their birth and advent at times when the greater good would accrue to humanity. He who studies carefully the problems of human history, how certain people are prepared for great eras, when wonderful achievements are gained and the interests of mankind are widened and enlarged, will be constrained to admit the statement as true that there is a Theology in Inventions.

The question may be asked, and with much significance, why were the great inventions and discoveries, which have been such a blessing to mankind, not found out until these modern days? If all inventions and discoveries have the hand of an all-wise Providence behind them, why was their advent so long delayed; and when they did come, why were they so largely developed out of a particular people, commonly known as the Anglo-Saxon race? These are questions full of interest to the thoughtful and investigating mind, and open up fields of research which have as yet been but little explored. Such problems, however, cannot be discussed on this present occasion.

It is a proverb of much broader meaning than many suppose that "necessity is the mother of invention." The demands of society, of commerce, and of civilization, have generally indicated the direction in which inventive skill should direct its energies. The greatest achievements of inventors have usually been the greatest blessings to humanity. It is preeminently true that inventors deserve well of their fellow-men. They are the great benefactors of their race. Many of them have had to struggle through great poverty, trials, and ridicule before success could be obtained. It is a sad and painful reflection upon our race that some of the greatest inventors have had their inventions filched from their hands, enriching multitudes and even nations, while they themselves have died in poverty and neglect. Suffering, penury, and martyrdom have been the only rewards for some of the most useful inventions of the world. It seems incredible that these great benefactors of the human family should have received such recompense at the hands of their fellow-men.

With these general remarks upon the subject of inventions, we invite attention to some prominent Inventors of the Scotch-Irish race. This remarkable people are not less distinguished in the art of invention than in other prominent characteristics which have marked their history.

It will ever be a proud boast of Scotch-Irishmen that

Robert Fulton

was of that blood. To Mr. Fulton belongs the distinguished honor of applying the power of steam successfully to water navigation. This wonderful invention revolutionized the transportation and commerce of the world. Its beneficial effects to all nations no language could possibly estimate. It opened up the grandest era of human history, and gave such an impulse to the work of civilization as had never been known before.

Robert Fulton was born in Little Britain, Lancaster County, Pa., 1765. He was of respectable, though not wealthy family. His father and mother were of Scotch-Irish blood. Their families were supposed to be a part of the great emigration from Ireland in 1730-31. The Fulton family were probably among the early settlers of the town of Lancaster, as the father of Robert Fulton was one of the founders of the Presbyterian Church of that place. The early training of Robert Fulton was entirely in the hands of his mother, and his noble and exemplary life told how faithful she had been to her trust. The father died when his son Robert was only three years of age. The mother gave him as good an English education as her circumstances would permit, and then secured for him an apprenticeship with a prominent jeweler in Philadelphia. Here the splendid career of Fulton began. His genius for mechanics and painting was early exhibited. His hours of recreation were spent either in the mechanic's shop or in the studio with his pencil. With his first earnings he procured for his mother a comfortable home, showing the value he set upon her care and concern in his behalf. His power as an artist developed rapidly, and he was persuaded to go to London and become a pupil of Mr. West, who was then one of the most famous artists of the day, and an American. He was most favorably received by Mr. West, and so impressed was he with the promising talent of his pupil that he took him to his own home, where he enjoyed the instruction of this great master for several years.

But the drift of Mr. Fulton's genius lay in another direction. He could not be content in the artist's studio, however promising might be the result. He is soon found associated with the Duke of Bridgewater and Lord Stanhope, in making important improvements in the canal system of England. It is about this time, 1793, that Mr. Fulton first conceived the idea of propelling river boats and seagoing vessels by steam power, and in some of his manuscripts he speaks with great confidence of its practicability. The broad question of navigation and commerce in their international aspects occupied much of his thoughts, and he wrote some elaborate treatises, urging the English and French governments to give their attention to these matters as a means of developing and promoting the prosperity of this country and people. The one question which predominated in his mind all the while as he elaborated his various inventions was: Will the happiness and prosperity of the people be thereby promoted?

