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Clan Lundin / Lundie
Chapter One – An Historic Fife-shire family

Introduction and Motivation

The history of many of the great houses and families of Scotland are well documented in the literature, and, in this cyber age, by clan associations and individuals on the Internet. The family of Lundin (or Lundie) is described, by Sir Robert Douglas in his Baronage, as one of the most ancient in Scotland; its history however is almost un-documented. I have found only one text dedicated to the history of this family, that of "The Lundins of Fife," by G.T Welsh. This text is very hard to locate, and can only be obtained from a couple of libraries and genealogical societies. Most lists of Scottish Clans and families seem to omit this family. The few books that do include details of this family provide very little information. This lack of documentation on the family of Lundin is quite remarkable given, as shall be discussed in full later, the fact that members of this family have occupied many high offices in Scotland, including Lord High Treasurer, Chancellor, Hereditary Doorward (personal body guard to the King), Member of the Council of Regents of the Kingdom, and have performed duties as ambassadors and representatives of the Sovereign. Lairds of Lundin voted for Wallace as Protector of Scotland, fought by his side, and ultimately succeeded to the Earldom of Perth. Many of the heads of "Great" families of Scotland, have direct descent from this house; notably those of Lindsay, Forbes, Melville of Raith and Graham of Claverhouse. It is in fact only by reading the histories of these other families and noting their intermarriage with Lundins, that we can form an idea of their high social standing and historical importance. Why historians have chosen to neglect this family is a mystery, but I hope that this account goes in some way to correct this imbalance.

One of the few lists of Scottish clans and families that contains the family of Lundin describes it as an "armigerous Clan", officially recognized by the Lord Lyon. This means that it is a family that has the right to bear arms, has no chieftain. As well as no chieftain, this is also a family without a Clan tartan. By the time families began wearing specific weaves of Tartan, the Lundin family had sold all its lands and lost its social position. The location of the seat of this family, and most of the lands that were held by it, was in Fife. Due to this strong association with Fife, the recommended tartans for this family are the Fife district tartans of Duke of Fife and Dundee.

Lundin, Lundie, Lundy, Londoniis . . .

Officially, the name of this family seems to be Lundin, the main line of the family being the now believed extinct Lundin of Lundin, with all armorials listed with the Lord Lyon also being under the name of Lundin. However, this name has a number of variations, and the family was not always designed Lundin.

The name seems to have originated in the 11th century as de Londoniis or de Londres. This then quickly became de Lundin and de Lundyn. By the 14th century Lundy is used interchangeably with Lundin and Lundie. The name used for an individual often being determined by the source, or even the page of the book. An examination of the service of heirs in the 16th and 17th century shows that the main family is certainly designated Lundy of that ilk. Around 1630 the name of this family and the barony associated seems to change inexplicably from Lundy to Lundin. By the end of 17th Century, the main line and head of this house is using the title of Lundin of that ilk. However, most other branches of this family seem to have taken the name of Lundie from the beginning of the 16th Century; for example Lundie of Balgonie, Lundie of Benholm, Lundie of Gorthie, Lundie of Stratherlie, Lundie of Achtermerny and Lundie of Drum. Most of those families surviving to the 18th Century, in particular those with armorial bearings, then take up the name Lundin, e.g. Lundin of Drum, Lundin of Stratherlie and Lundin of Auchtermarnie. However, in different sources consulted, and for different time periods referred to, different variations of the surname can be seen. In many cases the same historical figure can be a Lundin on one page and a Lundie on the next. To show how this name has changed through history, and which branches adopted which particular variation, throughout this description one will see these names used interchangeably, with the surname used representing the most commonly used for that particular individual in the sources consulted. The concrete history of this family begins in 1160, when two brothers, Malcolm and Philip were awarded baronies by King Malcolm IV of Scotland. One of these baronies is now known as Lundie, the other Lundin. Sources seem to discuss the family or House of Lundie, just as often as they do the family of Lundin. It should also be noted that although this family has been seen to spell it’s name Lundy on occasion, the vast majority of people with the surname of Lundy (which is not particularly uncommon) will not hail from this particular Scottish family, but will have their origins with the English Lundy’s.

