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The New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Volume XII - Aberdeen
The Marischal College and University of Aberdeen

[Drawn up by Professor William Knight, LL. D.]

As soon as the Reformation had received a legal establishment in Scotland, an attempt was made to improve the three Universities then existing in the country, and in the First Book of Discipline of 1560, many alterations in their government and teaching were proposed, with a view to accommodate them to the great change in religion which had taken place. In a few years afterwards, new charters or erections were given to these seminaries, and partially put in force; the University of Edinburgh was founded; and the city of Aberdeen, then ranking as the second or third in respect of wealth and population in the kingdom, received a similar establishment. A grammar-school, which had produced many eminent scholars, had existed in it for nearly two centuries; and the magistrates and citizens appear to have been exceedingly desirous of propagating the principles of the reformed faith, in connection with the advancement of learning and science. In the principal Protestant family of the north of Scotland, they were fortunate in finding a nobleman, who seconded them warmly in this design, and became the founder of the fifth and last University which has been established in the country.

This eminent person was George Keith, the fifth Earl Marischal, who succeeded to the large estates and influence of his grandfather, William, in 1581. His ancestor had been an eminent promoter of the reformed cause from its commencement, and paid great attention to the education of his grandson in the principles which he had himself adopted. After receiving the best education Scotland afforded, the young nobleman spent nearly seven years on the continent, during which he visited most of its courts, and studied under eminent masters, particularly at Geneva, under the learned Beza. He afterwards rose into great favour with James VI., and was sent to Denmark as ambassador extraordinary, to arrange the King's marriage with the Princess Anne. Soon after his return, he received a commission of Lord-lieutenancy over all the counties of the north of Scotland, with the view of checking the Roman Catholic party opposed to the government; a task which he accomplished without bloodshed. [The following account of his character is from a short "Opinion of the present State, Faction, Religion, and Power of the Nobility of Scotland," written in1583, and evidently intended for the information of Queen Elizabeth or her ministers. -"George Keith, Marshall, a young nobleman, of good commendation; his lynnige ancient, and revenow greatest of any Erle in Scotlande. * * * He was left very wealthye, and is esteemed honest, religious, and favouringe the best parte. — Banna-tyne Club Publication, 1842, p. 58.]

The plan of establishing a college in Aberdeen having been com-municated to him by the magistrates, and the royal authority ha ing been obtained, an appropriate site was found in the buildings and garden which had belonged to the Franciscan friars. This property, having passed into other hands, was purchased by the magistrates for 1800 merks, and, by a vote of the community, presented to the Earl, who had obtained from the crown a right to the property of the other monastic bodies in the city.

The preamble of the foundation charter, which is dated 2d April 1593, recites, at considerable length, the reasons which induced the Founder to establish and endow his seminary. Among these are, the great want of a literary and Christian education in the north of Scotland, the advantages that would follow to the Church and the State, and his own wish to benefit and deserve well of his country. The property bestowed on the college is then described, being the fields, houses, feu-duties, and annual rents, which, before the Reformation, belonged to the Black, White, and Grey Friars' monasteries in Aberdeen, together with the lands attached to the chapels of Bervie and Cowie in Kincardineshire; but the latter portion was revoked by a second charter given by his son and successor, the sixth Earl, in 1623. The whole revenue was appropriated for the maintenance of a Principal, three Professors, who were termed Regents, six poor Scholars or Bursars, an Economus, and a cook, all to live in a collegiate manner, eating and sleeping within the buildings. The Principal was to give instructions in theology, and also in Hebrew and Syriac, languages which the founder expresses a desire of propagating, besides continuing the curriculum of the education of the other students, during their fourth year of residence, in various branches of physical science. The subjects taught by the first or highest regent were, mathematics, ethical philosophy, and physics; those of the second regent were, the logic of the Organon, with exercises in the Greek and Latin languages; the latter, together with an introduction to dialectics, being the employment of the third or lowest regent. This curriculum of four years is minutely laid down, and is almost exactly the same as in the foundation of Edinburgh College, and in the new erections given to the other Universities of Scotland. A principal circumstance is the fixing of each teacher to a particular class of subjects, in order, as is stated, that the students may possess teachers worthy both of their genius, and of the subjects of study. The same plan is prescribed in the First Book of Discipline; but it never appears to have been carried into practice in any Scottish university till the eighteenth century, excepting in Marischal College; [That the professors in Marischal College were limited to particular branches for several years after its commencement, is evident from their designations in College Theses, and other publications. Thus, in the "Qratio Funebris" of the founder, printed by Raban in 1623, William Ogston is styled Professor of Moral Philosophy; William Wedderburn, of Greek; Andrew Massie, of Logic; and James Sibbald, of Natural Philosophy ; these being the four regents. In Bishop Forbes's "Funerals," 1635, John Ray styles himself Professor of Moral Philosophy in Marischal College. This separation of duties appears to have been continued so late as 1643 , but the year when the ordinary method was introduced cannot be stated with certainty.] the mode of one professor conducting the same students for a period of three or four years through all the sciences taught being substituted for it. In Marischal College, indeed, the founder allows of the old method being continued, provided the chancellor, rector, and other authorities shall think it best for the good of the university'. He enjoins a strict attention to examinations and exercises in all the classes, besides examinations at entering the first year, and in passing from the first to the second, from the second to the third, and from the third to the fourth class; care being taken that those who are unworthy be kept back; and those who have studied four years, and exhibited sufficient aptitude, are to receive the degree of Master of Arts.

The founder reserved to himself and his heirs the nomination or presentation of the principal and professors; but since the forfeiture of the Marischal family, in 1715, the patronage has been vested in the Crown. The mode in which the examination, election, and admission of incumbents, subsequent to their receiving presentations, is appointed to be regulated by the university authorities, has been seldom practised, and some of the provisions are apparently inconsistent with the patronage retained by the founder in his family. The rest of the charter, and indeed its larger part, is occupied in providing for the choosing of an economus, adjusting the quality and prices of provisions, keeping up a constant visitation and inspection of all the inmates, regulating minutely the discipline, dress, and hours of the day for teaching and recreation, the amount of fees to be paid by different ranks of society, the menial services to be performed by the founded bursars to the other students, the prohibition of bearing arms of every description, the profession of adherence to the Confession of Faith then sactioned by law, at least once a year, dum albo Universita-tis inscribuntur; together with other provisions, most of which have been altered or discontinued in the changes of time. Other parts regulate the mode of electing annually the rector and dean of faculty, and prescribe the qualifications and duties of the university officers, which, as in the courses of study above-mentioned, are the same as were given in that age to the other colleges of Scotland, with which, in all these respects, the new establishment was placed on a footing of equality.