Before Mr. Fulton gave his entire attention to mastering the problem of steam power navigation, he applied all his energies to the production of a diving boat to destroy war vessels, after the manner of torpedoes of the present day. The invention proved quite successful, and, believing he had produced a new and important addition to naval warfare, he offered his invention to the English government. His proposition was met by a proposal, for a considerable reward, to suppress his inventions, so that neither his own country nor any other might receive the advantage. He indignantly rejected the overture, and replied with much feeling: "I will never consent to let these inventions lie dormant, should my country at any time have need for them; and were you to grant me an annuity of twenty thousand pounds a year, I would sacrifice all to the safety and independence of my country." These were noble and patriotic utterances of Mr. Fulton, and indicate the strong integrity of character which he possessed.

The career of Mr. Fulton had now reached one of its important turning points. Thoroughly discouraged at the reception which the English and French Governments had given to his inventions, he determined to return to his own country and give all his energies to the application of steam power to navigation. It was fortunate for America that adversity drove her worthy son back to her shores, as the splendid triumph of his genius was near at hand which was to reflect much glory upon himself and his country.

In the year 1806 Mr. Fulton arrived in New York, and immediately began the construction of a boat which was to test the practicability of the invention he had carefully worked out in his own mind. In less than a year, boat, engines, and machinery were all ready for the experimental trip. The boat was named "Clearmont," after the home of Chancellor Livingston, who was associated with Mr. Fulton in this steam power experiment. In the month of August, 1807, Mr. Fulton made the public announcement that he would, on a certain afternoon, start on his new boat for Albany. At the appointed time a large multitude assembled, perfectly incredulous as to the success of the experiment. Jest and ridicule were freely ex-pressed about "Fulton's folly." A few personal friends were invited aboard the boat to witness the trial of the new power. At the signal the vessel moved smoothly out into the midst of the river, like a thing of life, and started majestically on her trip of one hundred and fifty miles to Albany. The multitude were filled with blank amazement as the "Clearmont" disappeared from their view upon the Hudson. The crews on the sailing crafts were appalled as they saw the terrible object coming toward them belching fire and smoke; some hid themselves in the hold of the vessels, some leaped into the water and made for the shore, others fell upon the deck and implored divine protection from the approaches of the horrible monster. The people of Albany and the Legislature were filled with wonder and astonishment as the boat moved in proud majesty up to the wharf.

The following day the new vessel returned safely to New York. It was a glorious day for Mr. Fulton. His wonderful genius had triumphed over all obstacles, and the application of steam power to navigation was an established fact. It was the dawn of a new era in the prosperity of nations, and the beginning of a new period in the civilization of the world. Mr. Fulton could not be otherwise than greatly gratified at his success, but he was thinking of the welfare of his countrymen in the hour of triumph. Listen to his own noble words as ho gives an account of the matter to a friend: "Having employed much time, money, and zeal in accomplishing this work, it gives me great pleasure to see it fully answer my expectations. It will give cheap and quick conveyance to the merchandise of the Mississippi, Missouri, and other great rivers, which are now laying open their treasures to the enterprise of our countrymen; and, although the prospect of personal emolument has been some inducement to mo, yet I feel infinitely more pleasure in reflecting on the immense advantages that my country will derive from the invention." There is a grand nobility in these words which should touch the heart of every American citizen.

The genius and ability of Mr. Fulton entitled him to take rank among the greatest men of the world. He possessed a rare and wonderful combination of extraordinary qualities. He was one of nature's noblemen. Through his inventions ho became a great benefactor to his race, reflecting honor upon his country and immortality upon himself.

His splendid career was cut short at high noon. Enthused with marvelous conceptions to reconstruct the navy of his country with the new steam power he had discovered, the energies of his delicate nature were overtaxed, and he fell a victim to disease on February 4, 1815, in his fiftieth year.

The Scotch-Irish race have great reason to be proud of the name of Robert Fulton. His wonderful genius and splendid achievements would be an honor to any people.

