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Guide to the Highlands and Islands of Scotland
Branch A. Inverness to the field of the battle of Culloden, to Clava, Castles Dalcross, Kilravock, and Cawdor, to Fort-George, and to the Findhorn

Roads; Castle Stewart; Campbelltown ; Fort-George; Cross Road to Cawdor Cast le, paragraph 1.—Battle of Culloden, or Drummosie Moor; Nature of the Ground, 2. Disposition of the Forces, and Battle, 3.—Charge of the Highlanders, and their final overthrow, 4.—Stone Monuments on the Plain of Clara, 5.—Great Boulder Stone or Tomriach, 6.—Daleross Castle, 7.—Kilravock Castle, 8.—Holme and Cantray, 9.—Cawdor or Calder Castle, 10.—Thanes of Cawdor, History of, 11.—History of the Castle, and Clan Conflict, 1g.—Family Traditions, 13.—Scenery; Oak Wood of Cawdor, 14.—Roads to Dulsie, and the Banks of the Findliorn and Strathspey, 15.—Raits Castle, 16.

1. A VERY interesting day's excursion from Inverness may be enjoyed, by going to breakfast at Campbelltown (12 miles) or Fort-George (13 miles), examining Castle Stewart (described page 360) by the way, and then proceeding to Cawdor Castle (7 miles) by the military way from the garrison, which runs nearly due south, to a bridge over the river Nairn, from which Cawdor inn is distant 2 miles to the eastward, and returning in the evening to Inverness by Cantray and the Moor of Culloden, or Dalcross Castle; or by reversing this order, and returning by Fort-George.

The stage to Campbelltown and Fort-George, and the character of the country backwards to the woods of Cawdor, have already been described (Route iii. p. 360); and if the tourist does not mean to visit Fort-George, but to proceed direct to Cawdor without returning to Inverness, his best course is either to proceed along the Nairn post-road, beyond the point where it severs from the Fort-George road, for 2 miles, when a good cross-road will be found leading directly south-east over the ridge of the Leys, past Dalcross Castle to Cantray, where it crosses the river Nairn; or if he keep the north side—the better road of the two—at the intersection of the Culloden Moor road, the route lies along the latter north-eastwards by Croy Church and Kilravock, and joins the military way at Clephanton; or he may keep the Nairn post-road all the way till it meets the military one at Breachley, 91 miles from Inverness, and then turn south alongst it. If, on the other hand, the tourist is inclined to proceed by the Moor of Culloden, he takes the great Perth road for the first 3 miles, and immediately behind the house of Castlehill, and past Inshes Porter's Lodge, he will find a district road proceeding eastward, which passes through the field of battle, and proceeds thence along the ridge between Dalcross Castle and Cantray. Cawdor, by this route, is 15 miles from Inverness. Between Cawdor and Craggy Inn a pretty good road leads along the south bank of the river Nairn, which the pedestrian or horseman can attain by proceeding due south from the spot where the battle of Culloden was fought, whereby he will come across the stone monuments of Clava by the way; but wheeled carriages will find it difficult to reach the road on the south bank, through the rough fords of the Nairn. The pedestrian can cross it at the wooden bridge of Culdoich above Clava, and by thus gaining the south bank, he will not only considerably shorten the distance from Inverness, but command the best views of Cantray, Ilolme, and Kilravock Castle, which are passed 2 or 3 miles lower down.


2. So much has been written on the battle of Culloden, where closed the rebellion of 1745-6, that we shall trouble our readers only with a very short notice of it. It is quite evident that no Highland troops should have fought there, even though their object was to protect and cover Inverness, especially when opposed by horse and artillery : and it seems equally certain that there was something worse than foolishness among the leaders when they perilled their cause on an open heath, while a rough and hilly country lay so near them. Had the rebel army also fallen on the Duke of Cumberland's camp at Nairn, the previous night, as was attempted, they would have found him prepared; for the Duke's Highlanders had mixed in the ranks of their adversaries during the march, and sent intelligence every half hour of their approach.

