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Strathmore Past and Present

On the north side of Strathmore lies tho large parish of Kirriemuir. Three very plausible suggestions have been made as to the derivation of the name : (1) Corrie mhor, “the large hollow;” (2) a Celtic word meaning the large district; and (3) Kil-Marie, like Kilmaurs, the religious Gaelic word for Mary-kirk. From the popular pronunciation of the name “Killamuir,” we incline to the last suggestion, “Kirk of St. Mary.” Skene derives the name from Ceath-ramh, corrupted to Keri, “a quarter” of Angus. But this is by analogy of reasoning from the supposed derivation of the Saxon equivalent of the name in the tenth century, Wertermore, which he thinks is from the Saxon feorde, corrupted into werte, “a quarter.”

The parish is divided into two very extensive districts, the northern, which now forms the quoad sacra parish of Glenprosen, being chiefly pastoral; while the southern is agricultural and manufacturing. The northern division measures nine miles by three, the southern five miles by five; the whole containing fully fifty square miles. The parish is bounded on the East by Oathlaw, Tannadice, and Cortachy; on the north by Clova; on the west by Glenisla, Lintrathen, Kingoldrum, and Airlie ; and on tho south by Glamis and Forfar. The mountainous division is separated from the division in the Strath by the parish of Kingroldrum. All the southern division is visible from tho hill of Kirriemuir, which is cultivated to its summit. The most remarkable eminence in the parish, seen in its majestic form through all the Strath, is the heather-clad Catlaw—according to some, the Mons Grampius of Tacitus —2264 feet above the level of the sea. The ranges of the Grampians north are wild and awe-striking in their lonely grandeur, torn here and there by impetuous snow-swollen streams. These enclose a weird, bare glen, traversed by the river Prosen; but this glen is rich in botany.

One of the highest authorities on the flora of Scotland was the minister of Glenprosen, now of Feam—the Rev. John Ferguson, M.A. In the small glens and openings, or on the rocky mountain sides, may be found, among hundred of others, such varieties as the flesh-coloured flowers of the Trailing Azalea; the yellow flowers of the procumbent Sibbaldia; the Great Wild Valerian, whose roots attract the wily rat and afford a strange fascination for the feline tribe; some rare varieties of the perplexing Hawk-weed; the bare flowering stems of the Cudweed; the light purple Alpine Flea-bane; the scarlet fruit of the Bear-berry; the staining Alkanet; the white-flowered variety of the Self-heal; the loose spikes of the viviparous Bistort; the small creeping Goodyera; the rare white snow Cetraria; and the unrivalled large-fruited Bottle-moss.

The late Mr. Kinloch of Kilry collected the fauna of the district and presented them to St. Andrews University. Among the rarer kinds of birds found by that keen naturalist are the golden eagle, merlin, raven, rock-ouzel, king-fisher, bittern, goodwit, spotted fly-catcher, goatsucker, ptarmigan, and quail; while of other animals he has found the wild cat, ermine, badger, viper, lizard, and wheat-fly. This last pest is at times very destructive to the crops; for Mr. Gorrie, in the "Quarterly Journal of Agriculture/’ calculated that in one year the loss sustained by the farming interest in the Carse of Gowrie exceeded £90,000. One remedy found to be successful was to sow wheat without grass-seed—a plan which is observed to this day.

The river Prosen rises in the most northerly nook, in its course absorbing the waters of ten considerable brooks; and flows into the South Esk, near the confluence of the Carity, in exact correspondence with the old rhythmical saying—

“The "Waters o’ Prosen, Esk, an’ Carity
Meet at the birkeu bush o’ Inverquharity.”

Thence they roll their united waters to the ocean, through a rugged and romantic channel, fringed on all sides by clustering and shady trees. Near this “meeting of the waters,” stands the bridge of Shielhill (built in 1769), famous as the plaee where the celebrated Scotch scholar, Dr. Jamieson, laid the scene of his admirable ballad of the “Water Kelpie;” in which he thus takes marked advantage of the story of the Kelpie bringing the stones to build the bridge and the rude head of a Gorgon—

“Yon bonny brig quhan folk wald big,
To car my stream look braw;
A sair-toil d wicht was I benicht;
I did mair than them aw.
An’ weel thai kent quhat help I lent,
For thai yon image fram't,
Aboon the pond, whilk I defend ;
An' it thai Kelpie nam’t”

About two miles west of the town the river Gairie has its source in a meadow, formerly the Loch of Kinnordy. This Loch was drained, in 17-10, by Sir John Ogilvy, for marl to cultivate the land adjoining. From time to time huge skeletons of stags have been found in this marl-bed; and, sixty years ago, an ancient canoe was found embedded in the peat-moss.

