These products resemble
each other in appearance and method of manufacture and are therefore
considered together. Soft fruit not suitable for canning can often be
made into the above products. Apple butter and other fruit butters are
often made without the use of sugar, thus affording a way of using
certain fruits without the addition of this otherwise very important
item in the cost of fruit preserving.
55. Jams. Jams are
made by cooking and crushing the whole fruit, adding sugar, and boiling
a short time. They are usually not heavily spiced and are not cooked for
any great length of time. The fruit is not broken up very finely.
Apricots and berries and other fruits of high flavor and soft texture
are suitable. If a large amount of sugar is used, i. e., enough so that
the jam will contain over 65% sugar after it is cooked, it will keep
without sterilization. It is usually necessary, however, to either pack
the jam boiling hot into containers, and seal or to sterilize in the
containers because the amount of sugar ordinarily employed is not
sufficient to preserve the product indefinitely.
56. Fruit Butters.
Fruit butters differ from fruit jams chiefly in that they are boiled
longer than jams, are finer grained, and smoother in texture, and are
usually heavily spiced. It is also customary to add the boiled down
juice or sirup of the fruit to the crushed fruit to replace a certain
amount of sugar that must otherwise be used. Many recipes call for the
use of fruit, fruit sirup, and spices only, no sugar being added.
The fruit juice, usually
equal in bulk to the fruit to be used, is boiled down to a light sirup
and the fruit is then cooked down to a thick consistency in the sirup
with or without the addition of sugar. Apple juice and grape juice may
be used with many varieties of fruits, and a considerable saving in
sugar can be so effected.
57. Fruit Pastes.
Fruit butters or jams may be cooked down slowly to as thick a
consistency as possible without scorching. They may then be allowed to
evaporate slowly on the back of the stove or in shallow dishes in the
sun to a thick paste. This will keep without sterilization.
The pulp from jelly
making may be ground up finely and cooked with an equal quantity of
sugar to give an attractive fruit paste. A sort of confection can be
made by spreading this on a platter or shallow dish in the sun and
drying down to a gelatinous firm consistency. It can then be cut into
cubes to be used as candy or as a garnishing for desserts.