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Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland
X. The Vikings and Normans

clan-relationship with both parties. The Sinclairs of Rosslyn descend from the second son of William, last Earl of Orkney, and held the castle of Rosslyn in County Edinburgh. The strongholds of the earls of Caithness were the castles of Girnigoe and Mey (or Barrogill) in Caithness. The Linklaters (Old Norse "Lyngklettr") derive their name from a place in Orkney, and being regarded as kin to the original line of earls, or jarls, of Orkney, are regarded as a sept of the Clan Sinclair.

The Spaldings take their name from the town of Spalding in Lincolnshire, England. They appear in Scotland from about 1225, when Radulphus de Spalding witnessed a charter of a mill in Kincardineshire. Magister (a church office) John de Spaldyn witnessed a grant of lands in Aberdeen about 1294, and appears as canon of Elgin in 1300 and 1304. A Symon de Spalding was a parson (parish priest) in Ayrshire, and Peter de Spalding held lands and tenements at Berwick, and was a burgess of that town, in 1318. All of these de Spaldings may well be related, given their chronological progression, and as two of the three living around 1300 are non—Celtic and thus by rule were celibate Catholic churchmen, the Spaldings probably descend from the above-mentioned Peter, who helped Robert the Bruce overcome the governor of Berwick (whom Peter considered too severe) in The Bruce’s siege of that town in 1318. In May of the following year he received as a reward for his services and in exchange for his Berwick lands (it may have been too hot for him to stay around Berwick) the lands of Ballourthy (Balzeordie) and Petmethey (Pitmachie) in Angus, together with the keepership of the royal forest of Kylgerry. The Spaldings became an important family in the Dundee area, and in 1587 were included in the roll of "Clans that have captains, chiefs and chieftains on whom they depend."

The Walls (de BhaI, Norman-French "de Valle") descend from the Norman William de VaIIe, who came to Ireland with Richard de Glare, Earl of Pembroke, alias Strongbow, in 1172. William had four grandsons, each of whom founded families in various parts of the country between Waterford and Tipperary. In 1335 two of them, John de Vale and Walter de Vale, accompanied Sir John D’Arcy, the Chief Justiciary, on an expedition to Scotland. By the sixteenth century branches of the family were settled throughout the counties of Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Cork, Limerick and Galway. In Galway they formed a distinct clan or sept in the Gaelic way, with a "chief of the name." Some of these were known as Faltagh (Faltach), a case-form of de Bhal in Gaelic. The Limerick branch held the manor of Dunmoylan from the thirteenth century down to 1580, when Ulick de Wale, though blind from birth, was put to death by the Englishman Pelham, who confiscated his lands. The head of the Limerick branch was known as An Faltach, which means "The chief of the Walls."

The Stewarts (Stiubhard) take their name from the office of Steward or Stewart of Scotland, the Anglo-Saxon title equivalent to the Norman Seneschal, or household officer. The distinctive arms of the Stewarts, the

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