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Some English descendants of Malcolm III ‘Canmore’, King of the Scots

Many genealogists and family historians will be familiar with the Marquis of Ruvigny’s famous series on the Blood Royal of England, both Plantagenet and Tudor. In those volumes he traces mainly indirect descents, and many of the lines end with quite ordinary people rather than just the aristocracy. He extols such genealogical research as equally as important as direct lines. Many, however, will be unaware that there are Scottish connections and here we begin that with Malcolm Canmore (1031-1093) who is famous for returning to Scotland from exile in 1056/7 and defeating Macbeth, who murdered his father, King Duncan 1st in 1040.

Malcolm’s first wife was Ingibiorg, daughter of Finn Arnesson, Jarl of Holland, and by her he had nine children including Duncan II King of Scots, born in 1060 and murdered in 1094. Duncan had married in 1090 Ethelreda, daughter of Gospatrick Earl of Northumberland.

Malcolm Canmore married secondly, in 1069, Margaret (later canonised as Saint Margaret) Atheling (1043-1093) daughter of Edward Atheling ‘The Exile’ (d.1057) Prince of England, by Princess Agatha of Hungary (d.after 1067). Agatha was a daughter of King Stephen (969-1038 and later canonised as a Saint) of the House of Arpad, whose ancestry can be taken back to Atilla the Hun. Malcolm and St.Margaret had six children, and here we shall treat with Princess Matilda ((1079-1118) who married in 1100, Henry 1st ‘Beauclerc’ (b.1069 at Selby, Yorks. – d. 1st December 1135 in Normandy) King of England. They had William IV Duke of Normandy (1101-1120), and Princess Matilda (b.1102, d. 30th January 1164, and buried in Rouen Cathedral, France).

Matilda married firstly, in 1114, Henry V (1081-1125) of the Salian House, a Holy Roman Emperor. She married secondly, on 17th June 1728, Geoffrey IV ‘Plantagenet’ (b.1113, d. September 1150 and buried in St.Julian’s Church, Mans, France) a son of Fulk V Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem (d. at Acre in 1143.) Details of Fulk’s ‘career’ and end in Palestine can be found in Sir Steven Runciman’s epic “Kingdom of Jerusalem.”  Matilda and Geoffrey had Henry II Plantagenet, King of England (1133-1189) and he married, in 1152, the famed Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204).

Of the five children of Henry & Eleanor, I propose to deal with here the two lines of Princess Eleanor (1162-1214), and her rather notorious brother, King John (1167-1216).

(1)   Eleanor married in 1177 Alphonso VII King of Castile (1155-1214) and they had six children of whom Princess Berengaria (1181-1244) married in 1198 Alphonso IX King of Leon (1166-1230), who in turn had Ferdinand III King of Castile and Leon (1200-1252) who married, in 1237, Joan of Aumale (d.1278). The daughter of Ferdinand and Joan was Princess Eleanor of Castile (b.1244, d.1290 at Harby, Nottinghamshire) who married in October 1254 at the Monastery of Los Heulgas, near Burgos, Spain, as his first wife, Edward 1st Plantagenet (b.June 1239 at Westminster, - d.7th July 1307 at Lanercost Priory, Cumberland) King of England, from whom Kings Edward II and III and their descendants all descend.  Edward and Isabella’s daughter, Princess Joan, was born before September 22, 1272 at Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem, whilst Edward 1st was on Crusade. (See below for a further descent to Edward 1st.)

            Princess Joan of Acre (d.1307) married on 30th April 1290, firstly, and as his        
            second wife, Sir Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and 8th Earl
            of Gloucester (b.2nd September 1243, Christchurch, Hants., - d.7th December
            1295 Monmouth), a descendant of Dermod MacMurrough, King of Leinster,
            and a prominent nobleman who was a commander for the royal cause at the
            battle of Evesham. Isabella, sister of Gilbert’s father, had married Robert
            de Bruce, Lord of Annandale (1210 – 1294) and they were in turn
            grandparents of  King Robert 1st ‘The Bruce’. Sir Gilbert de Clare and his wife
            Princesss Joan had, as well as a son Gilbert, the 9th Earl; Eleanor,
            married in 1306 to Hugh le Despencer, Earl of Gloucester (executed 1326);    
            Lady Margaret de Clare, who married (1) Piers Gavestone, Earl of Cornwall        
            (beheaded 1312) and (2) Hugh, Lord Audley (see below);