In the General Assembly which met at Dundee in April 1593, the foundation charter was approved and confirmed by the church and in July following, an Act of Parliament conferred upon the seminary all the usual freedoms, privileges, and jurisdictions of the other colleges in the realm, with the exception of preserving the jurisdiction of the magistrates of the burgh over its members "in all thingis to be done or co'mitted be thame out wt the wallis of the said college, and within the territores or fredome of the said burgh,"—a provision which is nearly the same with that proposed in the First Book of Discipline, many years previously. [Other Acts of Parliament referring to Marischal College, or confirming its privileges, are, A. D. 1617, (Vol. iv. p. 577,) Liddel's endowment; 1641, (Vol. v. p. 565.) and 1644, (Vol. vi. p. 129,) Bishops' rents; 1661, (Vol. vii. p. 69,) New confirmation of privileges, and virtual abrogation of the United or Caroline University; 1663, (Vol. vii. p. 465,) power to send a commissioner to a National Synod; 1695, (Vol. ix. p. 463.) allowing the College to apply the vacant stipends of churches in Lord Marischal's patronage to their buildings then erecting ; 1698, (Vol. x. p. 168.) the same subject.]

In the year following, the deed of foundation was formally presented by Earl Marischal to the magistrates and council of Aberdeen, who immediately delivered it in a solemn manner, to Mr Robert Howie, one of the city ministers, who entered upon the duties of principal, and who signs as one of the witnesses of the charter. Howie was an eminent divine, and in a few years succeeded Andrew Melville at St Andrews. Of the other witness to the deed of foundation, Peter Blackburn, who acted as one of the first regents, and was afterwards Bishop of Aberdeen, Principal Bailie says, that "his hand was chief to order your Marischall Colledge just after our orders of Glasgow." [Letter to Professor W. Douglass,—Baillie's Letters, edited by D. Laing, iii. p, 402.]

The new establishment demanded and received much attention from the magistrates and community of Aberdeen, of which many evidences appear in the town-council records. It is probable that an additional regent was established in a very few years after the foundation, from the Principal ceasing to teach the fourth or highest class of the curriculum; the earliest accounts of the revenue which have been preserved representing the whole as allocated to the principal and four regents. The exertions of private citizens were also of great service to the rising seminary. In 1613, Duncan Liddel, M. D., an eminent scholar, who had taught medicine and mathematics, in the University of Helmstadt, bequeathed a large sum of money and some lands, for endowing a professor of Mathematics, and six bursars in Arts. A divinity bursar was endowed in 1616 ; and in the same year a professorship of Theology was founded, and five years afterwards an additional sum was given for the same chair. In 1625, Mr Thomas Reid, who had held the office of Latin secretary to James VI., bequeathed his valuable collection of books, together with a large sum for a salary to a librarian. Many other endowments, mostly for bursars, were made during the seventeenth century. A professorship of Humanity was commenced in 1653, from a grant of part of the rents of the diocese of Aberdeen by Cromwell; but this fell at the Restoration, and a subsequent attempt to have a separate teacher of Latin towards the end of the century, was discontinued from the want of funds. During the eighteenth century, professorships of Medicine, Oriental Languages, and Chemistry were founded by private benefactors; and within these few years, professorships of Church History, Anatomy, Surgery, and Humanity, have been added by Government, and additional endowments have been given to the professors of Chemistry and Medicine.

The following enumeration of the founders and principal benefactors exhibits the gradual progress of the college to its present state:

Plan of Education.—It does not appear that in the Universities of the countries where the Reformation was established, any great alteration in the curriculum of education was effected till a long period after that event, if instruction in theology be excepted. The principal changes were in the attention paid to the Greek language, and the introduction of a somewhat larger proportion of mathematical science. Yet the first Reformers and their immediate successors seem, from many circumstances, to have been fully aware of the imperfections of much of the philosophy of their time, and of its incompatibility with the principles of freedom of inquiry, and appeal to the scriptures, upon which they rested their claim of superiority to the Roman Catholic Church. But the contests which arose and divided the Reformers themselves and the wars, partaking more or less of a religious character, which followed till the peace of Westphalia, were circumstances adverse to the introduction of improved curricula of study; and till the discoveries and systems of Descartes, Locke, and Newton came forward and were taught in universities, there was little to substitute in the room of the scholastic logic of the middle ages, which had so long kept in trammels the powers of the mind in the search of physical and psychological truth. The course of study came thus to vary very little in Reformed and in Catholic Universities. The same professor carried on the students with whom he commenced, for three or for four years; and the attempt to confine each teacher to a particular branch was, after a trial of many years, not followed in Marischal College any more than in the other universities of Scotland, although enjoined in its foundation charter. One advantage, indeed, it possessed over some other seminaries, in the early possession of a separate endowment for a professor who was confined to mathematical science. Of the numerous visitations which took place during the seventeenth century, very few had their attention directed towards the improvement of the plan of teaching, although a subject into which they were generally ordered to inquire. Those of 1664 and 1695 were especially for prescribing "a course of learning;" and the plan adopted by the commissioners was to draw up and circulate among the colleges copies of uniform "dictates," which all professors were to use in teaching philosophy and the sciences;—a useless and impracticable undertaking, which after many years labour was left as far as ever from being accomplished. The common mode of teaching continued long afterwards to be by Latin dictations and examinations upon them; and particular works of compilers in various sciences were also used, and commented upon in oral instructions.

Besides frequent commissions of visitation, the Scots Privy-Council often interfered with the Universities, in consequence of the arbitrary power which that body exercised till its abolition after the union of the kingdoms. To it was owing a useful order in 1700, by which the teaching of the Greek language was allotted to one professor; but this improvement was not carried into effect in Marischal College till session 1717-18.

A visitation, by royal authority, of the University of Glasgow in 1727, having ordered that each professor should be limited to teaching one particular department, this led the way to an attempt by the Principal and Professors of Marischal College to extend the same benefit to their own seminary in 1733; but, from the opposition of one of their number to the measure, it proved unsuccessful. Twenty years afterwards the same plan succeeded, chiefly from the ability of Dr Alexander Gerard, who drew up a "Plan of Education, with the Reasons of it," which was adopted by his colleagues, and, with a few alterations, has been followed since.

This publication is remarkable, not only for assigning reasons for confining the professors of the curriculum of arts to particular departments, but for a greater change,—the alteration of the order in which the different branches of knowledge had hitherto been taught in universities, both in this and in other countries. The following extract from a college minute, dated 11th January 1753, exhibits the substance of the reasons which were brought forward to justify this change.