In the eastern part of the parish there is a vast forest, called the Forest of Plater or Platane; so dense was it in olden times that, according to tradition, the wild cat could leap from one tree to another between the hills of Kirriemuir and Finhaven. A century ago, when the people were digging in the moor for peat, they came upon many roots of enormous trees. The Earl of Crawford, when proprietor, had a special forester over it; and the Earl of Strathmore had for one of his titles the “Heritable Forester of the Forest of Plater.” It is now on the Kinnordy estate. Fordoun relates that Sir Andrew Moray, the friend of the hero Wallace, when once pressed by the English, had to conceal himself for a winter in this forest; from which he marched to Panmure and gained a splendid victory, leaving 4000 men dead on the field.

The climate of the parish varies considerably ; but on the whole it is very healthy, being above the mists of the low ground. Ague is unknown. Great ages are often reached by careful living. Agriculture has been for a considerable period improving. Draining what was wet, bringing into tillage what was uncultivated but arable, and planting what was not arable, were all commenced in this district before many of the neighbouring parishes. An unusual spurt was made, a century ago, with such success that the manure of the town was doubled in price within three years. And there is still to be seen the same keen spirit for improvement.

The most of the southern division of the parish consists of the old red sandstone, with occasional protrusions of trap and red-schist. There is in one part a stratum of gray roofing-slate, with here and there distinctly marked vegetable impressions. And on the farm of Balloch there is a curious dyke of serpentine nearly vertical, which shows the manner in which stratified rocks are at times peculiarly affected. In the Grampian district the rocks are principally mica-schist, hornblende slate, and gneiss, studded with rock crystals and garnets. In geology, the district has been immortalized by the name of the distinguished scientific explorer, the late Sir Charles Lyell. The soil is in general light, sandy, and gravelly; here and there being fields of a clayey or mortary constitution, and occasionalty of alluvial deposit in the flats and hollows. In the northern division the cultivated ground is confined to the bottom of the glen— a very great extent being covered with moss ; but on the whole, in respect of soil, the parish is fully equal to any of those contiguous.

West of the town is a large semi-globular artificial mound, called the “Court-hillock;” and, beside it, is a circular pond excavated to form the mound, called the "Witch-pool.” In a disposition to the estate of Kinnordy, by one of the Douglas family, a road to this mound is reserved. They seem to have been ready for use to execute justiee, or to pander to popular superstition. On the hill of Kirrie the Brehons of earlier times administered the law to the men of Angus; and afterwards the Earls of Angus held their Courts of Regality, as Kirriemuir was the capital of the Earldom. According to the famous antiquarian, Stewart, in his costly and elaborate work on the “Sculptured Stones of Scotland” (which we have examined with some care), the parish abounds in remains of ancient times. Two rocking-stones are situated a little to the north-west of the hill of Kirrie, within a few yards of each other, the one of whinstone and the other of porphyry; but no clear account can be given of their history. There are several standing stones—the most early of all monuments—but none have inscriptions. One, on the hill of Kirrie, evidently at one time split in two, is nine feet above the surface of the ground. In the foundations of the old Parish Church, in 1787, three stones were found of some importance to archaeologists. On one of them is the figure of a man seated on a chair ; on one side of him is what seems to be a sword, and on the other a mirror and comb, which may have been a representation of a Brehon in the chair of judgment. On the top of the hill of Meams is a remarkable Weem built with stone, and covered above with stones six feet wide, which can be traced for the distance of seventy yards, in which were found a great many human bones, querns, and other curiosities. The “Weem’s Park” at Auchlishie, when opened, was found to contain a currach and some querns. This currach, or boat, was unfortunately burned as useless by the farm servants, but was doubtless of a date anterior to the historical records of the country. Several granite boulders, both red and gray, are found in the parish; these (according to the Report of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, just issued to Fellows), “are supposed to have come from Aberdeenshire,” on floating ice in the ice-period.