            and Lady Elizabeth de Clare (c1290,- 4th November,1360, Bardfield, Essex),
            founder of Clare College, Cambridge. This lady was buried at Ware Priory, in
            Hertfordshire, with her third husband Sir Roger, Lord d’Amory (d.1321),
            Baron of Armoy in Ireland, who had his first summons to parliament in
            1317/8. He was engaged in the wars of Scotland, and was governor at different
            times of Knaresborough Castle, Gloucester Castle, and St.Briavel’s Castle.
            He joined in the confederacy against the Spencers and with Thomas Earl of
            Lancaster marched on Burton-upon-Trent, and thence to Tutbury Castle, 
           where he fell ill, never to recover. Lord d’Amory and Elizabeth de Clare had
            two daughters: Eleanor (or Agnes?) who married John de Raleigh, ancestor of
            the famous Sir Walter;  and Elizabeth, who married John 3rd Lord Bardolf
            (d.1371), Knight Banneret, of Wirmegay in Suffolk. T.C.Banks (1808) states
            that this Lord Bardold did homage and was summoned to parliament in 1336,
            but Burke states that he was first summoned in January 1338, and         
            “participated in the glories of the martial reign of King Edward III.” They had:

William 4th Lord Bardolf, of Wirmegay (1358-1386), who served in the French and Irish wars, latterly under John of Gaunt, and who was summoned to parliament as early as 20th January 1376. He married, after 1366, Agnes (d.after 1386), daughter of Sir Michael Poynings (d.1369), 2nd Baron Poynings of Bures, a veteran of the battle of Crecy. (One of Lord Poynings great granddaughters, Eleanor Poynings (d.1482), married Henry Percy (1421 – 1461) 3rd Earl of Northumberland). Lord Bardolf and Lady Agnes Poynings had two children that we know of: his heir Thomas 5th Lord Bardolf, of Wormegay, who died following the battle of Bramham Moor (& through whose daughter descend the Viscounts Beaumont), and Lady Cecily Bardolf, of whom later.

(2)   John Plantagenet, (1167- d.19th October 1216 at Newark, Notts), King of England, famous in the Robin Hood fables, and for signing the Magna Carta, brother to Princess Eleanor (1), above, as well as Richard The Lionheart. King John had a natural daughter, Joan (of whom, below) Agatha, daughter of Robert Ferrers, Earl of Derby.

John’s second wife wife,(his first marriage to Isabella de Clare being annulled) whom he married on 24th August 1200, was Isabella (d.1246 and buried in Fontevrault Abbey, Anjou, France) daughter of Almar Taillfer, Count of Angouleme. By her he had five children, one of whom was Henry III Plantagenet (1207- d. 16th November,1272 at Westminster) King of England, whose son was King Edward 1st of England, whom we have noted already, above.

King John’s daughter, by Agatha, daughter of Lord Ferrers, Joan, married Llewellyn ab Iowerth, Prince of North Wales who died in 1240, and was buried at Conway. Their daughter Gwladys Ddu ap Llewellyn, married in 1230 Ralph de Moritimer,

(d. 6th August 1246) 5th Baron of Wigmore. His son and heir was Sir Roger de Mortimer, (b.c1231, d. 26th October 1282 and buried with his ancestors in Wigmore Abbey) 6th Baron of Wigmore. Sir Roger married in 1247, Matilda (d.1301) daughter of William de Braose who had been hanged by Llewellyn in 1230. Sir Roger and Matilda had a family of six children that we know of, one daughter, Isabella marrying the Fitzalan ancestor of the Earls of Arundel. We are concerned with the son and heir, Sir Edmund de Mortimer, (d.before July 1304) 7th Baron of Wigmore, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir William de Fandles. Their son, Roger de Mortimer (b.c1286) 8th Baron Wigmore, who was created 1st Earl of March, but died at Tyburn, London, on 29th November 1330 after being hung drawn and quartered. He was buried in Wigmore Abbey a full year later. He had married before October 1306, Joan (1286 - 1356) daughter of Peter de Geneville by his wife Joan, daughter of Hugh, 12th Comte de Lusignan.  Sir Roger, Earl of March, and Joan, had five children, one of whom was killed in a tournament at Shrewsbury. We are concerned with their daughter Katherine de Mortimer, who married Thomas de Beauchamp (d.circa November 1369) 3rd Earl of Warwick, a Knight of The Garter. Their daughter, Phillipa de Beauchamp (d. before September 1386) married Hugh, son and heir to Ralph, 1st Earl of Stafford, Knight Banneret and K.G., (1299 – 1372) and his wife Margaret (d.1347), daughter to Hugh Lord Audley and Margaret de Clare (see above).  Hugh 2nd Earl of Stafford, K.G., died 26th September 1386 in Rhodes, whilst returning home from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. His body was returned and buried in Stone Priory, Staffordshire.