A monumental tumulus or obelisk on the heath, lately begun, marks the spot where the contest was fiercest; and the public road passes through the graves of the slain, which consist of two or three grass-covered mounds, rising slightly above the adjoining heath, at the distance of about 200 or 300 yards from some corn land and a cluster of cottages, where the English artillery took up its position, a slight marshy hollow intervening between them and the Highland army. The spot is about six miles distant from Inverness. On all sides the near prospect is bleak and dreary; while the general smoothness of the ground points it out as favourable for the movements of cavalry and artillery, but proportionably ill adapted for the protection or defence of the foot soldier. Such is the nature of the ground on which Prince Charles Edward ventured to peril his cause against the disciplined troops of England. His army was drawn up a little to the west of the graves, in a line from south to north, right across the moor inclining towards the parks of Culloden House.

3. Exhausted with hunger and fatigue, dispersed, and buried in sleep in the neighbouring hamlets and enclosures, very many of the Highland army could not possibly be present at this battle. Some had gone to Inverness for food ; others had not joined, as many had been permitted to retire to their homes during the winter season ; and, of those who had just taken up arms, the Macphersons of Badenoch were but that day (16th of April 1746) on their march from the interior to the camp at Inverness. The right of the Prince's front line was composed of the Athole men and Camerons; in the centre stood the Frasers, Mackintoshes, Maelachlans, and Macleans; on the left, the Stewarts, Farquharsons, and the three Macdonald regiments, commanded by the chiefs, Clanranald, Keppoch, and Glengarry. Behind, and towards the right of the second line were Lord Ogilvie's, Lord Lewis Gordon's and the Duke of Perth's regiments, diminished to very small companies, but supported on the left by the Irish pickets. A few horse were stationed in rear of the right wing, and on the gradually ascending ground behind these stood Prince Charles and his French and Irish counsellors. The declivity of the moor towards the house of Culloden, being soft and marshy, rendered it somewhat unfit for the movements of cavalry; while the right of the rebel position was slightly defended by a stone wall enclosing a young plantation. The Duke of Cumberland advanced from the north-east along the hill in a line from Dalcross Castle, his object being to force his way to Inverness. After remaining patiently in their ranks for some time, and being galled most dreadfully by the enemy's artillery, the centre of the rebel troops rushed forward to the attack, and repulsed Munro's and Birrel's regiments, which were opposed to them. The right wing at the same moment advanced, but were almost immediately turned by the English cavalry, who attacked them in flank through openings made by their infantry (especially the Argyleshire Highlanders) in the stone dyke. This last manoeuvre was observed by the Prince, who, instead of placing himself at the head of the reserve, and charging in person, to counteract its effect, contented himself with sending repeated orders to Lord George Murray, which that accomplished general either never received or could not at the moment execute. A body of 100 highlanders, stationed within the enclosure above alluded to, was cut to pieces without offering any resistance, and the right wing being thus in consequence broken, the fate of the day was determined. The Clan Chattan, or M'Intosh regiment, stood the firmest, and were almost totally annihilated.

The left wing, formed of the Macdonalds, did not behave with their accustomed bravery, as they had taken umbrage at not having the post of honour on the right assigned them, to which they conceived themselves entitled. In truth, the main body of the army was routed without firing a shot, and they had little else to do than to keep in a body and make good their way unmolested to the hills. The Frasers retired in their ranks with pipes playing: one great body of the rebels moved off in a southern direction towards Badenoch, but those who fled towards the plains about Inverness were hotly pursued by the dragoons, and the carnage ceased not till within half a mile of the town. Prince Charles, acting early on the memorable sentiment, "Sauve qui pout," rode off toward Stratherrick, and slept that night at Gortuleg. The ash-tree whence he beheld the battle still stands, and the less perishable boulder-stone, from which, it is said, the Duke of Cumberland issued his orders, is shewn by the road-side, about a quarter of a mile east from the principal heap of graves.

4. Never was the peculiar and irresistible power of a charge of Highlanders more fearlessly displayed than in this their last feudal engagement on their native hills. "It was the emphatic custom," says Mr. Chambers, in his History of the Rebellion of 1745, "before an onset, to scrag their bonnets, that is, to pull their little blue caps down over their brows, so as to ensure them against falling off in the ensuing melee. Never, perhaps, was this motion performed with so much emphasis as on the present occasion, when every man's forehead burned with the desire to revenge some dear friend who had fallen a victim to the murderous artillery. A Lowland gentleman, who was in the line, and who survived till a late period, used always, in relating the events of Culloden, to comment with a feeling of something like awe upon the terrific and more than natural expression of rage which glowed on every face, and gleamed in every eye, as he surveyed the extended line at this moment. It was an exhibition of mighty and all-engrossing passion, never to be forgotten by the beholder.

"The action and event of the onset were throughout quite as dreadful as the mental emotion which urged it. Notwithstanding that the three files of the front line of English poured forth their incessant fire of musketry—notwithstanding that the cannon, now loaded with grape-shot, swept the field as with a hail-storm—notwithstanding the flank fire of Wolfe's regiment—onward, onward went the headlong Highlanders, flinging themselves into, rather than rushing upon, the lines of the enemy, which, indeed, they did not see for smoke till involved among their weapons. All that courage, all that despair could do, was done. They did not fight like living or reasoning creatures, but like machines under the influence of some uncontrollable principle of action. The howl of the advance, the scream of the onset, the thunders of the musketry, and the din of the trumpets and drums, confounded one sense; while the flash of the fire-arms and the glitter of the brandished broadswords dazzled and bewildered another. It was a moment of dreadful and agonising suspense—but only a moment; for the whirlwind does not reap the forest with greater rapidity than the Highlanders cleared the line. They swept through and over that frail barrier, almost as easily and instantaneously as the bounding cavalcade brushes through the morning labours of the gossamer which stretch across its path. Not, however, with the same unconsciousness of the event. Almost every man in their front rank, chief and gentleman, fell before the deadly weapons which they had braved; and although the enemy gave way, it was not till every bayonet was bent and bloody with the strife.

"When the first line had been completely swept aside, the assailants continued their impetuous advance, till they came near the second, when, being almost annihilated by a profuse and well-directed fire, the shattered remains of what had been but an hour before a numerous and confident force, at last submitted to destiny, by giving way and flying. Still a few rushed on, resolved rather to die than thus forfeit their well-acquired and dearly-estimated honour. They rushed on; but not a man ever came in contact with the enemy. The last survivor perished as he reached the points of the bayonets."

According to the general accounts, there were but 1200 men killed in this engagement, and as many on the English as on their opponents' side. The wounded were left three days on the field, and such as then survived were shot by the order of the Duke of Cumberland. He set fire to a barn, to which many of them had retired. In the town of Inverness he instituted a complete military government; treated the inhabitants and magistrates with contempt; and he was afterwards obliged to sue out an act of indemnity from the British Parliament for these and other atrocities, of which it is notoriously known he was guilty. Prince Charles' resources, notwithstanding the loss of this battle, were by no means desperate. Eight thousand men were ready to meet him at Ruthven, in Badenoch, had he signified his desire to attempt the battle-strife over again; but, after some days' deliberation, his only answer to the chiefs who awaited him there was, "Let every man seek his safety in the best way he can."


5. The most splendid series of circles and cairns, existing together in one place on the eastern side of the island, occurs on a meadow plain on the south bank of the river Nairn, about one mile south-east of the field where the battle of Culloden was fought; and no tourist should omit a visit to them, which will cost but a short walk while his horse rests. A rustic bridge crosses the river, immediately below the graves. The surface of the plain is in one part rough, and strewed over with boulder-stones; but in general it forms a portion of a soft pastoral valley; and the view at either end is terminated by two prominent bills, one of which (Dun-Evan) has on its summit a structure strongly vitrified; and on the other (Dun-Daviot) is a similar fortified site, but which, however, has not been affected by fire. Even at the first sight of this plain, one is prompted to exclaim—"Here is a city of the dead!" Its whole extent is covered with cairns, encompassed by circles of large upright stones, or slabs of sandstone.