Incidentally, the name of Lundie comes from the Gaelic "Leann dhe", which means Gods meadow. The first mention I can find of Lundie is in 1130 AD, which is with respect to the battle of Inchbare. Two days before the battle, on the 14th of April, the forces of the Earl of Fife were mustered at Forfar. The first contact between forces of the Earl of Dunbar and the Earl of Fergus occurred at sliabh na Leann dhe, Hill of God's meadow, now Lundie Hill. The forces of King David I of Scotland (1124-1153) won the battle. One can find a number of places across Scotland bearing the name of Lundin or Lundie.

Norman Origins – The de Londres Family.

William de Londres, son of Simon de Londres was one of the Norman Knights who accompanied Robert Fitz Hamon in the conquest of Glamorgan around the time of 1090. Sir William received after the victory over the Britons in Glamorgan, the Lordship and castle of Ogmore and the castle and Manor of Dunraven. The castle of Ogmore was founded by Sir William. In 1094 Sir William led a strong force into Kidwelly and Ystrad Tywi. He built a castle at Kidwelly to secure his gains. In 1106 he was granted by Henry I of England the Lordship of Ewenny. He built a Priory church at Ewenny. He soon after built the castle of Ostermouth. He was also Lord of Ogwr.

Sir William’s son, Maurice (Malcolm) inherited his estates, (William also had at least one more son, Richard). He was thus Lord of Ogmore. The Lordship and Lands of Kidwelly, that his father had gained, had sometime previous been granted, by Henry I, to Roger, Bishop of Sailsbury. In 1128 he was denounced in a Bill of Pope Honorius II for robbing and defrauding the Church of Llandaff and for plundering and killing itinerant merchants at Llandaff. In 1141 he donated the Priory church at Ewenny to the Abbey of St. Peter of Gloucester the Church of St. Michael of Ewenny, the Church of St. Bridget with the Chapel of Ogmore de Llanfey, the Church of St. Michael of Colwinstone, the Church of Oystermouth in Gower, the Church of St. Illtyd of Pembrey and the Church of St. Ishmael.

1126, 10 years after his father had begun to establish a castle at Ogmore, Maurice started the foundations of a stone keep with six-foot thick walls. By 1130 Maurice had gained back the lands, castle and Lordship of Kidwelly. In 1136 he took part in the battle of Maes Gwenllian, which was fought as part of an uprising following the death of Henry I. Here Maurice, Lord of Kidwelly, Ormore and Carnwallon, led the Norman army. The opposing army was led by Princess Gwenllian. The Normans triumphed, and Maurice beheaded the princess on the battlefield. Maurice died in 1149. His tomb is in the Priory church of Ewenny. His eldest son, William, succeeded his estates. He was succeeded in turn by his son, Thomas. Thomas’s heir was his daughter Hawise, by Eva de Tracey. She married twice, firstly to Patrick de Cadurcis (or de Chaworth), grandson of Patrick de Cadurcis of Brittany (who came to England with William the Conqueror); and secondly to Walter de Braose. She was the last of this branch of the de Londres family, and, on her death in 1274, the estates passed on to her son by the first marriage, Patrick de Cadurcis (III). Her son married Isabel, daughter of William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and their daughter Maud married Henry, Earl of Lancaster (Henry IV), the de Londres estates thus passing to the Duchy of Lancaster.

Association with Scotland

In the mid 12th century a Thomas de Londoniis settled in Scotland. His ancestor was believed to be William de Londres the 1st lord of Kidwelly. It is most likely, by examination of dates, that Thomas was the son of William de Londres. He could have been no less than his grandson. Thomas was married to Escheyne, daughter of Uchtred de Molle, who was in turn the son of Liulf de Molle. Note that there are some claims that Uchtred is descended from Crinan, the father of the ill-fated Duncan King of Scotland who was murdered by Macbeth. Thomas de Londoniis and Escheyne de Molle were known to have had three children, Malcolm de Lundin, Phillip de Lundin and Escheyne de Molle.

In 1160, King Malcolm IV of Scotland granted the barony of Lundie in Forfar to Malcolm de Lundin. This barony contains the fore mentioned Lundie Hill. He granted the barony of Lundin in the parish of Largo in Fife to Malcolm’s brother Philip.