Prof. Samuel Finley Breese Morse

is the second distinguished inventor of the Scotch-Irish race to whom your attention is invited. Prof. Morse was born in Charleston, Mass., on April 27, 1791. He was the son of Rev. Jedediah Morse, a prominent minister of the Congregational Church of New England. His mother was Elizabeth Ann Breese, of New York City, the granddaughter of Rev. Dr. Samuel Finley, a distinguished Scotch-Irish clergyman, and an honored President of Princeton College. Prof. Morse belongs to the Scotch-Irish race through his mother, and there is no better channel through which to get the blood. By both sides of the family he had a line of ancestry remarkable for their superior intellectual endowments and culture, as well as their nobleness and integrity of character. His future life exhibited the fact that he was worthy of his noble heritage and honored sires.

The father relates the interesting incident that Rev. Dr. Witherspoon, the successor of Dr. Finley as President of Princeton College, came on a visit to him sometime after the birth of the son, and being much affected by the interview with the granddaughter of his predecessor, he took the infant son in his arms, and, looking up to God, invoked the divine benediction upon the life of the child. It was a touching scene, which the father and mother never forgot. They little dreamed, however, of the amazing blessings which were to come to the world through that life which then received the benediction of the man of God.
The early education of young Samuel Finley Morse was watched over very carefully by his father. At the age of fifteen he was fully prepared to enter the Freshman Class of Yale College in 1807, under the presidency of Dr. Timothy Dwight, who was his father's close personal friend. He was confided to Dr. Dwight's special care, and for four years he was under the molding influence of this extraordinary man. It was while at college, attending the lectures of Prof. Day on electricity, that young Morse received the seed thought which ultimately produced the great invention. In one of his morning lectures, Prof. Day gave this proposition: "If the circuit be interrupted, the fluid will become visible; and when it passes, it will leave an impression upon any intermediate body." The professor gave experiments, demonstrating the truthfulness of the proposition. This was the germ of the great invention that now daily and hourly astonishes the world, and has given a splendid immortality to the student, who, twenty two years afterward, conceived the idea of making this experiment of practical value to mankind.

"Writing in 1867 of the time when the idea of his invention first originated with him, he refers to this morning lecture at Yale College, and says: "The fact that the presence of electricity can be made visible in any desired part of the circuit was the crude seed which took root in my mind and grew up into form, and ripened into the invention of the electric telegraph."

In the summer of 1810 Mr. Samuel Finley Morse finished his collegiate course, and determined to devote himself to the art of painting, as he had already shown decided gifts in that direction. The celebrated Washington Allston had just returned from Europe in the midst of his splendid career, and young Morse was placed under his care as his pupil. In the summer of 1811 Mr. Allston returned to London, taking with him his pupil, Mr. Morse, whom he presented to Benjamin "West, the great American artist, who was then President of the Royal Academy of England. Mr. West became greatly interested in Mr. Morse, and gave him the warm personal attention of a father. The young artist made rapid advancement in his profession. In less than two years he was awarded the gold medal for one of his productions, and in the presence of the royal court received the honor at the hands of the Duke of Norfolk.

After four years' absence, Mr. Morse returns to his own country, continuing his profession as an artist in different cities from 1815 to 1829. During the years 1827-28, Mr. Morse gave special attention to the study of electro-magnetism, under the inspiring lectures of Prof. Dana, of Columbia College, of New York City. His mind was still struggling with the electric force as to some method of utilizing it.

In 1829 he determined to spend some time in Italy, studying the great masters, that he might the more thoroughly perfect himself in his profession. His visit to Italy and adjacent countries, making a study of the magnificent gems of art collected in the different galleries, was a source of great pleasure and profit to him, and, richly furnished with material for future use in his profession, he determined in the fall season of 1832 to return to his own country.

Mr. Morse was now forty-two years of age. For twenty years and more he had given his entire attention to art and studies as a painter, and had attained very high distinction. But his career as an artist was now virtually at an end. His future was to be engaged in grappling with one of the grandest conceptions that ever entered the human mind.