"The Principal and Masters of the Marischal College of Aberdeen being, after the maturest consideration, all fully persuaded that the present order in teaching Philosophy, introduced by the Scholastics, is, since the reformation of Philosophy, very improper, —as by it the students are all at once engaged in the most difficult sciences, such as are most abstract from sense,—as they must be taught the theory and foundations of evidence and reasoning before they are acquainted with the sciences in which examples of the various kinds can be found, so that it is impossible to explain or illustrate these different kinds to them,—and as the difficulty of bringing them to conceive these abstruse subjects, before they have been gradually prepared by the easier parts of study, takes up so great a part of the time allowed for academical education, as to leave none for some very useful parts of knowledge; being also of opinion, that the gradual openings of the human mind, as well as the natural order of things, render it proper to begin with particular facts, which are subject to sense, or easily conceived; from these to proceed to general reasonings on objects which are most familiar, material things; and, last of all, to come to the abstruser inquiries concerning the operations, nature, and states of the mind, the Deity, and Moral Philosophy founded on them; and hoping that the following this natural order will tend to render the study of the sciences more advantageous in life than it is generally thought to be, and will remove the prejudices some have entertained against university education as useless, - they do, therefore, unanimously agree and resolve, that for the future (the first year of the Academical course being spent as usual under the professor of Greek, and the meetings on Sabbath evenings in all the classes as formerly, in discourses on such subjects of natural and revealed Religion as the professors shall judge most useful, and adapted to the capacities of their students), the following general order in teaching Philosophy shall be observed in this University, viz. that the Semi-year, or second of the course, shall be spent in the most useful parts of Natural History, in Geography, and the elements of Civil History; that the Tertian, or third year of the course, shall be employed in the scientific parts of Natural Philosophy, Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, Optics, Astronomy, and such other branches not reducible to any of these, as either are in some measure invented already, or may be invented and improved hereafter, as Magnetism, Electricity, &c.; and that the Magistrand, or last year, shall be taken up in the abstract sciences, or the Philosophy of Spirits, Pneumatology, Ethics, and Logic, leaving it to the several professors to follow that order and method in teaching each of the general branches which they shall find from experience to be most useful and convenient."

On this change being carried into effect, the students increased greatly in number, and a considerable impulse appears to have been given to the courses of science and literature, which are describe-ed by Dr Reid as having been, in his time, "slight and superficial," as indeed they must, when one instructor had to teach the whole curriculum. [Stewart's Life of Reid, p. 10. Dr Reid attended Marischal College in the years 1722-1726.] The custom of Latin prelections was also gradually discontinued, and instead of declamations in that language, examinations on the subjects of the lectures were introduced, at first in Latin, and afterwards in English, till the former language was retained only at the public examinations of the classes, where it expired about 1776.

The present curriculum for students in the Faculty of Arts consists of,—

First Year.—First Greek class, 14 meetings a-week; First Hu-manity or Latin class, 8 do.

Second Year.—Second Greek class, 3 meetings a-week; Second Latin class, 3do.; First Mathematics, 6 do.; Natural History, 12 do.

Third Year.— Second Mathematics, 6 meetings a-week; Natural Philosophy, 12 do.

Fourth Year.—Moral Philosophy and Logic, twelve meetings a-week. Evidences of Christianity, one meeting a week.

The meetings are of one hour each. The above numbers are exclusive of extra meetings, which occur occasionally.

A third and a fourth Greek class, and a third Latin class, are attended voluntarily by several students of the third and fourth years; the chemical class is also attended by many during these years; and a third Mathematical class, which meets daily, is attended by the mathematical bursars, and by some students of the fourth year.

. The students of all these years also attend a weekly lecture on Practical Religion, given on Fridays by the Professor of Divinity, who receives a salary for it under the will of the late John Gordon, Esq. of Murtle. The morning meetings of the classes are opened with a prayer; and on the Lord's day a part of the students attend divine worship in a gallery in the College church; but the greater number have long been in the habit of accompanying their relations or friends to other churches in the city, and students of other religious denominations have never been required to attend in the Established Church.

The session extends from the last Monday of October to the first Friday of April. There are no vacations, Christmas and new-year's days excepted; and regular meetings are held on Saturdays.

Premiums, generally of books, are awarded in the classes by comparative trial among those students who come voluntarily forward ; and there have also been instituted a biennial prize of L.20 for an English essay on a subject prescribed by the Principal and certain of the Professors, who are trustees of Mrs Blackwell's foundation; and a gold medal of two ounces in weight, which has been occasionally awarded, under the deed of John Gray, Esq. to such of his bursars as are certified by the professor of Mathematics, to "possess an uncommon genius in that science, and to have made discoveries and improvements therein."

During the last fortnight of the session, a public examination of each class of the curriculum of Arts is held in presence of the Principal and Professors, and of all the students and public who choose to attend. These have always existed; and since 1826, entrance examinations during the first week of the session have been carried on. In the latter, all under graduate students wearing gowns, and admissible to academical honours, are examined o the subjects which are taught in the classes immediately below those which they are about to enter, and any who are found to have mad so little progress in their studies as to be unqualified for receiving sufficient advantage in the higher classes, are ordered to return to study in those classes, in the subjects of which they have been found deficient. Students refusing to submit to this condition are disqualified from holding bursaries, and can enter the higher classes only as private students, not wearing gowns, or admissible to the degree of A. M., but in all other respects are on the same footing as the rest.

The qualifications for the degree of master of arts are regular attendance for four years in the above classes of the curriculum, and strict examinations, which are carried on for seven days, in the Evidences of Christianity, Latin, Greek, Natural History, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Moral Philosophy and Logic.

The students of Divinity attend the professors of divinity, Oriental Languages, and church history during a session of fifteen weeks, from Christmas to the beginning of April. The courses of lectures, and the modes followed of delivering discourses and other exercises, are accommodated to suit the rules of the Church of Scotland. For a long period, the number of students who attended regularly was far smaller than that of those who gave partial or irregular attendance, and who were generally present for a week, or even less, in each session. About fifty years ago, the synod of Aberdeen recommended the discontinuance of this irregular attendance, and overtured the General Assembly on the subject; but it was not till of late years that any alteration in the laws regulating attendance took place. At Aberdeen, however, the number of regular and irregular students began to be about equal in 1820 ; and from the rules of the church, now enforcing attendance on Hebrew and Church History classes, instead of recommending it, and from other changes, the proportion of those giving partial attendance has been still farther reduced.

Medical School.—From an early period there have been in this city many medical students who obtained their professional education chiefly from the private instructions of the physicians established in it, to whom they were engaged as pupils or apprentices, and whose private practice they witnessed. The institution of an infirmary in 1742, and of a public dispensary in 1786, added to their number, from the facilities of instruction being greatly ex-tended; and in 1789, they associated in originating "The Medical and Chirurgical Society," which gradually acquired a library, a museum, and an elegant building in King Street for holding their meetings and collections.

Various attempts to open regular classes by the professors of medicine and other physicians were made, but discontinued from want of sufficient support; and, in the discussions of 1786, the formation of a medical school was held out to the public as one of the chief advantages to be derived from an union of the Colleges. For some years previously, courses of botany and chemistry had been carried on in Marischal College. In the former Statistical Account, published in 1798, the number of medical students is stated about 30; and in 1802, there was erected in the court of the college a small anatomical theatre, in which some courses of anatomy were given. In 1818, the two colleges joined in giving their sanction to several medical lecturers, each college nominating alternately to the offices as vacancies occurred. Under this arrangement, classes of anatomy and physiology, surgery, institutes of medicine, materia medica, midwifery, and other branches were carried on, and accommodation provided for them in Marischal College buildings. The institution of these regular courses was followed by a great increase in the number of students. In 1839, the agreement, under which these lecturers were appointed, was broken up, and each college was left to establish its own medical school. In the same year, professorships of Anatomy and Surgery were founded in Marischal College by the Crown, and the Faculty of Medicine in the Senatus Academicus now consists of four professors, those of Medicine, Chemistry, Surgery, and Anatomy, who are associated, in a permanent medical committee, with lecturers on Materia Medica, Institutes of Medicine, Midwifery, and medical jurisprudence,—practice of physic being taught by the professor of Medicine, and Botany by the professor of Natural History. The medical session extends from the first Monday of November to the third Friday of April, with a vacation at Christmas; and the course of Botany is taught in summer.

The regulations for granting M. D. in this University underwent a considerable change about twenty years ago, when the plan of granting that degree by certificates of merit was abandoned, and personal examination of candidates substituted, which, in 1830, was confined to those who had obtained the degree of A. M.; the Senatus Academicus being of opinion "that no university ought to confer the degree of M. D. on any one who has not previously taken a degree in arts." [Evidence, Oral and Documentary, Vol. iv. p. 331.] But the Royal Commissioners of Visitation having, in their new plans, proposed to restrict the preliminary education of such candidates to Greek, Latin, Mathematics, and Natural Philosophy, the Senatus found that the higher standard which they had advocated, with a view of adding to the respectability of the medical profession, could not be supported ; and they have subsequently modified it, retaining at the same time a full curriculum of medical instruction, in the last regulations issued in 1840. This extends to four years, three of which at least must be passed in a University, including one year at least at this University; and the classes to be attended are Anatomy, Practical Anatomy, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Institutes of Medicine, Surgery, Practice of Medicine, and Midwifery, each for a course of six months; and for courses of three months, Botany, Practical Chemistry, and Medical Jurisprudence. To these are added hospital attendance, Clinical lectures on Medicine and Surgery, and the compounding and dispensing of medicines. Three separate professional examinations have been instituted for medical degrees, which take place in April and October, and are conducted partly in writing and viva voce, and partly by demonstration. To these examinations candidates are admitted at different terms; to the first one, at the beginning of the third year of medical classes, and to the others at subsequent stages. No fees are taken by the College or the examiners for the degree of M. B. or M. D.,—the expense of the diploma and the Government stamp on the latter degree excepted.

In the "Evidence, Oral and Documentary," taken in 1826-7, by the Royal Commissioners for Visiting the Universities of Scotland, and published ten years afterwards, there will be found detailed statements of the views of the principal and professors of that time on many important subjects connected with the efficiency of university education, particularly in a minute examination of the plans of improvement or alteration proposed by the Commission in the Curricula of Arts, Theology, and Medicine. (See Vol. iv. p. 321-335.)

In the same volume are contained lists of the number of students and graduates for a long period, tables of fees, and complete information as to the whole property, salaries, and endowments belonging to the college. Under this head it deserves to be noticed, that the whole of the property with which the college was originally endowed by its founder, has been preserved and greatly increased in value, with the exception of some small feu-duties of 1d. and upwards, most of which had ceased to be collected before 1753, or were disputed, and of which the whole amount is only L.2, 11s. 1d. Sterling. The Royal Commission did a useful service by printing this list, and many other documents connected with the Scottish Universities. (Vol. iv. p. 266-267.) The amount of fees paid by students of arts for instruction during four sessions, including smaller payments for the library, college servants, and the expense of taking the degree of A. M. is, at present, L.27, 2s.; but from the greater part of the bursars, smaller class fees are charged by the professors. The fees in the classes of law and medicine are on a scale of equal moderation, and the same is the case in those of Hebrew and Church History. In the Divinity class, no fees have yet been taken by the professor. The bursaries, which, as will be seen from the list of benefactors, are very numerous, are held for four years, with the exception of the two founded by John Gray, Esq. for eminence in mathematics, which are held for two sessions only, and the Ramsay Divinity Bursaries, which are held for three. All the bursaries, of which the college, and the magistrates and town-council of Aberdeen have been constituted patrons by their deeds of foundation, have been, for a very long period, disposed of by an open comparative trial, which takes place yearly on the last Monday of October. Those, which are under the patronage of private individuals, are bestowed by presentation. In some cases, where the disposal of the bursaries has been subjected to restrictions by their founders, or to preferences in favour of particular descriptions of students, it sometimes happens that a few are left vacant from the want of qualified candidates. The funds are then accumulated, and the annual value to be bestowed is increased. Several other bursaries, without having been left vacant, have been increased in value, from the nature of the investment of the funds, or from the reservation of a small surplus left to accumulate. All the property of this description has been preserved, except a sum of L.90 lost by a bankruptcy, and much of it has been increased in value. The Royal Commission, in their General Report of the Universities of Scotland, expressed a decided opinion, that the great number of these bursaries in some of the colleges produces an artificial resort of numbers who otherwise would never enjoy the advantages of academical education. In the various arguments adduced in support of their views, one fact of great importance has been omitted,—the superiority of the parish schoolmasters in the counties of Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff, Moray, and other northern counties of Scotland, almost all of whom have received university education, to those in the southern parts of the country many of whom have not attended any college. The very low state of education in England, among those of the same class in society who benefit from the Scottish schools, and the difficulty experienced in the former country of obtaining cheap and efficient schoolmasters, may also be stated in favour of promoting the extension of university instruction in Scotland. The claim of the Universities to encouragement in fulfilling this most important part of their duty, is indirectly acknowledged by the same Commission, when they state respecting the Universities of Aberdeen, that "they have silently and unostentatiously raised the intellectual state of Scotland." [General Report, p. 368.]

College Buildings.—The original buildings of Marischal College were those of the Franciscan convent on the same site. Part was appropriated for the residence of students, but no plan or perspective view of them has been preserved. It would appear that even in the infancy of the establishment they had been insufficient, for in 1633 the magistrates ordered a house to be fitted up with beds for the accommodation of students who formerly lodged in the town house. [Registers of the Town-Council of Aberdeen, Vol. lii. p. 135.] In 1639, a part of the monastic edifice was destroyed by fire, and was soon afterwards rebuilt, chiefly by the munificence of Patrick Dun, M.D., then Principal of the College. The buildings having become unsuitable or ruinous, the Principal and Professors commenced in 1684, the erection of anew edifice, which was carried on slowly for several years chiefly by voluntary contributions, some aid from the city funds, and some small public grants of the vacant stipends of those parishes of which the Earls Marischal were patrons. The numerous Scottish merchants who in that age resided in Poland were among the principal contributors. The highest part of the edifice, the north tower, rose to the elevation of about 80 feet, and was erected in 1694-95 for an observatory, partly at the expense of the town. The whole pile was for the time extensive and not inconvenient; but parts of the interior remained long in an unfinished state, from the want of funds, and a great economy appears to have been necessary, as the vouchers of accounts, all of which have been preserved, abundantly attest. Several portions of the old monastery remained, and were occupied as class-rooms and students' chambers. Most of these were taken away, when an extensive wing was erected on the south side in 1740-41, also by voluntary subscription chiefly, the attempts made to obtain aid from Government proving abortive. After this addition, the whole fabric was appropriated for the public purposes of a hall, library, public school, divinity hall, observatory, natural philosophy apparatus room, and class-rooms, together with lodgings for three of the professors, for which they paid rents. The largest apartments, the public school, hall, and library were respectively of the lengths of 82, 75, and 97 feet, with a width of 22, and a height of about 13.

In the court adjoining, there still remains the ancient church of the Franciscan convent, commonly called the College church. This edifice was erected about the commencement of the sixteenth century, by Bishop Gavin Dunbar, and was dedicated to the Virgin. For a long period, no lofty houses, as at present, intervened between it and the Broadgate, excepting booths or small shops, which were placed against its wall by permission of the magistrates. In the various changes to which the property of the monasteries was subjected at the Reformation, the church of the Greyfriars seems never to have been lost sight of by the municipality ; it was then by far the newest church in the city, and was formally ceded to the magistrates in 1556, when the Franciscans made a resignation of all their property to them. When, in 1574, the town disposed of the other buildings by feu, the church was reserved; but the population not being so large as to require it for the reformed worship, it fell into neglect, and sometimes received repairs. The General Assembly of the church, which began July 28, 1640, was held in it. [The church was provided with seats, "after the form of a theatre, for accommodation of the Assembly, which was done upon the towne's charges, in so pro-digall a forme, as there was accommodation eneuch (the churche being large of itselfe) for five or six times as many as wer appoynted to sitte. And, that Aberdeen might not be behynde with others in honouring the Assembly, ther was a select number of the yowthes of Aberdeen ordered, with partisans (made for that purpose, and dyed blacke,) for to guarde the Assembly constantly at every sessione without the doores of the churche, through which guarde everybody must passe as through a line."—Gordon's History of Scots Affairs, from 1637 to 1641, Vol. iii. p. 215.] The College long retained a claim for the use of it at the public graduation, and other privileges, which, after several attempts, were arranged in 1768 by an agreement with the magistrates; and soon afterwards, the population of the town increasing, the structure, a very long and plain Gothic hall, with pointed-arch windows, was shortened 20 feet, an aisle added at the east side, and a regular clergyman settled in it by the town-council, who had obtained a gift of the patronage from King Charles I. in 1638. In the new aisle, one-half of the gallery was set apart for the students, who had previously been accommodated in the West Church of St Nicholas.

The sums raised for erecting the College buildings appear never to have been sufficient to complete them, and the whole having been constructed when mason and carpenter work were of a very inferior description in this part of Scotland, they required numerous repairs annually. The increase of students rendered the classrooms inconveniently small for many years; and in 1818, a plan of additional apartments was made, but nothing was done till 1824, when, after a minute inspection by three architects, who reported that the whole edifice was in a ruinous state, and incapable of alteration or repair, a memorial was drawn up, setting forth the necessity of a new structure, and application was made to the Lords of the Treasury, to whom a plan and elevation of a new college were submitted in the following year. The Treasury replied without delay, concurring in rebuilding rather than in attempting repairs, stating it to be a case in which a grant of public money might be recommended in addition to private subscriptions, and remitting to the Barons of the Scottish Exchequer to inquire farther. Their inquiries having been answered by the College, the Treasury delayed farther steps till it should be "ascertained how far the union of the two Universities at Aberdeen in one establishment may be practicable," and referred to the Royal Commissioners for visiting the Universities of Scotland for farther information on that head. This postponed any thing being done for nine years. The report of the Commission, which began its sittings in 1826, was not made public till 1831: it recommended strongly a union of the seminaries, but towards accomplishing which, as only general provisions and no particular plans, in a case affecting so many complicated interests, were stated, nothing was done; and the College received no certain hope of a public grant till 1834, when, on their continued applications, the Treasury made offer of the moiety of a sum of L.30,000, which, by a warrant dated 11th December 1826, had been set apart by the Scottish Exchequer Barons "to be applied to the support of certain Universities which were in a ruinous and dilapidated state," [Return to the House of Commons in 1831 from the Scottish Court of Exchequer before its dissolution.] and of which the other half had been received and expended at St Andrews some years previously, without any aid being raised by private subscriptions.

The conditions on which the Treasury agreed to advance the above sum of L. 15,000, together with the interest accruing on the whole sum set apart in 1826, arose from a proposal made by the College to guarantee, within five years, the completion of a new edifice of an extent not inferior to that in the sketches of Mr Reid, His Majesty's Master of Works in Scotland, who had visited Aberdeen in February 1834 for the purpose of obtaining information as to the accommodation required. Their Lordships termed the offer made by the College "liberal," and considered it unnecessary that the King's architect should be employed,—the plan and site adopted being still left subject to their approbation. This allowed the Principal and Professors again to bring forward, with such improvements as the delay had suggested, the plans prepared in 1825 by Mr Archibald Simpson, architect, whose excellent taste and great ability have been displayed in the new edifice, as they have been in the Assembly Rooms, the Infirmary, and other principal buildings erected of late years in Aberdeen.

The subscriptions of the numerous alumni and friends of the college now commenced, the town of Aberdeen giving L.1050, the Chancellor of the University, the late George, Duke of Gordon, L.500, the Principal and Professors, L.500, &c. In about three months, they amounted to nearly L.5000, but soon afterwards they experienced a check from the agitation connected with a bill brought into Parliament, which met with great opposition from the public generally, because it attempted to divest the Colleges of all management of their property, and by its provisions for uniting them, to injure greatly the interests of University education in the north of Scotland. Although this bill was withdrawn in an early stage, yet the prospect of speedily obtaining the Government grant continued to be clouded by the revival of the subject of the Union in other shapes; and it was not till after a tedious negociation that the Treasury approved of the plan and estimate finally transmitted by the College, and engaged to pay L.15,000 as soon as L.6000 of subscriptions were realized, and on these L.21,000 being expended to their satisfaction, to pay the addition of accrued interest, the edifice to be completed in June 1841. On this occasion, the magistrates and town-council of Aberdeen assisted the College in guaranteeing the erection of a building to the above extent, in the hope, that, while the work was in progress, a change of circumstances might induce new subscribers to come forward, and those who had already subscribed to permit the application of their subscriptions to the finishing of the work, which many had refused to allow, should the intended new modelling of the constitution of the University take place. This hope was realized. The subscriptions already made were paid, and many new ones received after the agitation ceased. The Government grant was paid, in August 1836, to the Chancellor and Rector of the University, the Member of Parliament for the city, the Provost and the Dean of Guild, all for the time being, who were constituted a commission for expending it, and the sums subscribed; and in the same month the building was contracted for. In this transaction it is proper to preserve a record of the services of Alexander Bannerman, Esq. M. P. for Aberdeen, to whom the College and the community are deeply indebted for the exertions which he made towards obtaining the Government grant, during a negociation complicated with unusual circumstances, and continued for several years.