It is the general opinion that Christianity was introduced into this parish at a very early date; but we can give no authentic account of the introduction. The first ecclesiastical charter, according to the Register of the Abbey of Arbroath, was in 1201, by Gillechrist, Earl of Angus, in which he bestowed on that Abbey the Church of Kerimore, with the chapels, lands, tithes, common pasturage, offerings, aisements, and all pertinents of said Church. This was confirmed by William the Lion, King of Scotland, in the same year; and ratified, at Selkirk, ten years afterwards. In 1203, William, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirmed the grant. When Henry was Prior of St. Andrews, the Chapter confirmed the grant in 1204. Dunecan of Angus confirmed, in 1211, the charter of his father Gillechrist. Three years afterwards, Malcolm, Earl of Angus, gave to the Abbey “all the land between Aldenkoukro and Aldhendouen in the territory of Kerimor.” In 1219 and the following year, Pope Honorius gave two confirmatory charters of Gillechrist’s donations. In 1233, David, Bishop of St. Andrews, gave a renewed confirmation. Matilda, Countess of Angus, in 1242, confirmed the gifts of her “proavw.” David, Bishop of St. Andrews, in his Taxatio of the vicarages within his Diocese in 1249, enacted that the vicar of Kerimor will have all the alterage, and will uphold all the Episcopal burdens, thirty merks being exacted. In 1485, David, the Abbot of Arbroath, presented John Lychton to tho perpetual vicarage of the Parish Church of Kyrymore; and four years afterwards let the tithes of Kyrymore for nine years at the rent of 240 merks Scots.

It appears that there were four religious houses in the parish, besides the one used as the Parish Church, and the Chapel of Glenprosen, where the minister, a hundred years ago, was only obliged to officiate two or three times annually, but which has now a fixed and resident minister and parish of its own. These were at Chapelton, three miles north of the town; at Killhill, three miles east; at Balinscho; and in the town. The Chapel at Balinscho was built by the proprietor for the use of his own family, and dedicated to Saint Ninian. Its site is still enclosed with a good wall, and used as the burial ground of tho Fletchers of Balinscho. The one in the town was dedicated to Saint Culmoch. The proprietor of the site long went by the name of Sainty, and was exempted from the usual statutory thirlage to a mill ; and a piece of ground adjoining, now used as a garden, went by the name of the Kirkyard.

From Dr. Scott’s "Fasti” we make a few extracts in connection with the ministers of Kirriemuir. In 15G7, Alexander Auchinleck was minister of Kirriemuir and Kingoldrum, for the stipend of £8 Gs. 8d. To these Nether Airlie was joined seven years afterwards. In 1669, Sylvester Lyon was commended for his zealous and daring sermon against Popery, preached before the Synod of St. Andrews. In 1713, when George Ogilvy was being translated from Benvie, there was a strong and determined opposition. It is related that when the members of Presbytery came io the steps of Wester Tarbines, they were attacked by a numerous mob of men, women, and children, who fired blunt shot, threw stones and clods, and obliged them to return. The Presbyters were pursued for a mile, and in the Burgh of Logie, on the border of the parish, the induction was duly carried through. In the beginning of this century, Dr. Thomas Easton was a' great power in the district. He was learned yet modest, and his moral worth was tempered by a meekness of soul which peculiarly enhanced his character. He was the author of several works, among which were the “Statements in Relation to the Pauperism of Kirriemuir” and the “New Statistical Account of the Parish.” In 1835, the South Church was built, made a Chapel the year following, and a parish {quoad sacra) in 1870. Its first minister, William Norval, was presented to Brechin by the Crown; but when preaching his trials before the congregation, he was accused of borrowing from a volume of Henry Melville of London. This he denied ; but the charge being brought to proof, he withdrew his acceptance of the presentation, with the permission of the General Assembly The Assembly, however, having given instructions to the Presbytery to consider the cas3, he demitted his charge and went over to the Church of England. From Duncans “Ecclesiastical Law” we notice that, in 1715, the Court of Session decided—in re Ogilvie v. the Heritors of Kirriemuir—that the point of time at and from which the incumbent’s right to the benefice emerges is that of his induction as opposed to his presentation or election; and that, in 1762, —in re Earl of Strathmore v. the minister of Kirriemuir— tho Court decided that while heritors included feuars, those feuars only were entitled to vote for the election of a schoolmaster who paid cess on a separate or cumule valuation.