Upon reaching Hugh 2nd Earl of Stafford two distinct descents from Malcolm Canmore merge – one through the natural daughter of King John of England and the Princely House of Wales, and another through John’s wife, Isabella Taillfer via King Henry III Plantagenet, of England.  Two other descents which have also merged in Princess Joan of Acre, are those of her parents, Eleanor Princess of Castile and Leon and Edward 1st King of England, both descendants of Henry II Plantanagent, King of England & Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Hugh 2nd Earl of Stafford (d.1386) had a daughter Catherine Stafford, who is buried in the Collegiate Church of Wingfield in Suffolk. She married before September 1385, Sir Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, who died in battle before Harfleur in France, and whose body was transported back to Wingfield Church for burial. They had numerous children of note. One daughter, Agnes, married Sir John Bussey, knight, of Lincolnshire, from whom that family descend. One of the Earl’s sons, Sir Thomas de la Pole, knight, died in 1433 whilst being held hostage by the French for his brother, William. Sir Thomas had married Anne, daughter of Nicholas Cheney, Esquire, and they had a daughter Katherine.

We return now to Lady Cecily Bardolf, a descendant, as shown above, of two of the children of King Henry II Plantagenet: Princess Eleanor (1162-1214) and King John, merging in their descendant Princess Joan of Acre. Lady Cecily married, before 1409, Sir Brian Stapleton (1379 -17th August 1438), knight, Sheriff of Norfolk, and son of Sir Miles Stapelton (d.1417), K.G., of Bedale & Ingham, another descendant of Malcolm Canmore through his son King David 1st (d.1153), his son Henry Earl of Northumberland and Huntingdon (d.1152), his son David Earl of Huntingdon (d.1219), his daughter Margaret who married Alan Lord of Galloway (d.1234), their daughter Devorguila (d.1290) who married John de Balliol of Barnard Castle (d.1269), their daughter Matilda or Agnes who married Bryan FitzAlan, Lord of Bedale & Hagget (d.1306), their daughter Matilda or Agnes (b.1298) who married Sir Gilbert Stapleton, knight (d.1321), their son, Sir Miles Stapleton, K.G., of Bedale & Ingham, who died in 1365 and is buried in the chancel of Ingham Parish Church, and his son, the abovementioned Sir Miles Stapleton, K.G.,(d.1417) whose son was

Sir Brian. He and Lady Cecily Bardolf had a second son, Brian Stapleton of Kessingland, Suffolk; and they had a daughter, Anne, married to Thomas Heath, of Hengrave, Suffolk. Their eldest son was:

Sir Miles Stapleton, knight, Lord of Ingham Manor, Norfolk (d.1466), married Katherine, daughter of Sir Thomas de la Pole (d.1433, France, see above), brother of the Duke of Suffolk, a further merging of descents from Malcolm Canmore. They had two daughters, Elizabeth and Jane. Jane Stapelton married (1) Sir Christopher Harcourt, ancestor of the Stanton Harcourt and Abingdon families, and (2) Sir John Hudleston (or Hodleston) also with issue; Elizabeth married three times: (1) Sir John Fortesque, Chief Justice of the King’s Bench, (2) Sir Edward Howard, Lord High Admiral, and (3) as his second wife) Sir William Calthorpe, of Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, who died in 1494 and was buried in the White Friars Church, Norwich. He was an important nobleman and sometime High Chamberlain of England, Ireland and Acquitaine. 