Among these are several circles of large dimensions unconnected with cairns, and others of a smaller size, scarcely elevated a foot above the ground, occur in the intervals between the greater ones. Stones of memorial, or single columns, are perceived in several parts of the field, apparently in a line with one another, and uniting the other structures into one general design; and what is also remarkable, near the west end of the plain is seen an oblong square, which is called the "Clachan" or church, and which is believed to be the foundations of an ancient Christian chapel. Perhaps it may have been one of the earliest in the country; and it thus appears most strikingly and appropriately placed in the midst of pagan structures, the dark superstitious rites of which its founders were anxious to expose and abolish. Within this enclosure, children, who die in the neighbourhood before baptism, are still buried.

But the most remarkable of these antiquities on the plain of Clava are three great cairns, consisting of loose stones piled up in one of them to the height of fifteen feet, and having each a ring of upright stones hemming in and supporting their bases ; another circle of large masses of sandstone (ten or twelve stones in each), at the distances of several paces from the inner structure, is attached to each cairn. Two of these cemeteries appear to have been much injured by the partial removal of the stones; but the principal one was opened some years ago under the directions of a lady in the neighbourhood, and it displayed beneath the exterior pile a circular chamber, about five yards in diameter, lined at the base with a ring of fourteen large stones in an upright position, and surmounted by courses of uncemented masonry, the stones of which incline inwards, and overlap one another, so as to have met at the top in a rude dome. This apartment has an entrance looking towards the south, with a passage two feet wide, and flanked by great stones, conducting from it through the body of the cairn, to its exterior circumference. Eighteen inches below the floor of the cell, were discovered two small earthen vases or urns of the coarsest workmanship, but containing calcined bones. The urns were unfortunately broken, and the ashes scattered about in a small bed of prepared clay on which they lay. This structure is precisely similar, though on a smaller scale, to that at New Grange, near Drogheda, in the county of Meath, Ireland, figured in Mr. Higgins' Celtic Druids, plates 20, 21 ; and Archael. Soc. Antiq. London, vol. ii. p. 254.

6. About a mile east of Clava, is an enormous boulder mass of conglomerate, called Tomriach, which rests on a bed of gravel, in which, at one time, it was likely embedded. It is about thirty feet long, and fourteen high, and at a little distance may be mistaken for a Highland cottage, which it resembles in size and form. It is well worthy of a visit, especially by the geologist.


7. This building, which lies two miles north-east of the field of Culloden, consists of two towers, joined at right angles; the inner corner, where they meet, being covered with a projecting turret and large entrance gate. Many of the appurtenances of an old baronial residence are here still entire, and therefore to the antiquary the place is of considerable interest. Water is still raised from a deep draw-well in the front court. The windows are all stancheoned with iron. The huge oaken door, studded with large nails, and the inner iron gratings, still turn on their rusty hinges. The kitchen, with its enormous vaulted chimney, like the arch of a bridge ; the dungeons, and the hall, are quite entire. The ceiling of the latter is of fine carved oak, in part rudely painted; but its most interesting feature is the dais, or portion of the floor raised above the rest, for the special use of the lord of the manor, his family, and principal guests. The roof of one of the bed-rooms was painted all over with the coats of arms of the principal families in the country, and those of Robert Bruce, of the Earls of Huntly, Marischal, and Stuart, are still quite distinct. This castle was built in 1620, by Simon, eighth Lord Lovat. The property had long been in the family, but previously, we believe, was a portion of the M`Intosh estates. It afterwards came to Sir James Fraser of Brea, third son of the founder, who gave it as a marriage portion with his daughter Jean to a Major Bateman. The Major sold it to James Roy Dunbar, bailie of Inverness, from whom Mackintosh of Mackintosh purchased it in 1702, and with his descendants it still remains. Dalcross was a vicarage depending on the Priory of Urquhart, and in the year 1343 there was an agreement between the prior and the Baron of Kilravock, that the Vicar of Dean-an-Ross, now Dal-cross, should officiate in the private chapel of Kilravock. The minister of the parish of Croy has still part of his glebe near the castle. Sir Lauchlan Mackintosh of that Ilk died here in 1704; and the last additions to the building appear to have been made about that period. The present chief has begun to restore the edifice.


8. The family of the Roses of Kilravock, anciently one of the most powerful in the north, have still to boast of an old tower, the next in our course, and a range of castellated buildings in an imposing situation overhanging the Nairn. The series of old paintings, armour, and writings, in the house is considerable; and one of the manuscripts, a curious old diary by the successive tutors or chaplains of the family, has lately been published by the Spalding Club. The Roses came into possession of Kilravock about 1280. They owed it to an alliance with the powerful family of the Bissets, once pre-eminent in the north. Sir John Bisset left three daughters, heirs-portioners. The first brought the estate of Lovat to the Frasers, the second (designed the lady of Beaufort) married William de Fenton, whose posterity continued for several descents; and the third daughter, Elizabeth, was married to Sir Andrew da Bosco, an English or Norman knight. This Elizabeth Bisset, or de Bosco, had a daughter, Marie, who was married to Hugh de Rose, then owner of Easter Geddes. Hugh Rose, the seventh baron of the name, built the tower of Kilravock, having obtained license by patent to do so from John, Lord of the Isles, 18th February 1460, which was confirmed in 1475 by King James III. It is handed down by tradition, that the towers of Calder, Ironside, Dallas, and Spynie, were built about the same time; and that the architect was Cochrane, the minion of James III., whom that monarch created Earl of Mar, and who was afterwards hanged over Lauder Bridge in July 1482. The iron gate of Kilravock tower was made in the time of the tenth laird, named Hugh, the "Black Baron," who died in 1597 at the extreme age of 90 years. He entertained Queen Mary in his tower, her Majesty's bed-room, which is still in its original state, having no fire-place in it, nor was it lathed or plastered, while the floor consisted of great coarse boards roughly sawn and nailed together. The gate weighed 34 stone 3 lbs., and cost 34 : 3 : 9 Scots! For this sum the maker of it, George Robertson, smith in Elgin, granted receipt 5th February 1568, receiving, also, three bolls of meal, one stone of butter, and one of cheese. This gate was removed by the English in the wars of Cromwell.

The representative of this ancient race did effectual service to the cause of Government in the rebellion of 1715; and their history presents the singular aspect of an unbroken male descent retaining their baronial state, without the support of any clan of their name, in the midst of jealous and ferocious neighbours. Their residence is one of the most picturesque in the country; a square old keep, with a long range of high-roofed additions to it, perched on a rocky bank overlooking the river Nairn, and surrounded with dense woods and tall "ancestral trees." The principal additions are said to have been designed by Inigo Jones, and the elegant proportions of the public rooms are not unworthy of his name. The gardens and pleasure-grounds are laid out with very great taste, and the lady (Mrs. Campbell), who at present occupies the castle, has spared no expense in supplying the finest and rarest shrubs and flowers, and adding in every way to the comforts and elegance of the place.

9. Immediately above Kilravock, is the property of Holme (General Sir John Rose), which is also distinguished for its woods and fine gardens; and next, up the river's course, is the property of Cantray (- Davidson), formerly belonging to a family of the name of Dallas, where a fine old French chateau has lately been supplanted by a modern residence, and which estate marches with the properties of Culloden and M'Intosh of M'Intosh.


10. If the name of this castle be not sufficient to excite curiosity, the beauties of its situation, the freshness in which all its appurtenances of ancient feudal gloom and grandeur and means of defence remain, will amply recompense the tourist for the trouble he may be put to in visiting it.

