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Home and Farm Food Preservation
By William V. Cruess (1918)


Preface

Since early historical time food preservation has been second only in importance to food production. Grapes and other fruits were dried by the ancients to preserve them; fruit juices were fermented to make wines and vinegars; cereals and vegetables were stored to protect them against moisture and decay; olives were preserved by salting; and meats were salted, dried, and smoked. The use of sugar and vinegar in preserving fruits and vegetables came later. The preservation of foods by sterilization in sealed containers is a development of the nineteenth century and dates from its discovery by Nicholas Appert in France about 1800. Cold storage, as a means of preserving all perishable products, has, during the past century, developed into a very great industry.

Three billion cans of food, valued retail at $600,000,000, were sold in the United States in 1916. The meat packing and cold storage industries compare favorably with the canning industries in size. The wholesale value of the raisin crop in California is over $10,000,000 annually. The other dried fruit industries are smaller but their aggregate value amounts to many millions of dollars yearly in the United States. From this, the importance of commercial food preservation may be seen.

Commercial food preservation cares for the bulk of the food products but beside the food so preserved, there are many millions of jars and cans of fruits and vegetables, glasses of jellies, jams, and marmalades and many thousands of hams and bacons "put up," by the housewife and farmer. Much food that would otherwise be wasted is saved and in addition a varied diet throughout the year at low cost is made available in many homes.

Usually this work is done over a hot kitchen stove-during the rush of the fruit or vegetable season and, added to other household duties, becomes a heavy burden. The methods are empirical and by "rule of thumb"; consequently they are not well understood and not especially interesting.

This book aims to tell the "why" of the various methods of food preservation, to present labor saving methods and to give simple and explicit directions that may be easily followed. When the principles of the various methods are understood the directions given can be modified to suit changed conditions and the work will prove very much more interesting because the reasons for the various steps will be known.

The book is divided into three sections, namely: "The Theory of Food Preservation," "Methods of Food Preservation," and "Food Preservation Recipes." By reading the first two sections, the fundamental principles and an understanding of the general application of these principles will be obtained. This will be of great assistance in intelligently carrying out the specific directions given in the recipes in the third section.

The material presented is designed primarily for the housewife and farmer, to assist them in preserving surplus farm products for their own use. however, in many places, the food products, if carefully and attractively prepared, can be sold at a good profit, in this way affording an extra source of income. Often commercial factories develop from such small beginnings.

It is hoped also that the material presented will be of value and interest to domestic science teachers and canning demonstrators.

The aim has been to so present the principles and practices of preservation of food in the home that the work will appear more fascinating and less burdensome and that the results obtained will be more successful.

The author wishes to express his appreciation of the many valuable and helpful suggestions given by Professor F. T. Bioletti during the preparation of the manuscript for this book.