In 1841, the Lords of the Treasury, having been satisfied, from an examination by their agent, that the sum of L.21,000 had been expended, ordered the accrued interest, amounting to L.5853, 9s. 2d., to be paid to the same commissioners, by means of which they were enabled nearly to complete the building, including many interior furnishings in the library, class-rooms, &c; although some expensive fittings, particularly those of the museum, remain to be provided for. When finished, the whole cost will be about L.30,000; which, considering the style in which it is erected, and the extent of accommodation afforded, may be considered as comparatively cheap. In front the new college presents three sides of a quadrangle/placed nearly on the site of the old building, which it was necessary to keep up till the greater part of the new one was so far advanced as to supply accommodations for teaching the classes. The exterior is of Gothic architecture, partaking of that seen in many collegiate structures in England, but in a simple and bold style, in order to harmonize with the nature of the material, which is the very hard and durable white granite of the vicinity. In the centre a square tower, terminated by four ornamented turrets, rises to the height of nearly 100 feet from the court in front, and, from the fall of the ground, to 120 feet from the enclosure on the opposite side. On both sides of the principal entrance are open arcades, 48 feet long, by 16 wide. On the ground-floor the principal apartment is the public school, 74 feet long, and 34 wide, used for all purposes where several classes are assembled together, and for competitions, examinations, &c. A lofty staircase, with a ceiling of enriched groins and a massive stone balustrade, conducts to the three principal apartments, which open from the same vestibule,—the Hall, the Library, and the Museum. The dimensions of the first of these is 71 feet by 34; of each of the other two, 75 feet by the same width. The interior altitude of all is about 32 feet to the top of the enriched ceilings, painted in imitation of oak, Adjoining to the Library are two small rooms, used for reading, and as an office for the librarian ; and on the Museum side are. a room for the meetings of the Senatus Academicus, and one for containing additional articles of Natural History, adjoining to the class-room in which that science is taught. The astronomical Observatory is placed in the highest story of the tower. There are six class-rooms for teaching Greek, Latin, Natural History, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Moral Philosophy and Logic; one for Scots Law and Conveyancing; three for Divinity and Oriental Languages, in one of which is held the Theological library; two others, at present occupied by the lecturers on Materia Medica and Agriculture ; and five used in teaching the Practice of Medicine, Surgery, Anatomy, Chemistry, and Practical Chemistry. Besides these seventeen class-rooms, there are also a spacious Chemical Laboratory, and two rooms adjoining for Chemical Apparatus; a Dissecting-room adjoining the Anatomical Theatre, and rooms for Anatomical preparations; an Anatomical Museum, fitted with glass cases and a gallery; and two rooms for holding the apparatus used in teaching Natural Philosophy. The college servants have suitable accommodations; and to most of the classrooms is annexed a closet for the professor; but no part of the building has been appropriated for lodgings for any of their body, the whole being set apart for the public purposes of education. The plan of heating is by warm air supplied from furnaces placed in the sunk story, excepting in three of the classrooms, in which the circulation of hot water in iron pipes has been adopted.

When a new and wide street is opened from the College gate, passing by a gentle declivity towards the East Church, a fine effect in regard to architectural beauty will be produced, besides the advantages which the property in the neighbourhood will receive from the improvement. This design, together with the rebuilding of the College Church in a style suitable to that of the university, will probably be carried into effect in a few years.

College Library, Museum, &c.—The library, which will this year be transferred to the fine apartment destined for it in the new buildings, consists, for the greater part, of old books, which have been, on the whole, well preserved. It originated in a collection of volumes which was made at the Reformation, among which are numerous manuscripts of parts of the writings of Augustine, Jerome, Gregory, and other fathers of the church, which belonged to the monasteries in the city, and were taken charge of by the magistrates on the breaking up of these establishments. Before the foundation of the college these and other books, mostly on theological subjects, were kept in the church of St Nicholas, chiefly for the use of the Reformed clergy, and were called the Town's Library, and Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica. In 1624, the large bequest of Mr Thomas Reid, above-mentioned, transferred his library to the college, where it was united to the books given by Dr Liddel and those of the Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica. The librarian's salary, for which Mr Reid also left 6000 merks, was then about 600 merks, the common interest of money being ten per cent. Some smaller donations of books were made; and in the oldest catalogue extant, dated 1670, the books of each donor are distinguished. The number of volumes at present is not above 12,000. The magistrates appointed the librarian till 1673, when the right of electing him was claimed by the principal, the four regents, and the rector of the Grammar school, in terms of Mr Reid's will, and after a four years' law-suit a decision of the Court of Session confirmed the claim, and the above-mentioned persons have since exercised it. From the salary having been for a very long period reduced to L.14, 3s. 4d., it was found necessary, in 1754, in order to prevent dilapidations, that each of the regents should in turn take immediate charge of the Library, giving personal attendance for three years. The collection is accessible to all under graduates, and to masters of arts, on condition of a single payment of 7s. 8d., and a deposit of money, which is returned when required; and literary men or others, not authorized to claim in these respects, are always allowed the loan of books on the responsibility of individual professors, subject to an annual return in October, when all the volumes lent are called in, and the whole inspected.

It is greatly to be wished that the funds of this library were increased, the only sources whence new books are purchased being the above payment, and any fees paid by graduates in divinity of laws, the whole fees of whose diplomas, excepting the expense of writing them, have been for a long time given to it; but the number of these has always been small. The college has never enjoyed the full benefit arising from the books entered in Stationers' Hall; for only one copy being sent to Aberdeen, the right of keeping them was given, by the Court of Session, in 1737, to the older establishment, but, as the decision bears, "for the use of both colleges." The late alteration, by which an annual payment is given to King's College in lieu of these books, has not remedied the unequal circumstances in which Marischal College is placed, and which the Royal Commissioners have represented in their reports.

A theological library was instituted in the year 1700 by the Synod of Aberdeen, who granted the sum of 1000 merks to the Professor of Divinity in Marischal College, out of the rents of an estate mortified to support the Professor of Divinity in King's College; the books purchased "to be set up in a distinct library by themselves in the Marischal College, or some convenient room in New Aberdeen," "so as to be patent for all the students of Divinity in both colleges." In 1754, the books were placed in the Divinity Hall of the college, and the professor continued to select those to be purchased till 1785, when a committee of the students received the management. The contributors of a small sum annually for four years are constituted life-proprietors. There is a printed catalogue of the collection, and the regulations under which it is managed are sanctioned by the colleges, no alteration of them being valid unless made with the consent of both colleges, in order to avoid "the many evils arising from precipitation."

Many articles of curiosity and specimens of natural history, presented to the college at different times, were lodged in the Library, till 1786, when a separate apartment was partially fitted up for them with cases, and which, in 1823, was remodelled and extended. It is to be ardently hoped that, with the great advantages of display which the new apartment to be fitted up as a Museum is capable of affording, this collection will rapidly increase. The present professor of Natural History is in possession of an extensive museum of objects useful in teaching that science, particularly in Zoology and Mineralogy, which have been purchased at his own expense.

The Apparatus for teaching Natural Philosophy is extensive, and articles are added annually to it. It commenced in 1717, when the Principal and Professors obtained a royal warrant for applying some vacant salaries towards purchasing instruments; and it appears, from entries in the college accounts, that the money thus obtained was laid out under the direction of the celebrated Maclaurin, then Professor of Mathematics, and probably the first who gave instructions in any parts of the Newtonian philosophy in this university. In 1726, a printed proposal was circulated for increasing the apparatus, so as to afford a complete course of Experimental Philosophy; and in that year, the Commissioners of Supply for the County of Aberdeen granted some aid to the design. From 1721 to 1755, a custom prevailed of the graduates in Arts contributing voluntarily small sums for the same purpose. Soon after the late Dr Patrick Copland entered as Professor of Natural Philosophy, he turned his attention to the enlargement of the apparatus; and being assisted by a small grant from the Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Manufactures in Scotland, he employed an able workman in the construction of a great number of models and other apparatus, many of them of elegant design. The possession of these allowed him to commence, in 1786, in addition to the regular course of scientific lectures, a popular series of instructions in Experimental Philosophy, illustrating many of the practical applications of science to the arts and the common purposes of life. These he continued, at intervals, for many years; and upon his death in 1822, the part of the apparatus which was his own property was purchased by the College. A catalogue of this apparatus is kept, and on removing it lately to the new building, it was for the first time arranged in the order of subjects, the accommodation for it in the old edifice having become, from its increase, exceedingly incommodious.

The Astronomical Apparatus is another department which will benefit considerably from the new edifice, the access to the old Observatory having been very inconvenient, and the difficulty of keeping the roof water-tight great. The chief instruments are an excellent transit, by Ramsden, of 4 feet focus, and 3 inches aperture; a moveable quadrant, of 2 feet radius, divided by Ramsden; and an equatorial, with circles of 18 inches diameter, originally made by Sisson, but afterwards divided anew, and an achromatic telescope added, by Ramsden. The time-keeper is an excellent instrument, with a gridiron pendulum, by Mariotte.

There are also the usual auxiliary apparatus, two reflecting telescopes, and a fine refracting one, double achromatic, by Dollond, of 4 feet focus, and 2| inches aperture, with a divided object-glass micrometer, by the same artist.

These instruments were procured by donation or purchase in 1780 (the Earl of Bute giving the transit and equatorial,) when Dr Copland originated a subscription for setting on foot an Observatory, for which the town gave a site on the Castlehill, where the building was erected. In 1795, Government requiring the site of the Observatory for a powder-magazine to the barracks then erecting in its vicinity, it was removed to the north wing of the College, and a grant of money given in exchange, the greater part of which was expended on the new arrangements necessary, and the remainder reserved for its maintenance, under the management of the Principal and Professors. A collection of books in astronomical and mathematical science is connected with the Observatory, purchased with a small fund appropriated to that peculiar purpose by Dr Liddel, who founded and endowed the mathematical professorship. The late Andrew Mackay, LL. D., was keeper of the Observatory for some years after its institution; the present keeper is the Professor of Mathematics, but no salary has ever been attached to the office.

Eminent Persons educated at Marischal College, or closely connected with it.—Robert Howie, the first Principal (1593-98,) author of several theological treatises; translated to Dundee by the General Assembly, and afterwards appointed Professor of Theology at St Andrews, and successor to Andrew Melville.

Peter Blackburn, the first in the list of Regents, an office which he had held previously in the University of Glasgow; Bishop of Aberdeen, 1603-15. He was the author of a treatise against James Gordon the Jesuit, and is termed by Wodrow "a judicious and famous divine."

Robert Gordon, nineteenth Baron of Straloch, was the first graduate in arts of the university, probably in 1597, and eminent as a geographer, poet, and antiquary. He was the author of the Atlas of Scotland, published by Blaeu in 1648, some of the county maps of which were constructed from his own actual surveys. He died in 1661, in his eighty-first year.

Gilbert Jacchaeus, or Jack, M. D., was an eminent writer on various branches of physical and metaphysical science, and became Professor of Philosophy in the University of Leyden, where he died in 1628.

Duncan Liddel, M. D., a native of Aberdeen, became Professor of Mathematics and Medicine in the University of Helmstadt and published several works on medicine, which were long esteemed Returning to his native country, he died in 1613, in his fifty-second year, after bequeathing his books and mathematical instruments to the college, and founding in it bursaries and the professorship of mathematics. A large tablet of brass, with his effigies and an inscription, is placed in the principal church of the city and a monument erected on the lands of Pitmedden in memory of him, has been lately repaired by the magistrates and town-council.

Thomas Reid, A. M., was appointed one of the masters of the Grammar School in 1602, and afterwards became Secretary in the Greek and Latin tongues to King James VI., and wrote Latin poems, many of which are preserved in the Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum; and in the same work there is an elegant epicedium upon him by Sir Robert Aytoun. He bequeathed his valuable library of books to the college, and a fund for a librarian Among them are a fine manuscript of the Hebrew Scriptures, of which Kennicott had the use when engaged in his collation; many folio Alduses; and Reid's transcript of King James's work on the Revelations, with alterations in his Majesty's hand-writing.

David Wedderburn, A. M., Rector of the Grammar-School of Aberdeen, 1602-1640, wrote several Latin poems, which are in the Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum, and for some years taught a humanity class in the college.

William Forbes, A. M., 1601, fourth Principal of the college, 1618-1621, and the first Professor of Divinity, 1616-1625, and afterwards Bishop of Edinburgh, a see which Charles I. erected for him, as one of the most learned divines of the time. He was one of the first who took the degree of D. D. after the introduction of that dignity among the reformed clergy of Scotland.

Robert Baron, D. D., the second Professor of Divinity, 1625-1639, author of "Philosophia Theologian Ancillans," and several other theological works.

Patrick Dun, M. D., the pupil and friend of Dr Liddel, was Principal of the college, 1621-1649, and bequeathed his estate of Ferryhill for the support of the Grammar school of Aberdeen.

William Johnston, M. D., of the family of Caskieben, Professor of Philosophy in. the University of Sedan, and afterwards the first Professor of Mathematics in Marischal College, on Liddel's foundation, 1626-1640.

Arthur Johnston, M. D., younger brother of the former, author of Latin poems, and of a well-known translation of the Psalms of David into that language. He studied medicine at Padua, and "afterwards settled in France; returning in 1633, he became Physician to King Charles I, and died at Oxford in 1641. George Jameson, born at Aberdeen in 1586, studied with Van-dyck under Rubens, and became celebrated as a painter. Some fine portraits by him are preserved in the College Hall.

William Guild, (A. M. 1604,) D.D., author of a Harmony of the Prophecies and many other theological treatises, and the en-dower of the Incorporated Trades' Hospital of Aberdeen, and founder of bursaries. He was Principal of King's College, 1640-1651.

Alexander Ross, chaplain to King Charles L, was the author of "Virgilius Evangelizans," "A View of all Religions," and upwards of thirty other works. He bequeathed two bursaries at his death in 1654.

Alexander Jaffray of Kingswells, Provost of Aberdeen during the civil wars, Member of Parliament, and one of the Scottish Commissioners sent to invite Charles II. in 1650. He afterwards became a leader among the Quakers, and his interesting Diary has been of late years discovered at Ury, the seat of the Barclays, and published.

John Menzies, D. D., Professor of Divinity, 1649-1681, author of "Roma Mendax," and other works.

James Gordon, fifth son of Robert Gordon of Straloch, minister of Rothiemay, in Aberdeenshire, and author of "A Description of bothe Towns of Aberdeene," for which he made a survey and map; and also of a "History of Scots Affairs from 1637 to 1641," both of which works have been lately printed by the Spalding Club.