Perched upon a low rock, overhanging the bed of a Highland torrent, and surrounded on all sides by the largest-sized forest-trees, which partly conceal the extent of its park, it stands a relic of the work of several ages, a weather-beaten tower, encircled by comparatively newer and less elevated dwellings, the whole being enclosed within a moat, and approachable only by a drawbridge, which rattles on its chains just as in the years long gone by. This castle is still inhabited; the staircase, the iron-grated doors and wickets, the large baronial kitchen, partly formed out of the native rock, the hall, the old furniture, the carved mantel-pieces, the quantity of figured tapestry, and even the grotesque family mirrors, in use 200 years ago, are still cherished and preserved by the family. The drawbridge and gateway are particularly worthy of notice.

11. Tradition in this quarter asserts that good King Duncan was murdered in this castle by his relative Macbeth, who was his sister's son. Some of the old Scottish chronicles, as interpreted by Lord Hailes, refer to a smith's hut in the neighbourhood of Elgin as the place where the mortal blow was given, and render it probable that the unfortunate monarch breathed his last within some of the religious houses then already built there; while Shakspere and his commentators, following the authority of Buchanan, assign Macbeth's castle at Inverness as the scene of the murder. It is, at least, undoubted, that Macbeth may have had strongholds in all the places mentioned, as, on his marriage, he became, in right of his wife Gruoch, Maormor or great Celtic lord of Moray, having by birth the same power attached to that name in the adjoining county of Ross; and that King Duncan was betrayed and slain while residing at one of his nephew's castles, on his way to reduce Torfin, the Scandinavian Jarl of Caithness, to submission, he having refused to surrender the customary tribute to the Scottish crown.

Malcolm (Duncan's eldest son, and afterwards called Caenmore, or the large-headed) fled, on his father's death, to England, where he was courteously received by the reigning prince, Edward the Confessor; and waiting there till the dissensions betwixt the usurper Macbeth and the Scottish nobles presented him with a favourable opportunity for recovering his inheritance, he at length sallied forth across the border, supported by an English army of ten thousand men, under the command of his own maternal grandfather, Siward, Earl of Northumberland. Macbeth's inveterate foe, the Thane of Fife, raising the standard at the same time for the lawful monarch, entered. Angus-shire, and encountered and defeated his great enemy near his own castle of Dunsinane.

Such is the bare outline of facts on which the deeply exciting tragedy of Macbeth was reared by Shakspere. No such title or person existed at that period as the "Thane of Cawdor ;" but there is no question as to Malcolm Caenmore having allotted large estates to the English and Flemish knights who assisted him in recovering his native possessions, and that they thenceforward surnamed themselves after the appellations of the lands thus acquired. Among others, some of the powerful family of Ostiarii, or hereditary door-wards of the king, who held large possessions in Mar, seem to have obtained Macbeth's estates in Nairnshire, and, perhaps, by assuming the name of Calder, one of them has since been regarded as the first Thane; the thane-age of Calder, or Candor, including (at least in subsequent charters) not only the principal messuage lands, but also the barony of Ferintosh, in Ross, and several parts of Stratherrick, Strathnairn, and Strathdearn, and a large portion of the lands of Glammis in the Mearns, all of which were hence politically, and for several other purposes, considered as pertinents of the sheriffdom of Nairn. The original family name of Hostiarius or Ostiarius (anglice door-ward, and afterwards corrupted to the common surname of Durward) is mentioned in charters still extant in this castle, and in one especially dated at Forres the 22d July, of the twenty-second year of King Alexander II. (1236), in which his majesty grants the lands of Both and Banchory, in the bailliary of Invernarn "Gilberto Hostiario," which Words, by a stupid misreading, are marked by a modern scribe on the back as "Gilberto Horstrat." Upon this mistake, which was unfortunately copied by Shaw in his valuable History of Moray, a most ridiculous theory has prevailed that the family name at first was Horstrot. For many generations, however, the only surname by which the family was known was that of Calder of Calder, now pronounced Cawdor.