W. V. CRUESS.

Contents

Part I. Theory of Food Preservation

Part II. Methods of Food Preservation

  • Chapter III - Canning Fruits
    • 1. Picking
    • 2. Grading and Sorting
    • 3. Peeling, Pitting, Coring, and Cutting
    • 4. Jars
    • 5. Wax Top Cans
    • 6. Solder Top Cans
    • 7. Cooking the Fruit before Filling the Containers; or Hot Pack Method
    • 8. Filling Jars and Cans without Previous Cooking of the Fruit; or Cold Pack Method
    • 9. Sanitary Cans
    • 10. Sizes of Cans
    • 11. New Weights that Cans for Market must Contain
    • 12. Sirups and Hydrometers
    • 13. Cane vs. Beet Sugar
    • 14. Exhausting
    • 15. Sterilization of Fruits
  • Chapter IV - Canning Vegetables
    • 16. Canning Vegetables—Peeling and Preparing
    • 17. Blanching or Parboiling
    • 18. Chilling
    • 19. Brines and Acidified Brines
    • 20. Addition of the Brine
    • 21. Sterilization
      • (a) Pressure Sterilization
      • (b) Intermittent or Three-Day Sterilization of Vegetables at 212 F
      • (c) Sterilization of Vegetables at 212 F. by One Period Method
      • (d) Sterilization by the Lemon Juice Method
  • Chapter V - Canning of Meats
    • 22. Preparation of Meats for Canning
    • 23. Sterilization of Meats
  • Chapter VI - Storage and Spoiling of Canned Foods
    • 24. Storage of Canned Foods
    • 25. Spoiling of Canned Foods—Botulinus Poisoning
  • Chapter VII - Fruit Juices
    • 26. Fruits for Juice
    • 27. Crushing
    • 28. Heating before Pressing
    • 29. Pressing
    • 30. Clearing the Juice
    • 31. Bottling and Canning
    • 32. Pasteurization of Fruit Juices
  • Chapter VIII - Fruit and other Sirups
    • 33. Sources of Sirups
      34. Clearing the Juice
      35. Deacidification
      36. Concentration
      37. Storing the Sirup
  • Chapter IX - Jellies and Marmalades
    • 38. Fruits for Jelly
    • 39. Preparing and Cooking the Fruit
    • 40. Expressing and Clearing the Juice
    • 41. Testing for Pectin
    • 42. Testing for Acid
    • 43. Addition of Sugar
    • 44. Sheeting Test for Jelling Point
    • 45. Thermometer Test
    • 46. Hydrometer Test for Jelling Point
    • 47. Meaning of Thermometer and Hydrometer Tests
    • 48. Pouring and Cooling the Jelly
    • 49. Coating with Paraffin
    • 50. Sterilization of Jellies
    • 51. Jellies without Cooking
    • 52. Jelly Stocks
    • 53. Crystallization of Jellies
    • 54. Marmalades
  • Chapter X - Fruit James, Butters and Pastes
    • 55. Jams
    • 56. Fruit Butters
    • 57. Fruit Pastes
  • Chapter XI - Fruit Preserves and Candied Fruits
    • 58. Preserves
    • 59. Candied Fruits
  • Chapter XII - Fruit Drying
    • 60. Fruit Drying—Importance of the Industry
    • 61. Gathering the Fruit
    • 62. Transfer to the Dry Yard
    • 63. Cutting and Peeling
    • 64. Dipping Fruits before Drying
    • 65. Sulphuring Fruits before Drying
    • 66. Trays for Sun Drying
    • 67. Sun Drying
    • 68. Artificial Evaporation
    • 69. Sweating
    • 70. Processing and Packing
  • Chapter XIII - Vegetable Drying
    • 71. Vegetables for Drying
    • 72. Preparation
    • 73. Blanching
    • 74. Sulphuring
    • 75. Sun Drying
    • 76. Artificial Drying
    • 77. Processing Sun Dried Vegetables
    • 78. Packing and Storing Dried Vegetables
  • Chapter XIV - Vinegar Manufacture
    • 79. General Principles
    • 80. Raw Materials
    • 81. Crushing Fruits for Vinegar
    • 82. Diluting Honey
    • 83. Preparation of Fruit Cores and Peels and Dried Fruits for Vinegar Making
    • 84. Addition of Yeast and Control of Alcoholic Fermentation
    • 85. Pressing Fermented Fruits
    • 86. Removal of Sediment
    • 87. Adding Vinegar Starter
    • 88. Vinegar Fermentation
    • 89. Vinegar Generators
    • 90. Aging of Vinegar
    • 91. Clearing the Vinegar
    • 92. Vinegar Diseases and Pests
      • (a) Wine Flowers
      • (b) Lactic Acid Bacteria
      • (c) Vinegar Eels
  • Chapter XV - Fruit Wines
    • 93. Red Wine
      • (a) Crushing
      • (b) Yeast
      • (c) First Fermentation
      • (d) Pressing
      • (e) Final Fermentation
      • (f) Settling and Filling Up
      • (g) Racking
      • (h) Aging
      • (i) Clearing the Wine
      • (j) Bottling
    • 94. White Wine
      • (a) Crushing, Pressing, and Settling
      • (b) Fermentation
      • (c) Racking, Filling Up, