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Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland
X. The Vikings and Normans

The MacCorquodales
The MacCorquodales (Mac Corcadail), whose name means "son of Torquil" (Thor’s kettle), appear since earliest memory as the barons of Phantelane, an extensive mountainous district on the northeastern shore of Loch Awe, bordered on the north by Loch Etive and on the northeast by the Pass of Brander. As such their chiefs were known as Baron MacCorquodale, or as "MacCorquodale of that Ilk" (here "Ilk" indicates chiefship of the "Name"—the MacCorquodales were the earliest family to be officially so designated). Their chief’s Gaelic designation was "Mac-a-Bharain," or "son of the Baron" (barons had life-and-death judicial authority in their territories). Tradition relates how their Norse ancestor was for his services awarded with territory on the north shore of Loch Awe by an early Lord of Argyle.

The Ruthvens
The Ruthvens take their name from an old barony of the name in Angus. Thor, son of Swein, was a witness to royal charters between 1127 and 1150. Besides Ruthven, he held the lands of Trauernent (Tranent), the church of which he granted to the monks of Hollyrood. Swan, son of Thor, held land in Perthshire, and assumed the designation "de Ruthven." He also held the lands of Crawford in Clydesdale with William de Lindsay as his vassal. William Ruthven of that Ilk was created Lord Ruthven in 1488. William, fourth Lord Ruthven, was in 1581 created Earl of Gowrie. He was an ultra—Protestant, and led the famous Ruthven Raid. He also detained James VI at Ruthven Castle for ten months. In the famous Gowrie conspiracy of 1600, John, the third Earl of Gowrie, and his brother, the Master of Ruthven, were killed by supporters of James VI after they had allegedly attempted to assassinate the King. Afterwards the name of Ruthven was banned by an act of Parliament, but in 1641 another act allowed the Ruthvens of Ballindean, Perthshire, to retain their name.

Sir Patrick Ruthven (1575—1651) was in the service of the King of Sweden from 1612, and was knighted by Gustavus Adolphus. He returned to Scotland in 1638 to join Charles I, and was created Lord Ruthven of Ettrick in 1639. He held Edinburgh Castle for the King from February to July of 1640, and fought at Edgehill. Later he was created Earl of Forth and Earl of Brentford.

The Norman Families

The Normans came to Ireland mostly from the Welsh Borders, in the wake of the Anglo-Norman invasion of 1169. They came to Scotland as guest-settlers and allies to the Kings of Scots (who prized them for their chivalry and for their military and administrative skills) beginning with the reign of David I in the first half of the twelfth century (see Chapter IV). They included families of

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