On October 1, 1832, Mr. Morse sailed from Havre on the packet ship "Sully," for New York. There were quite a number of prominent people aboard the vessel. When fully out upon the sea, the conversation at the dinner table on a certain day turned upon electro-magnetism, and was carried on with much interest by several parties. At a particular point in the conversation Mr. Morse interposed the remark: "If the presence of electricity can be made visible in any part of the circuit, I see no reason why intelligence may not be transmitted instantaneously by electricity." Promiscuous conversation went on. But the one new idea had taken complete possession of the mind of Mr. Morse. It was as sudden and pervading as if at that moment he had received an electric shock. He withdrew from the table and went on deck. He was in midocean. His whole being was absorbed with the new conception. The purpose to transmit intelligence by electricity took possession of his mind, and to its perfection his life from that moment was devoted. The mechanism by which the result was to be reached was to be wrought out by a slow and laborious thought and experiment, but the grandeur of that result broke upon him as clearly and fully as if it had been a vision from heaven. Difficulties afterward rose in his path, which had to be surmounted or removed by toilsome and painful processes. But in that first hour of conception, when his mind was all aglow with his new discovery, he saw the end from the beginning. Of all the great inventions that has made their authors immortal, and conferred enduring benefit upon mankind, no one was so completely grasped at its inception as this. For some days and nights he had no rest or sleep, struggling with the difficult problem. His mind was all on fire. The tension of thought was very great, but he found the solution. His notebook shows that he then constructed the alphabet of dots and dashes, and the needful mechanism whereby these signs were to be made by the electric current. From this hour began a struggle which lasted twelve years, more severe, heroic, and triumphant than the annals of any other invention furnished for the warning and encouragement of genius.

As the vessel neared the wharf at New York, Capt. Pell says, Mr. Morse addressed him and said: "Well, captain, should you hear of the telegraph one of these days as the wonder of the world, remember the discovery was made upon the good ship 'Sully.'"

Several years were spent in constructing, improving, and perfecting the mechanism of the invention. His limited supply of means became virtually exhausted. It was the old story repeated, and to be repeated, of genius struggling with poverty.

In 1838 Mr. Morse had so far perfected his invention that he proposed to make a public exhibition of the operation of telegraphic instruments at New York "University, of which he was at that period a professor. On January 24, 1838, the distinguished parties invited were present, filled with astonishment at the proposition to convey intelligence through a coil of wire ten miles long. In deference to Gen. Cummings, a military general present, the following sentence was given to Prof. Morse to transmit through the long wire in the telegraphic alphabet of dots and dashes:

"Attention, the universe:
By kingdoms, right wheel."

Letter by letter and word by word the entire sentence was written, and repeated four times over with perfect accuracy. The audience were amazed and overwhelmed. The work seemed to border on the miraculous. This is the first sentence ever transmitted through a telegraph wire of any length. The original message is still in the possession of the Cummings family. The sentence was perhaps given playfully, without the thought of any particular significance, and yet all present felt, somehow, that they, stood upon the threshold of an event that would command the attention of the world, and they were not mistaken.

On February 21, 1838, Prof. Morse exhibited his telgraphic invention before the President of the United States and his cabinet and many of the members of Congress. The claims of the invention were generally regarded as utterly incredible, but when the experiment was witnessed all were compelled to admit that the telegraph had all the appearance of success.

Several years were now spent in securing grants of letters patent in foreign countries. On March 3, the Congress of the United States appropriated §30,000 to construct an experimental telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore. The speeches of ridicule made by several members of Congress on the bill making this appropriation are very amusing productions in the light of the present day. The friends of Prof. Morse had to labor assiduously to secure the passage of the bill making the appropriation. Seated in the gallery of the House of Representatives, Mr. Morse watched with intense anxiety the fate of the bill, for in its success were centered all his hopes of getting his invention before the world. Trembling with agitation, he heard the roll call. The bill had a majority of eight. He and his friends were greatly rejoiced, but the bill had yet to run the gauntlet in the Senate during the few days of Congress which yet remained. March 3 came, and Mr. Morse sat in the gallery all day long. As the senate chamber was lighted, two Senators, his personal friends, came to him with the sad intelligence that there was no hope of getting the bill passed, as only a few hours remained and a large number of bills were before it on the calendar. His hopes were crushed. He went to his hotel, fell upon his knees at his bedside, and poured out his troubled heart to God, as he had ever done in the dark days when thick shadows fell upon him. He soon realized that "the Lord giveth his beloved sleep." Mr. Ellsworth, the Commissioner of Patents, and his friends in the Senate watched the bill continuously, and at the last moment secured its passage and signature by the President. Early next morning the little daughter of Mr. Ellsworth came to the hotel as Prof. Morse came down to breakfast. The young girl quickly said: "I came so early to be the first to congratulate you, Mr. Morse." "And for what reason, my child?" said he. "Why, upon the passage of the bill by the Senate." The professor assured her that it was not possible, as he left the capitol only a few hours before adjournment. She then informed him that her father was present at the close, and saw the bill passed and signed. He sunk down in his chair overwhelmed at the good news. Recovering himself, he promised Miss Annie Ellsworth that she should send the first message over the first line of telegraph that was opened.

With this appropriation by Congress, Prof. Morse proceeded with energy and delight to construct a telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore. By May 24,1844, he had his line constructed between the two cities. There was much excitement in both cities as to the success of the new and wonderful invention. That intelligent messages could be sent over this wire of forty miles' length in an instant staggered the faith of every one.

When everything was ready, he informed Miss Ellsworth he was prepared to redeem his pledge that she should indite the first message for the telegraph line. Her good mother had suggested the striking words of Scripture:

"What hath God wrought!" (Num. xxiii. 23)

and the daughter handed them to Prof. Morse. He took his seat by the instrument and spelled the words of the message in the dot and dash of the telegraph alphabet. In a moment Mr. Vail, who was at the instrument in Baltimore, returned the words to Washington, thus passing over a circuit of eighty miles.

The parties present were filled with amazement; they saw beyond controversy the success of the invention. Prof. Morse did not exhibit the surprise of his enthusiastic friends, for he knew perfectly what his instrument would do, and the fact accomplished was but the confirmation to others of what to him was a certainty on the packet ship "Sully" in 1832.

He received, with the modesty in keeping with the simplicity of his character, the strong congratulations of his friends. Neither then nor at any subsequent period of his life did his language or manner indicate any exultation in his wonderful triumph. He believed himself an instrument employed by heaven to achieve a great result, and having accomplished it, he claimed simply to be the original and only instrument by which that result had been reached.

Prof. Morse said of the first message that was sent—"What hath God wrought!"—that it baptized the American telegraph with the name of its author, who, he believed, was God.

The original slip of paper on which his first dispatch was written by the telegraph instrument is now in the possession of Gov. Seymore, of Hartford, Conn.

It was two days after the sending of this dispatch that the famous Democratic Convention of 1844 met in Baltimore. The nomination of James K. Polk for President, who was a distinguished Scotch-Irishman, was first flashed over the wires, but it seemed impossible to believe it until the train from Baltimore verified it. In the struggle over the nomination for Vice President, parties in Washington and Baltimore kept up a continual conference for hours. As these various dispatches were read every few minutes for hours before the Convention, all doubts as to the success of the electric telegraph was effectually dissipated.

The telegraph was now a reality. Its completion was hailed with universal enthusiasm. The press of the country announced the annihilation of time and space in intercourse among men. The praises of the inventor were proclaimed by every one. The wonder and joy of the people were beyond expression.

It was not long until telegraph lines were established to all the leading cities of the country. In was only a question of a short time untill all the governments of Europe adopted the Morse telegraph. Nation after nation conferred upon him their highest honors and badges of distinction. The electric telegraph was at once recognized as the most wonderful invention of human history.

The wearisome days of poverty and need were now ended; possessed with a liberal revenue from his invention, he purchased a beautiful home on the east bank of the Hudson, near Poughkeepsie. Here in comfort and ease, overwhelmed with the honors of the world, he rested from his labors. The grand triumph of his life had been achieved. Here in his youthful home he often talked pleasantly of the dark days through which he had passed before his invention could be brought to perfection, and its merit recognized by the public. Seated in his richly furnished study, he had telegraphic communication with his friends in every part of the world.