Escheyne de Molle was certainly married twice; firstly, to Robert de Croc; secondly to Walter Fitz Alan, the first hereditary high steward of Scotland. The following lines were written by the historian, George Macaulay Trevelyan (1876-1962), about Walter Fitz Alan and Eschyna de Molle.

And Walter, in the silence of the centuries, stands unconsciously between, singing his Te Deum for the yet ungathered greatness of his race; in the lofty, fair Abbey, raising his instinctive thanks to God through the psalms of the Benedictine monks. A clear, distinct figure, standing out in high relief; silent, too, as a sculptured form, but full of brave beauty and repose.

"Eschine de Londonia, lady of Molla," becomes the wife of the Steward. That she was beautiful and worthy of her lord, we are entitled to believe. One of the privileges of fiction which history has a right to claim is this faith in the beauty, grace and virtue of all those who have come down to us from remote traditionary times without contrary imputations. Particulars having been denied us, we philosophically generalise, and accept the individual for the type.

The woman, veiled in the obscurity of eight centuries, becomes the ideal lady. Norman, by no means, she; ~ Scoto-Saxon, with eyes softly blue; some Celtic fervour and devotion spiritualising her face; her aspect generous, and features pearly fair, with the rosy flush of Northern breezes, like a soft dawn, lighting them into the purest human sweetness; reasonable and benign; no fickle impulses, no exacting egotism, no self-worship; a woman of household pleasures ~ to be loved by her husband with a constant love, to be tenderly revered by his vassals. Her brown lashes droop not coyly: they are lifted with modest, serene trust in herself and in her world. Her thoughts keep company with her.

Such must Eschine de Londonia be.

There is suggestion that there was an even earlier marriage, to Henry de Molla, perhaps a cousin. This is unsubstantiated.

Not much is known about Phillip de Lundin. He has sometimes been referred to as Phillip the Chamberlain. He had a son Walter, who in turn is believed to have had a son Thomas. It is reported that this line of the family ended in and heiress. She married Robert, the son of King William the Lion. Robert took on the name of this family and it is from him that the family of Lundie or Lundin descend. The barony remained in this family until the end of the 18th century.

Malcolm and his close descendants are documented in much more detail. They became the family of Durward.

As with most Scottish families, there remains a degree of controversy over its origins. The picture presented thus far is the commonly presented perception, and is reported in a fair number of texts. The descent of this family from Robert de London is perhaps the only detail of this house that is truly commonly reported. As shall be seen later, this is the reason that King Charles II granted the family of Lundin of that ilk the right to bear the Royal Arms of Scotland. It would not be fair if all arguments were not presented.

A second suggestion for the Norman origins of the family, is that Phillip de Lundin was actually Phillip de Valoniis, descended from the Anglo-Norman Valognes family. This Phillip was also believed to have been chamberlain of Scotland, and his family’s arms were similar to those taken up by the Philip who became 1st Laird of Lundin. There is however reason to believe that they are not the same person. Phillip de Valoniis was granted by King William around 1180, the baronies of Panmure and Bervie. It is said he had one son, William de Valoniis, also chamberlain of Scotland. He inherited these territories upon his father’s death. William is then said to have had only one daughter, his heir in the fore mentioned territories, Christian de Valoniis. Christian de Valoniis married Peter de Maule. She brought to her husband, upon marriage, the baronies of Panmure and Bervie. From this marriage descend the Earls of Panmure. If this is the true history of Phillip de Valoniis, it would not allow for the descent and formation of the family of Lundin. However, it should not be discounted. It should also be noted that although most texts state that this family descends from Robert de London, and this is why the family bears the arms of Scotland, there is some suggestion that this is not true. There are claims that a false pedigree was published around the time of the family adopting the arms of Scotland. It is currently impossible to comment on the validity of this claim

The Door-wards of All the King’s Palaces in Scotland

Malcolm de Lundin married a daughter and heiress of Gilchrist the third Earl of Mar. Malcolm was appointed by King William the Lion (1165-1214) to the office of Door ward of all the King’s palaces, ‘Hostiarius’. He was the first door ward of Scotland. This was to become a hereditary honour. Malcolm’s son was Thomas de Lundin (or Durward). As just stated, Thomas’s Grandfather was the 3rd Earl of Mar. The 3rd Earl was succeeded by his son, Glichrist 4th Earl of Mar. He died without issue, and was succeeded to the Earldom by Duncan, son of Morgund 2nd Earl of Mar. Thomas de Lundin, on account of his mother felt he was the next blood heir to Glichrist and so contested Duncan’s claims. Thomas also claimed that Duncan, and his father, were illegitimate. The claims were supported by the King. The dispute was settled with a compromise with Thomas receiving around half of the land of the Earldom of Mar. Thomas married Margaret or Christina daughter of Malcolm 2nd Earl of Athol. They had two children, Sir Alan the Durward and Colin de Lundyn. Sir Alan was to become one of the most powerful men in Scotland.

On the death of his father, Sir Alan became Durward of Scotland; he held this office from 1233 to his death in 1275. He is often referred to as Alan the Durward. He also claimed the title of Earl of Athol from 1233 to 1235. This was on account of his first wife Isabella, countess of Athol, the daughter and heiress of Henry, 3rd Earl of Athol. His second wife was Marjory, the natural daughter of King Alexander II. He was clearly an ambitious man. Firstly he undertook to further his claim over the whole of the lands of Mar and in 1257 he claimed the title of Earl of Mar for himself. He even concerned the pope in this matter. In that same year a papal rescript was issued, directing an inquest to be held, proceeding on the narrative that "Our beloved son, the nobleman Alan, called the Durward, hath signified to us that, whereas the nobleman William of Mar, of the diocese of Aberdeen, hath withheld the Earldom of Mar, of right belonging to the aforesaid Alan, and the same doth occupy to the prejudice of the said Alan, and that Morgund and Duncan, deceased, to whom the said William asserts his succession to the said earldom, were not begotten in lawful matrimony." These efforts were unsuccessful. He did however gain many other titles. He was Judiciary of Scotland between 1246 and 1251 and again in 1256-1257. Alexander II bestowed upon him the title of Earl of Kintyre O’Neil. This was an ancient Thanage. There is debate about whether a Colin Durward was Lord of O’Neil in 1234. Certainly Sir Alan Durward held these lands, founding amongst other institutions there, the Hospital at Kincarden. Alexander II also granted to Alan the Lordship of Urquart. Although a castle was known to be there in the time of William the Lion, Sir Alan Durward is believed to be the founder of the first stone castle on this site. He also built the Castle of St. Monance. On the death of Alexander II, on account of his being uncle to the young King Alexander III, he was appointed to the council of Regents during the King’s minority years. King Alexander is known to have stayed at this castle with his Uncle. Alan Durward is credited with founding a number of buildings. The Kirk in Lundie village Forfar was built around this time by the Durward family.

Alan had a second set of famous dealings with the pope, trying to get his wife, Marjory, legitimised. This would have meant that if the young King Alexander III had died without issue, Alan’s children would have been next in line to the throne of Scotland. When Edward I of England was invited to select the legitimate heir following the death of the "Margaret, the Maid of Norway" (1286-1290), granddaughter and sole heir of Alexander III, among the 13 candidates was one of Alan and Marjory’s heirs, Nicholas de Soulis, by their daughter Ermenguarde. Had it been possible to prove Marjory’s legitimacy, his would have been the senior claim. The legitimacy was not proved. Alan lost his guardianship of the King over this matter.

Sir Alan Durward died in 1275. He had three known daughters, but no male issue. His lands were divided between the three of them. However in 1296 King Edward of England gives a grant of Alan Durwards lands to Sir David of Brechin. Anne married Colban MacDuff, 8th Earl of Fife. Ermenguarde married William de Soules. He is also said to have had a daughter by his first wife, Lora, countess of Athol. The name of Durward carried on after Alan’s death, for example around 1420 an Isabel Durward, heiress of Lintrather married Sir Walter Ogilvy of Carary. The Annals of Dunfermline list a David Durward of Dunduff around 1231. This could be an unknown brother of Alan. With respect to the Barony of Lundie, this sometime later passed from the Durwards to, the family that became, Duncan of Lundie. It was in fact the family of Duncan of Lundie that built Lundie castle in Angus.

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