By Sir William, Lady Calthorpe had five children: Edward, of Ludham, who left issue; John, of Cockthorpe; Sir Francis, of Burnham Thorpe (d.1544), who married (1) Elizabeth Wyndham, and (2) Elizabeth Berney, with issue to the latter including Bridget, who married Edward Eden of Martham; Elizabeth, who married Francis Haselden from whom descend that family and also the Paytons of Cambridgeshire; and Ann, whose body lies in St.Mary’s Church, Bury St.Edmunds, Suffolk.

Ann Calthorpe had married Sir Robert Drury (died 2nd March 1536, at Hawstead and buried in a monumental and magnificent tomb in St.Mary’s Church, Bury St.Edmunds, Suffolk). Sir Robert was Lord of the Manors of Thurston and Hawstead, Suffolk, a barrister of Lincoln’s Inn, Privy Councillor and Speaker of the House of Commons. Sir Robert was present at the funeral of the young Prince Henry in 1511 and is noted as one of the knights who bore the canopy. He was buried in a monumental and magnificent tomb in St.Mary’s Church, Bury St.Edmunds, Suffolk.

Between 1510 and 1513 he was engaged with various collegues in the attempt to pacify the Scottish border by peaceful methods. He was a witness to the marriage of Princess Mary on 9th October 1514 and was knighted in 1516. He was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and has a long list of other important appointments to his credit, too numerous to mention here. The site of his family’s London home is still called Drury Lane.  Sir Robert Drury and Anne Calthorpe had two sons:

Sir Robert, of Hedgerley, Bucks, who married Elizabeth Brudenell with issue, one of whom was Sir William Drury, Marshall of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and later Lord Justice of Ireland; and Sir William (d.1589), Lord of Hawstead Manor, who married Elizabeth Stafford (d.1578) with issue, amongst whose descendants can be found the families of Wray, Irby of Boston, Clifford, Ayscoghe of Skelsey through to the Hanbury-Tracys and so to the present Lord Sudeley. 

Sir Robert and Ann Drury also had four girls: Anne, who married (1) Sir George Waldegrave (d.1528) knight, of Smallbridge, and (2) Sir Thomas Jermyn (d.1552) knight, of Rushbrooke; Bridget, who married Sir John Jernegan (d.1556) knight, of Somerleyton; Elizabeth, who married Sir Philip Boteler; and finally, Ursula (d.1523).

Ursula Drury (d.1523 v.p., and buried in Hawstead Parish Church) married, before 1520, Sir Giles Alington (1500-1586, and buried in the chancel of Horseheath Parish Church) Lord of the Manor of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire, who also had Calthorpe and Cheney ancestry. According to Burke, this family descend from Sir Hildebrand de Alington, Under-Marshall to William the Conqueror at Hastings. Sir Giles and Lady Ursula had a daughter who married John Spencer of Althorp, the same family from whom the late Diana, Princess of Wales descended.

Sir Giles & Ursula also had a son, Sir Robert Alington (b.1520 - d.22nd May 1552, buried in Horseheath Parish Church). He married Margaret (c1552 – 1598, buried in Holy Trinity Church Bottisham, Cambridgeshire) daughter to Sir William Coningsby, King’s Justice. They had a large family of eight children: George; Giles (d.1573) who married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Spencer, knight, of Althorp, by his wife Katherine Kitson, with issue; James; Alice, who married (1) William Sewster of Steepemorden and (2) Edward Talkerne or Talkhorne; Ann, who married Arthur Breame, in Essex; Elizabeth, who married Thomas Some, of Bradley; Frances, who married John Coooke, of Rochford in Essex, and Beatrix who was born about 1550.

Beatrix Alington married, as his first wife, a wealthy landowner and armiger, John Killingworth (c1547 – 23rd May 1617; buried in Pampisford Parish Church, Cambridgeshire.) His second wife was Elizabeth, daughter of William Cheyney, Esq., and by her he left two sons, William and John.  By his first wife, Beatrix Alington, John Killingworth had six children: John (died young); Giles, of Pampisford, who married (1) Anne Hewick and (2) Elizabeth Hare; Margaret; Elizabeth; Alington; and Beatrix (d.1626).