The character of Prof. Morse was of a high order in every respect. His strong religious life exhibited itself throughout his whole career from youth to old age. When his invention brought him ample moans, he made liberal benefactions to the various causes in which he felt interested.

In the summer of 1871 a statue was erected to his memory in Central Park, New York, by the Telegraphic Brotherhood of the world. At a public reception given at the Academy of Music on the occasion, when the venerable old man came upon the platform, the immense audience arose and cheered with unbounded enthusiasm. He was led to a seat beside a small table, on which was the first instrument ever used, which was connected by wire with the telegraphic system of the world. He laid his finger upon the key. There was a moment's impressive silence; then the clicking of the telegraph instrument was heard as the "Father of the electric telegraph" gave his farewell message:

Greeting and thanks to the telegraph fraternity throughout the world. Glory to God in the highest. On earth peace and good will to men. S. F. B. Morse.

From all parts of the globe came back the answers with benedictions for him who had made the people of all nations to be as one.

The career of this wonderful man now closes. On April 4, 1872, in his eighty-fourth year, the message came calling him to the precious rewards of his Christian faith.

Cyrus Hall McCormick.

Attention is now directed to another distinguished Scotch-Irishman, a man whose genius and tenacity of purpose we are indebted for another most important invention; one which has wrought a profound revolution in the agricultural world. We refer to the wonderful and famous "McCormick Reaper," the invention of Cyrus Hall McCormick, of Chicago. This invention soon exhibited far-reaching results, affecting the agricultural interests in every land. By its use the commerce of the world, in all kinds of grain products, has been expanded to amazing proportions, and it may be safely asserted that no single invention has ever become such a powerful factor in increasing the commerce of all nations.

The family of Cyrus Hall McCormick for two generations were settlers in the famous valley of Virginia, so fruitful of great and good men, and originally came to this country from the North of Ireland in 1758.

The homestead of Robert McCormick, the father of Cyrus Hall McCormick, was Walnut Grove, Rockbridge County, Va. Here his son was born February 15, 1809. The father was a very decided genius for invention in the line of mechanics. He was the inventor of several important machines, which in that early day were of much value to agriculture in various ways. In 1816 he conceived the idea of constructing a reaping machine. When he had built his machine and put it to the test, it failed to do satisfactory work.

Cyrus H. McCormick, the son, was now about twenty-two years of age, and he had already invented several important agricultural implements, showing that the inventive genius of the father was inherited by the son.

In the summer of 1831 he made a careful study of the problem of the reaper which had baffled the skill of his father. While standing in a field of ripening and tangled grain, the solution of the difficult problem seems to have flashed upon his mind at once. In a few short months he had so far constructed his machine as to subject it to a critical experiment, which was done at the old homestead at Walnut Grove. The trial was a complete success, and from that day the reaper was an accomplished fact.

Mr. McCormick did not allow himself to be carried away by the enthusiasm of his wonderful success. His critical and inventive mind soon saw where improvements could be made, rendering the machine less complicated and more efficient in its work.

For several years his father and two brothers were associated with him in the manufacture of the reaper at Walnut Grove, and year by year the success and capability of the machine was assured beyond all controversy. The want of facilities for the manufacture of the varied parts of the reaper rendered it impossible to put it upon the market with a rapidity even approximating the demand. The vast prairies of the West were rapidly becoming the great grain-producing part of the country, and Mr. McCormick, in his uncommon good judgment and foresight, saw that these broad prairies must be the field where his wonderful reaper was to have its grandest success. Accordingly in 1845 he began making his reapers in Cincinnati, but in 1847 he located permanently in Chicago, and established a large manufactory with the most improved machinery for producing his reaper with rapidity and perfection. His two brothers from Virginia joined him there, and the firm became a potent factor in building up the great Northwest.

Thousands of reapers were now manufactured and distributed over the grain-producing parts of the country. The whole land was soon filled with amazement at the tremendous commercial significance of the new invention. Reaping the harvest by machinery increased immensely the grain products of the country, and the volume of commerce was augmented year by year to a surprising degree.