In 1748, the Rev. George Ogilvy drew up a Historical Account of the Parish, with especial reference to its ecclesiastical state. This account, transcribed into the Baptism Register, is in some respects of considerable value; but it dwells rather too much upon a proof from historical facts that our first Protestant ministers had no other than Presbyterian ordination. The present incumbent—the Rev. John Boyd, M. A.—assures us that the extant Records of the Kirk Session go no further back than the beginning of last century. According to the Parliamentary Return, the total sum levied by way of assessment for building, and repair of, the Church and Manse, during the ten years ending Dee. 31, 1879, amounted to £1050.

The district of Kirriemuir was one of the great quarters of Ancient Angus, having then the name Wertermore. Simeon of Durham says that AEthelstan, king of England (and grandson of Alfred the Great), invaded Scotland (Alban), in 934, by sea and land, ravaging the country with his cavalry as far as Wertermore, and the shores with his navy as far as Caithness.

Kirriemuir is a burgh of royalty of great antiquity; but the date of its erection is unknown. Tho jurisdiction of the Bailie was once very great, ho having power to punish, even by the gallows, culprits found guilty of certain crimes, from the Law of Dundee to the Grampian Mountains. There is a charter of lands by Malcolm, Karl of Angus, in the year 1214. On a seal appended to a deed, dated 1584, is the legend:—"S’Wiliel Stevart Como A.D. Pettynve Dili Regal. D. Kerymvr,” which shows that the Commendator of the Priory of Pittenweem, in Fife, was lord of the regality of Kirriemuir. Since 1748, the Bailie can judge in no civil actions where the damage exceeds two pounds stg.; and on account of the restrictions laid on him, his power is now almost nil.

As early as 1392, the Highlanders came down in bands and made terrible raids on the fine country of Strathmore ; for in that year a bloody battle took place, in which Sir John Ogilvy of Kirriemuir was slain with many of his followers. When, in 1411, Donald, Lord of the Isles, advanced to prosecute his claims to the Earldom of Ross, he was opposed by Lord Ogilvy, the Sheriff of Angus, with many followers from Kirriemuir, and at Harlaw was signally defeated. In the cruel encounter between the Ogilvies and the Lindsays, in 1447, five hundred of the former were slain. The celebrated poet, Drummond of Hawthornden, was, during the plague of 1645, prohibited from entering Forfar, but took refuge in Kirriemuir, while a feud was pending between the inhabitants of these two towns regarding the commonty of Muir Moss. Determined to play off a joke upon the in-habitantsof Forfar for their want of hospitality, lie addressed a letter to the Provost, to be communicated to the Town Council in haste. It was imagined that the letter was from the Estates of Parliament then sitting at St. Andrews. But what was their chagrin when, after assembling with due solemnity, they read these lines:—

“The Kirriemarians an’ the Forfarians met at Muir Moss,
The Kirriemarians beat the Forfarians back to the Cross;
Sutors ye are, an’ Sutors ye’ll be—
Fye upo’ Forfar, Kirriemuir bears the gree!”

We will now give an outline sketch of the principal families and properties within the parish. As we have already, in our articles on Airlie and Glamis, given a condensed history of the families of Airlie and Strathmore, we shall not here repeat them. Inverquharity was anciently under the superiority of the Earls of Angus; and Sir Alexander of Crawford received, in 1329, the charters for the property from his sister-in-law, Margaret, Countess of Angus. In 1390, the first Earl of Crawford resigned the Newton in favour of one John Dolas; and in 1405, Sir Walter Ogilvy, then Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, came into possession. In 1420, Sir John Ogilvy, received from his brother the lands and barony, and became the founder of the house. King James II, granted a license to Sir Alex. Ogilvy in 1445, to fortify his house and to “strength it with ane Ime yhet.” This Castle of Inverquharity was one of the strongest, and is now one of the most entire, in Angus. It was a fine ashlar building, with walls nine feet thick, in the Gothic style of architecture. The walls project considerably near tho top and terminate in a parapet. East of it are some vestiges of a wing, demolished, it is said, by the Crawfords in some feud with the Ogilvies. The third baron was appointed Justiciary of the Abbey of Arbroath; and, being wounded in the battle of Arbroath, was taken prisoner to Finhaven, where he was smothered by his sister, the Countess of Crawford. One of the family was composer of the Jacobite song, “It was a’ for our rightful King;” and was with King James at the battle of the Boyne. The ruined Castle is still glorious in its ruins. Around it are some fine chestnut trees of great age ; and some massive ash trees, of not less than a hundred cubic feet in contents. One ash is upwards of fourteen feet in circumference, only equalled by an elm. Yet no human step treads the grounds once so hallowed by a long and honourable family lineage; and the dwelling stands