At whatever time the title of Thane became common, mention is found of the Thanes of Calder in the records of Nairnshire so early as the year 1295; although, from What has been said, they undoubtedly had possessions there long prior to that date. They were constables of the royal fortress of Nairn, where they chiefly resided; and to this day the constabulary garden in Nairn, partly surrounded with the old castle wall, is the property of the family. Hence, Calder must have been a residence of minor importance; and, indeed, the oldest part of the present tower was only built, according to Shaw's History of Moray, in the year 1454. The royal license by James II. is to "William, Thane of Calder, to build and fortify the castle of Calder," with a proviso, that " the said castle shall be always ready and open to his majesty and his successors, and that they should always have free entrance and egress to and from the same."

12. This Thane William, who completed the keep, lived till about the year 1500; his son John married Isobel Rose, daughter of Kilravock, and, dying in 1494, left one posthumous child, a daughter, named Muiriel, or Marion. " Kilravock intended this heiress for his own grandson, her first cousin; but Kilravock being pursued in a criminal process for robbery, in joining Mackintosh in spoiling the lands of Urquhart of Cromarty, Argyle, the Justice-general, made the process' easy to him, got the award of Muiriel's marriage of the king, A. D. 1495, and she was sent to Inverary in the year 1499. In autumn of that year, Campbell of Inverliver, with sixty men, came to receive the child, on pretence of sending her south to school. The lady Kilravock, her grandmother, that she might not be changed, seared and marked her hip with the key of her coffer. As Inverliver came with little Muiriel to Daltulich, in Strathnairn, he was closely pursued by Alexander and Hugh Calder, her uncles, with a superior party. lie sent off the child with an escort of six men, faced about to receive the Calders; and, to deceive them, a sheaf of corn, dressed in some of the child's clothes, was kept by one in the rear. The conflict was sharp, and several were killed, among whom were six of Inverliver's son's. When Inverliver thought the child was out of reach, he retreated, leaving the fictitious child to the Calders. And Inverliver was rewarded with a grant of the 20 land of Inver-liver. It is said, that in the heat of the skirmish, Inverliver cried, ',Sfcada glaodh o' Lochow, 'Sfada cabhair o' chlan Phume, i. e. "'Tis a far cry to Loch Awe, and a distant help to the Campbells:"—now a proverb, signifying "Imminent danger, and distant relief" Subsequently (in 1510), this heiress was married to Sir John Campbell, third son of Argyle; and thus the family name of Calder was lost, and the after additions to the castle were reared by the Campbells, whose coats of arms are inserted of the several dates in the walls.

13. An ancient hawthorn tree stood, some years ago, in the old garden towards the inn (on the site of the ancient hostelrie of the demesne); a second stood on the edge of the moat, and fell about ten years ago, when in full leaf, from the weight of a drizzling fall of rain, but from its root a vigorous shoot has sprung up; and a third, still rooted in the earth, is shown in the dungeon of the tower, extending its stem to the ceiling. Tradition relates that the founder was led, either by a dream, or the advice of a wizard, to build this castle at the third hawthorn tree, where an ass laden with a chest of gold should stop: and prosperity to the house of Cawdor is still expressed in the wish, "Freshness to its hawthorn tree."

The bed and chamber in which, according to family legends, Macbeth murdered King Duncan, were till lately shown to strangers; but a fire which broke out some years ago in the great tower destroyed every vestige of them, and nothing but the stone-vaulted roof could have saved the whole building from destruction.

Between the ceiling and the roof of another part of this castle, Lord Lovat was concealed for a short time after the battle of Culloden. When he found it becoming the abode of too many of his enemies, he let himself down from the battlements by a rope, and escaped to Morar, on the west coast, where he was ultimately seized.

Since their union with the family of Argyle, prosperity seems to have attended constantly on the proprietors of Cawdor; and by marriage they have acquired the estates of Stack-pole Court, Gogirthen, and Golden Grove, in South Wales, and, under the title of Earl Cawdor, they have recently been elevated to the peerage.

14. The scenery about Cawdor Castle, as already stated, is of the richest and most picturesque description. In the park are several of the largest oaks, sycamores, limes, elms, walnuts, ash, and pine trees in the north of Scotland; one magnificent stem of ash measuring twenty-three feet in circumference at a foot from the ground, and seventeen feet in girth at the distance of six feet from the root. The garden also presents a fine specimen of an ancient yew tree, and the adjoining woods and rocks abound in many interesting plants, deserving the search of the botanist.