Mr. McCormick now turned his attention to the introduction of his reaper into the different countries of Europe, and his efforts in this direction were crowned with abundant success. From 1851 to 1883, a period of more than thirty years, the " McCormick Reaper" took the gold medals and highest prizes of the several international expositions that were hold. In 1867 Napoleon III. was present to witness a test of the merit of the reaper invention in the rich harvest fields of Chalon, and so pleased was the emperor at the wonderful success of the reaper that he conferred the Decoration of the Legion of Honor upon Mr. McCormick on the field. The Emperor of Austria conferred a like honor at the exposition of Vienna in 1873, and, indeed, from every part of the world public recognition in the form of honors and awards came to the distinguished inventor. He was permitted to see the merit of his wonderful invention recognized in all lands, and also to see its amazing influence in expanding and enlarging the commerce of the world. No one rejoiced more than he in the great advantages and blessings which his invention gave to the agricultural interests of the country. Reaping by machinery was a revolution to the grain production of the world.

The success which a kind Providence was pleased to bestow upon Mr. McCormick seemed never to fill him with exultation, but only served to bring out the remarkable excellencies of his character. In 1858 he was married to Miss Nettie Fowler, a lady distinguished for her intelligence and mental endowments. To them were born two daughters and three sons.

The religious life of Mr. McCormick was strong and of a pronounced type. He held, with vigorous tenacity, to the religious faith of his fathers. He loved his Church and all her interests, and when his inventions brought him ample fortune, he began to bestow large and liberal benefactions upon such religious institutions as commended themselves to his favorable consideration. In 1859 he endowed the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, of Chicago, and afterward large and liberal gifts were made, both by himself and his family, amounting in all to over a million dollars. After Mr. McCormick's death the Trustees of the seminary very properly changed the corporate title of the institution to that of "The McCormick Theological Seminary of Chicago." Through this liberally endowed school of the prophets this noble man has already exerted, and will continue to exert, a most favorable religious influence upon the great Northwest section of our country. Mr. McCormick died in the year 1884, having passed his seventy-fifth birthday. His end was peace.

In the person of his son, Cyrus Hall McCormick, Jr., the father has left behind him a good representative. Succeeding to his father's invention with all its emoluments, he has expanded the principles of the invention in various directions, largely increasing its influence and revenues. Just where the father laid down his life, both secular and religious, the son has taken it up, and is pressing forward with great activity and success. He is a worthy son of a noble sire.

There is a striking resemblance in the career of Mr. McCormick and that of Prof. Morse. Mr. McCormick reached the full conception of his invention after a short but close study in the summer of 1831. Prof. Morse reached the full conception of his invention after a few days of intense study on the packet ship "Sully" in October, 1832. Both inventions were a success in the first trial, and both were about twelve years in commanding public attention. Both men about the same time had their inventions recognized by the various nationalities of Europe and of the world, and almost simultaneously they received the highest honors from every civilized government. While engaged in developing their respective inventions, they formed an acquaintance which was mutually pleasant and agreeable. They both lived to enjoy the fruits of their labors, and passed away at a ripe old age, leaving behind them the blessed example of Godly Christian lives.

In preparing this address on the inventors of the Scotch-Irish people of America, we have deemed it advisable to restrict ourselves to the three great inventors (Mr. Fulton, Mr. Morse, and Mr. McCormick), whose life work has been closed by death. The inventive genius of these three men lay in entirely different directions, and yet their inventions have effected most powerfully the interests of mankind, and proved an inestimable blessing to the whole world.

If time would permit, we could speak of other Scotch-Irish inventors whose productions have commanded universal attention and admiration. The mother of Thomas A. Edison, who was Miss Elliott, is of this blood; a woman of rare endowments and intellectual culture, who profoundly impressed herself upon the young life of her son.

But we must rest our cause with the three master inventors we have mentioned. Their inventions, their lives, and their characters reflect immortal honor upon the Scotch-Irish race.

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