Beatrix Killingworth (bur. 19th September 1626, Great Shelford, Cambs.) married John Austin, “a prosperous farmer,” (baptised 2nd February 1572 at St.Mary the Virgin Church, Great Shelford, and bur. there 1st Febuary 1619). Both husband and wife are mentioned in her father’s Will. They had four children: Robert, b.1608; Mary, b.1607; James, b.1614, who married c1633 a lady whose Christian name was Grace – with issue;  and

Alington Austin (b.1601 –  buried at Great Shelford 1st February 1651) who was left 80 plus gold jewelry and other items in her father’s Will. She married on 29th May 1622, in the church of St.Mary the Virgin, Great Shelford,

Thomas Howling, a Yeoman farmer in that locality. He was baptised at Great Shelford on 26th May 1595 and was buried there on 10th May 1648.  Thomas and Alington Austin had three children that we know of: William, born 1624; Mary, born 1626 and married 1643 to John Maris; and Thomas, another farmer (baptised at Great Shelford on 1st February 1623, and also buried there on 27th May 1683). By his 1st wife Sarah, (buried at Great Shelford on 24th October 1654), he had a daughter, Martha, born 15th May 1652.

Martha Howling (1652 – buried July 12, 1702 at Great Shelford) married, on 20th January 1676, at Great Shelford, yet another Yeoman farmer, Richard Tunwell (baptised 27th May 1645 at Fulbourne, Cambs.,- bur. 14th January,1713 at Gt.Shelford), whose family is mentioned in Cambridgeshire records as far back as 1316. He owned both freehold and copyhold lands totalling about 160 acres near Great Shelford  and had a lease of all the lands of Freville’s Manor as well as most of those belonging to Bury Manor, of which he was a Juror to the Court Baron. His name appears on the Roll of Parliamentary Voters. This couple had six children, of whom Richard, a Yeoman (1687-1719), and

Thomas, a farmer, but described in his Will as a “gentleman”. This Thomas Tunwell (baptised 26th March 1689 and buried 25th August 1726 both at Great Shelford) married on 21st September 1714 at St.Botolphs Church in nearby Cambridge, Constance Brewster (bapt.21st September 1691 daughter of John Brewster and Hester Kemp, and buried on that day in 1714, both in Great Shelford.) They had  John and Thomas, both Yeoman, Sarah, who married Thomas Banks, and Constance.

Constance Tunwell (baptised at Great Shelford on 20th December 1715, and buried there on the 9th May 1775) married on 5th September 1747, in St.Catherine’s Hall Chapel, Cambridge, William Deane, a farmer of Great Shelford. He was baptised on 1st November 1719 at Whittlesford, Cambs., and buried at Great Shelford on 17th April 1763. They had five children: Constance, who married John Heffer in 1768, Sarah, William, Thomas, who married Elizabeth Newling in 1786, and

John  (baptised 2nd December 1753 and buried 21st December 1832, both at Great Shelford). In the Letters of Administration for his estate, he is described as a Yeoman. He married 3rd February 1780 at the parish church of Hauxton, Cambridgeshire, Esther Turner, (b.c1759 and buried 27th April 1817, Gt.Shelford), by whom he had twelve children, all of whom, unless otherwise indicated, were born/baptised, married and died at Great Shelford:

John, bapt. 21st May 1780, d.c1782;
William, bapt.23rd December 1781, d.13th June 1847; married 31st March 1803 Sarah Cock.
John, bapt.26th October 1783, d.20th July 1851; married 26th March 1805 Ann Ansell.
Thomas, b.c1785, d.5th July 1786.
Constance, bapt. 1st January 1786; married 19th October, 1807 James Butler, with issue.
Thomas, bapt. 20th April 1788; married 23rd January 1810 Sarah Butler.
James, bapt. 12th July 1790; married 31st October 1809 Mary Searle, daughter of William Turner and his spouse, Mary Newling.
Sarah, bapt. 26th May 1793; d.1830, at Trumpington, Cambs; married 6th April 1815 John Haggis.
Stephen, bapt. 11th July 1796; married 8th July 1817, Sarah Flitton.
Oliver Turner, bapt. 15th July 1798, d. 1st December 1826; married 8th July 1821 Fanny Townsend.
George, bapt. 10th May, 1801.
Elizabeth, bapt.11th September 1802, d. 3rd May 1804.