About two miles and a half south of the castle, and not far above the junction of the primitive gneiss with the secondary conglomerate rocks of the district, an ancient lake seems at one time to have covered an elevated piece of flat or boggy ground. It appears to have burst its barrier suddenly, when the mass of rushing waters instantly plunged into the soft sandstone strata, and scooped out for themselves a deep narrow tortuous channel, now the course of the gentle burn which ripples past the castle wall. Another stream joins it from the westward, called the Burn of Auchindown, the sides of which are more open, but scarcely less rocky than the other, which is styled the Hermitage Burn, from an old rustic bower, built on the top of one of its projecting cliffs, the site perhaps, in truth, of some ancient hermit's cell. Nowhere is the tendency of conglomerate rocks to crumble into pyramidal detached masses, or alternate semicircular protuberances and hollows, more beautifully displayed than in the channel of this burn ; and hence the walks cut along its sides wind about in many beautiful curves, exhibiting most picturesque combinations of rock and foliage, with occasional glimpses of the distant plains of Moray and Nairnshire, backed by the bluff Sutors of Cromarty, and the varied outlines of the mountains of Ross and Sutherland. Light airy wooden bridges have also in several places been thrown across, connecting the opposite sides together: The triangular space between the two burns, extending nearly to 520 acres, has also been traversed by walks, which in the whole exceed twelve miles in length, and here they pass through an old oak and beech wood, seldom surpassed in the size, variety, and beauty of its single trees and forest glades. Birch, alder, and hazel, form an outer fringe to the forest, while immense quantities of woodbine, sloe tree, and bushes of juniper, broom, and holly, were entwined together, composing an almost impenetrable brake, till lately opened up by the axe, and judiciously thinned and lined off as native evergreens. They now form ornamental shrubs along the new made walks.

15. We have only to add, that the parish church (formerly the private chapel belonging to the castle) is also worth seeing, on account chiefly of the old inscriptions and curious entrance gate which it contains. The ride to the bridge of Dulsie, on the Findhorn, about eight miles, likewise conducts to some beautifully wooded scenery and waterfalls; and, in the same direction, the traveller will find the military road leading to Strathspey, which passes by the very ancient and curious castle of the Cumings, built on an island called Lochindorbh. The old military road to Dulsie Bridge and Strathspey is, however, now impassable for vehicles; and the traveller, wishing to reach this part of the Findhorn or Strathspey, must either follow the Nairn road for four miles, where a district road branches off, conducting across the hill straight to Farness Bridge (twelve miles from Cawdor), on the Findhorn, below Dulsie Bridge, and to the New Inn, fifteen miles from Forres, and thence by a parliamentary road to Grantown; or he may reach the Streens, distant nine miles (as to which see page 305), by a new road from the castle, lately made by Earl Cawdor for the use of his tenants. From Dulsie, roads will be found along both banks of the river—that on the north side proceeding through a fine sweep of the old natural pine forest to Ardlach church, whence it passes behind Coulmony, and crosses the Findhorn some four or five miles lower down than Farness, by the bridge of Daltulich, a mile or so above Relugas on the Divie. A district road has also been formed from Cawdor by Keppernoch, connecting with the Farness road, and which shortens the distance by three miles.

16. Two miles east of Cawdor, and near the House of Geddes, are the ruins of Raits Castle, anciently the seat of the Macintoshes of Raits. According to Shaw's History of Moray, this castle also at one time belonged to a Rait of that Ilk, who having killed Andrew, Thane of Calder, about the year 1404, was banished from the district, but afterwards founded the family of Rait of Halgreen in the learns. The castellated part is gone, but a religious edifice, apparently of a more modern date than it could have been, remains. At the south corner it is terminated by a round tower (lately formed into a dovecot) resembling those attached to the bishop's palace at Kirkwall in Orkney, and Spynie in Morayshire. The arches and windows in other parts of this building are pointed, light, and elegantly finished.

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