“Now forhow’t And left the howlot’a proy.”

The family of Kinloch of Logie may be traced to the twelfth, if not to the ninth, century. There is a charter extant which was confirmed by William the Lion to Sir John de Kinloch. One of the family was raised to the high position of physician to King James the Sixth. The baronetcy was forfeited after the battle of Culloden. On the passing of the General Police Act, Colonel Kinloch of Logie was appointed the first Inspector of that force in the counties and burghs in Scotland. The house of Logie stands about a mile south of the town. It is surrounded by the largest trees in the parish. One ash-tree measures twenty-one feet in circumference. Irrigation was very' extensively and successfully practised by Mr. Kinloch in 1770. Having command of the river Gairie he flooded his enclosures in November, continuing to do so at intervals until April. The consequence was that the rent for grazing very soon rose. The grass was the earliest and best in the district. Before that date, his land was letting at 8s. an acre ; but after six years of flooding, it let at nine times that sum; and from statistics in 1830, after being fully fifty years in grass, when the fields were broken up for a course of cropping, some of them rose as high as £7 8s. the imperial acre. This experiment showed that irrigation not only improves grass, but ameliorates the soil. Can no hint from such a process be taken now? Proprietors who have the command of rivers might surely try something to feed the starving land. Logie has shown that the benefit of irrigation is no dream, but a demonstrated fact.

The principal resident heritor is Charles Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. His famous ancestors have done full justice to the Mansion-House and grounds. Last century, the proprietor embellished his seat with planting every variety of ornamental trees on all waste pieces of ground in his policies. The garden is enriched by many rare plants; and there is a valuable Museum, consisting of minerals, bones of animals, antiquities, and the insects of the district. Mr. Lyell is the Baron and Superior of the town. Shielhill is a property which also belongs to the Lyells. It is beautifully situated on the banks of the South Esk. Lindfay property down to 1G29, it was then sold to John Ramsay of Balnabreich. The Castle stood on the top of a romantic rock, and part of it forms the walls of the cottages which now occupy its place. These are about three feet thick ; the door and window lintels are of old lievvn ashlar, and one of them is dated 1686. At a little distance is a fountain, known by the name of St. Colm,-which was probably near the Chapel. The wife of Dr. Jamieson, the celebrated lexicographer, was a Miss Watson of Sliielhill.

Balinscho—the town of rest—is a property with many historical associations. During the sixteenth century it was possessed by Bailie Serymgeour of Dundee. In 159o, the Ogilvies were proprietors ; for Sir John Lindsay, son of the tenth Earl of Crawford, slew an Ogilvy and took possession. His sons were distinguished for their bravery in foreign campaigns. Fletcher, who married the youngest daughter of young Ogilvy of Airlie (who fell at Inver-lochy), was the first of his name in Balinscho. In 1624, George Fletcher of Balinscho succeeded tj the Barony of Rostinoth, to the teinds of which Robert was served heir in 1658. Eleven years afterwards, the magistrates of Forfar bought the patronage and teinds. The Castle of Balinscho, now the property of the Earl of Strathmore, is a rootless ruin; a circular tower and other buildings stood at the north-cast corner down to a late date. The ruins of the more modern house stand near by. Many fine old trees surround the Lindsay’s Castle; and in the orchard there is the largest walnut-tree in the kingdom. As already mentioned, a chapel stood on the west of the turnpike road. The "Stannin’ Stane o’ Benshie,” which stood for centuries, and was the source of much antiquarian speculation and superstitious awe, was blown up by gunpowder about fifty years ago. It was not less than twenty tons in weight; and, at a considerable depth below it, a large clay urn, three feet in height, was found, containing a quantity of human bones and ashes; but to whom this rude monument was erected must remain for ever a mystery.