The abovementioned James Dean, (who appears in 1843 in the ratepayer’s books for Great Shelford, and was still living there when the 1851 Census was taken) and Mary Turner had the following issue:

James, (mentioned with his father in the rates book in 1843,) b.c1811, d.18th January 1867; married 25th March 1832 Sarah Huckle, with issue.
William, bapt. 8th May 1814, d.19th October 1835.
Mary Turner, bapt. 17th July 1816.
Susanna, bapt. 8th March 1819.

George, a farmer, bapt. 7th July 1821, d.21st July 1863; married 5th April 1852 Sarah Alexander (1816 -17th March,1899) from Belfast who described herself as “a member of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland”, with issue, two girls: Sarah Ann, and Elizabeth (Sarah Ann being a great grandparent of the writer.)
Joanna, bapt. 11th July 1824, d. 17th September 1827.
Elizabeth, bapt. 12th April 1826.

It will be seen from this study that a great many families can claim an descent from royal ancestors and from other illustrious aristocratic houses. Over the centuries and down through the generations families and their wealth have become dissipated and this is demonstrated by the latter families here who were smallholders and Yeoman farmers whose Wills and other documentary mentions show them to be of modest standing. They are nevertheless of the Blood Royal.  Indirect descents remain a fascinating subject.

It has been said that endless pages of exacting sources in journals are an irritant to many and so I propose here to give only those which may be of use to those wishing to verify the above.

The sources on the Plantagenets and other early royal and illustrious families are numerous and can be consulted in any good library, but see in particular:

The Plantagenet Roll of the Blood Royal (4 vols) by The Marquis of Ruvigny & Raineval, London, 1907.
The Blood Royal of Britain (Tudor Roll) by the same author, London, 1903.
The Dormant & Extinct Baronage of England by T.C.Banks, Barrister, London, 1808.
Baronia Anglica Concentrata, or Baronies in Fee by Sir T.C.Banks, Bt., London, 1844.
Burke’s Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited & Extinct Peerages London, 1883.
The Manors of Suffolk by W.A.Copinger, M.A.,LL.D., F.S.A.,London, 1905.
The Visitation of Suffolk 1561.
The Visitation of Norfolk 1563 by William Hervey, Clarenceux King of Arms; and 1613 by John Raven, Richmond Herald. Edited by Walter Rye, London, 1891.
The Visitation of Yorkshire 1563/4 by William Flower, Norroy King of Arms. Edited by Charles B.Northcliffe, M.A., of Langton. London, 1881.
The Visitations of Yorkshire 1584/5 by Robert Glover, Somerset Herald; and 1612 by Richard St.George, Norroy King of Arms. Edited by Joseph Foster, London, 1875.
The Visitations of Cambridge 1575 & 1619 by Henry St.George, Richmond Herald, edited by John W.Clay, F.S.A., London.1897.
Monumental Inscriptions & Coats of Arms from Cambridgeshire recorded by John Layer, c1632, and William Cole between 1742 and 1782. Edited by W.M.Palmer, M.D., F.S.A.  Cambridge, 1932.
A History of Horstead and Stanninghall, Norfolk by Percy Millican, Norwich, 1937.
Burke’s Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland.
The History of the family of Drury by Arthur Campling, F.S.A., London, 1937.
Journals of the Cambridgeshire Family History Society, notably 1984; August 1994; February 1995, but others also not noted here. Articles by B.Lamble, Alan Bullwinke, and Gordon Boundy.
Monumental Inscriptions for Cambridgeshire, available from the above society.
Parish Register Transcripts for St.Mary’s, Great Shelford, Cambridgeshire.
Agatha – The Ancestry Dispute in The Scottish Genealogist, vol.XLIX,no.3, Sept.2002.
Mrs Lorraine Freeman, 5 Wolseley Street, Rooty Hill, Sydney, 2766, N.S.W. 

Gregory Lauder-Frost, a professional genealogist, has been a member of the Society of Genealogists, London, since 1977. He joined the Scottish Genealogy Society, Edinburgh, in 1981 and is also a member of its governing Council. In 1989 he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, Scotland. He is the author of numerous historical and genealogical essays.

G.M.S.Lauder-Frost, F.S.A.,(Scot).



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