Robert Morison, M. D., the celebrated botanist, and the first lecturer on Botany in the University of Oxford, author of "Plan-tarum Historia Universalis," 3 vols. 1672-1699.

David Gregory of Kinardie, Librarian of the College, 1663-1669, and father of David, Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford.

James Gregory, M, D., younger brother of the former, published in 1663, "Optica Promota," in which he gave a plan of that Reflecting Telescope, which has been called after him. He was Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews, 1668-1674, and afterwards at Edinburgh, where he died in 1675, in his thirty-seventh year having displayed in his various writings the highest talents in mathematical science.

Gilbert Burnet, D. D., Bishop of Salisbury, the celebrated author of the History of the Reformation in England, the History of his own Times, and many other works; founded bursaries.

John Arbuthnott, M. D., Physician to Queen Anne, and the friend of Pope and Swift, with whom he was associated in several works.

William Meston, A. M., appointed Regent in November 1715, by the last presentation signed by Earl Marischal; expelled in 1717, having been active in the Rebellion; author of poems which have gone through several editions.

George Keith, the last Earl Marischal of Scotland, alumnus 1708-1712; resided long at Berlin as the friend of Frederick the Great, and died there in 1778.

James, his brother, at College, 1712-1715, Field-Marshal in the service of the same prince, and killed at the battle of Hoch-kirchen in 1758.

George Turnbull, LL.D., Regent 1721-1727, author of Principles of Moral Philosophy, and of a Treatise on Ancient Painting.

James Gibbs, the celebrated architect, among whose works are, St Martin's Church, London, and the Radcliffe Library, Oxford.

Colin Maclaurin, A. M., appointed Professor of Mathematics in 1717, in his nineteenth year; in 1727, removed to the same chair in Edinburgh, on the recommendation of Sir Isaac Newton.

Robert Keith, A. M., Bishop of Caithness and Orkney in the Scots Episcopal Church; author of a History of Scotland, and of the Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops.

Alexander Cruden, A. M., Author of the Concordance to the Bible; founded a bursary.

Thomas Blackwell, D. D., Principal, 1717-1727, and Pro-, fessor of Divinity, 1711-1727; author of "Ratio Sacra," "Me-thodus Evangelise," "Schema Sacrum," and other works.

Thomas Blackwell, LL. D., son of the former, Principal, 1748-1757, and Professor of Greek, 1723-1757; author of "Letters on Mythology," " Life of Homer," and "Memoirs of the Court of Augustus."

David Fordyce, (A. M., 1728,) Regent, 1742-1751, author of "Dialogues on Education," a "Treatise on Moral Philosophy," and other works.

William Duncan, (A.M., 1737,) Professor of Moral Philosophy, 1753-1760, author of a Treatise on Logic, and Translations of Caesar's Commentaries, and part of Cicero's Orations.

John Stewart, A. M., Professor of Mathematics, 1727-1766, Author of "Sir Isaac Newton's Two Treatises on the Quadrature of Curves explained," 4to, 1745.

Thomas Reid, (A. M., 1726), D. D., the celebrated author of the "Inquiry into the Human Mind," "Essays on the Intellectual and Active Powers," &c, was for some years the College Librarian, afterwards Professor at King's College, whence he removed in 1763, to the Moral Philosophy chair at Glasgow.

Alexander Gerard, (A. M., 1744), D. D., Professor of Moral Philosophy, 1752-1760, and of Divinity, 1760-1771, when he removed to the same chair in King's College; author of an Essay on Taste, Dissertations on the Genius and Evidences of Christianity, Sermons, &c.

Gilbert Gerard, (A. M., 1775), son of the former, Professor of Greek in King's College, 1790-1796, and of Divinity, 1796-1815; edited and continued his father's works on Biblical Criticism, and Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion.

George Campbell, (A. M., 1738), D. D., Principal, 1759-1795, and Professor of Divinity, 1776-1796; author of the Essay on Miracles, Translation of the Gospels, Philosophy of Rhetoric, Lectures on Ecclesiastical History, &c.

James Beattie, (A. M., 1753), LL. D., Professor of Moral Philosophy and Logic, 1760-1803; author of the "Minstrel," "Essay on Truth," "Essays on Poetry, Music, &c, "The Theory of Language," "Elements of Moral Science," &c.

James Hay Beattie, (A.M., 1786,) son of the former, Assistant Professor of Moral Philosophy, 1787-1790, author of Poems, Essays, &c.

John Skinner, (A. M., 1738,) author of Popular Songs and other poetry, an Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, &c.

John Skinner, D. D., (Alumnus, 1757-1761), son of the former, Bishop of Aberdeen, 1786-1816, author of "Primitive Truth and Order Vindicated," and other theological works.

John Ogilvie, D. D., Minister of Midmar, Aberdeenshire; author of "Providence," "the Day of Judgment," "Britannia," and other poems and philosophical works.

James Fordyce, (A. M., 1753), D. D., Presbyterian minister in London, author of "Sermons to Young Women," &c.

Sir William Fordyce, M. D., brother of the preceding, (A. M. 1742), physician in London, and author of several medical works; Lord Rector of the University, 1790-1792; bequeathed his library, and founded a lectureship on Agriculture.

George Fordyce, M. D., nephew of the former, (A, M., 1751 M. D,, 1758); lecturer and physician in London; author of "Elements of Agriculture and Vegetation," and many medical works and papers in the Philosophical Transactions.

William Trail, LL. D., Professor of Mathematics, 1766-1778; afterwards Chancellor of the diocese of Down and Connor; author of "Elements of Algebra," and "Life of Dr Robert Simpson;" died at Bath in 1831. .

Robert Hamilton, LL. D., Professor of Mathematics, 1779-1829; author of "an Inquiry into the National Debt," " Introduction to Merchandise," "The Progress of Society," and other works.

James Beattie, (A. M., 1783,) Professor of Civil and Natural History, 1788-1810; an excellent Latin scholar, and the first discoverer of the Linnaea borealis in Scotland, in 1795, and of many other plants of the British Flora.

William Laurence Brown, D. D., Principal and Professor of Divinity, 1795-1830; author of Essays on "Scepticism," "the Natural Equality of Man," "the Existence of a Supreme Creator," "a Comparative View of Christianity," &c.

John Stuart, A. M., Professor of Greek, 1782-1827; author of a Life of Dr Duncan Liddel, and of papers on the Roman Progress in Scotland, &c. in the Archaeologia Scotica.

Alexander Chalmers, (A. M., 1778), LL. D., F. S. A.; editor of the "General Biographical Dictionary," "the British Poets," "the British Essayists," and many other works.

Alexander Crombie, (A.M., 1778), LL. D.; author of "Gymnasium," "Essay on Philosophical Necessity," "Natural Theology," and other works.

Alexander Jolly, (A. M., 1775), D. D., Bishop of Moray, 1796-1838; author of several theological works.

Alexander Nicoll, (Alumnus, 1805-1808); Canon of Christ-Church, and Regius Professor of Hebrew in the University of Oxford, 1826-1828.

February 1843.

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