“All ruined and wild is their roofless abode,
And lonely the dark raven’s sheltering tree;
And travelled by few is the grass-covered road
Where the hunter of deer and the warrior trode.”

The population of the parish, in 1755, was 3409; in 1792, 4358; and in 1881, 6616. The valued rental is £674; and the real rental, £30,000.

The town of Kirriemuir is pleasantly situated, 400 feet above sea level, on an inclined plane which rises to the ranges of the Grampians. It is a first-rate starting- point (after landing from the Caledonian railway, which has a terminus there), for a three days’ pedestrian tour by Clova, “Dark Lochnagar,” Braemar and Glenshee, Glenisla to Alyth, where the railway can be got again. The form of the town may be fancied to resemble an anchor, giving ample evidence of taste, industry, and success. The Parish Church is a very handsome edifice (built in 1787 and seated for 1260), to which Charles Lyell of Kinnordy added a handsome spire, catching the observer’s eye for a considerable distance. There are, besides, seven places of worship in the town. Four banks show the business stir. Above a dozen schools prove that education is well attended to. In 1784, Mr. Henry of London left £1400 to his native town of Kirriemuir, the interest of which was to be laid out in educating and furnishing with schoolbooks, pens, ink, and paper, a number of boys belonging to the parish. Mr. John Webster, in 1829, left £8000 for endowing a school, at which instruction in the arts and sciences may be obtained. A dozen Friendly Societies conserve the savings of the industrious. A Justice of Peace Court for the eight neighbouring parishes is held; and the ratepayers have availed themselves of the Lindsay Act for the Police Commission. A weekly market for corn is held on Friday ; fairs are held on the first Monday of the first five months of the year, the Wednesday after the 26th of May, the fourth Tuesday of July and October (for sheep), and the fourth Wednesday of July, October, and November (for horses and cattle).

In no town of its size (about 4000) is more trade carried on, being the centre of a wide agricultural district, and having considerable manufacturing work. About a century ago, many hands were employed in the manufacture of Osnaburgh, Serim, and Birdy, £38,000 sterling being realised annually; 1200 pairs of shoes were made annually for exportation. Piece-work caused many keen competitors, one man having for a wager wrought a web of 91 yards in 18 consecutive hours. In 1782, there was great distress in the town, not so much from a scarcity of victual (for the crop was good), but from a resolution entered into by the people not to give above a certain priee. Famine threatened them, and to prevent its ravages, a society called the Weaver Society was instituted, the surplus funds of which were to buy meal at cost price to the members. From 17S0 to 1792 trade got gradually brisker, and wages proportionally changed. In these six years a labouring man’s wages rose from £5 to £10 13s.; a woman’s from £2 10s. to £4 4s.; a mason’s daily wage from Is. 3d. to 2s.; and a joiner’s from Is. to 1s. 10d. The opulence of the town was tested by the collection at the Church-door (before there was any dissent in the parish), the average in 1762 being 9s. 9d., and in 1792, £1 8s. per Sabbath. The Rev. Thomas Ogilvy, in the “Old Statistical Account,” gives this character of the people a hundred years ago:—“Such is the disposition of the people that their purse is open to every vagabond who can tell a plausible tale of woe, most of whom are fit objects for a house of correction; and in this way as much money is squandered as would make all the poor in the parish live comfortably.” In his day nine carriers went regularly to Dundee twice a week, and two came twice a week from Montrose. There were ten brewers, ten inn-keepers, twelve retailers of foreign spirits, three of wine, twenty of ale and whisky, twenty-seven merchants, two hundred and twenty-eight weavers, three tan-yards, and one distillery—all in a town of 1584 inhabitants. What a difference in the railway conveniences, for bringing coals and provisions to the very door and taking away so expeditiously the produce of the town and district! Ever since 1820, when about 2½ million yards of brown linen were stamped, the trade of Kirriemuir has steadily increased ; and now, by the aid of steam instead of hand-loom work, a very considerable business is being successfully carried on, making Kirriemuir a recognised feeder of the great manufacturing industries. By industry, may the town go on flourishing! For, if conducted in a right spirit, it will have the reward of Ben Jonson’s prophetic couplet:—

“Virtue, though chained to earth, will still live free,
And hell itself must yield to industry.”

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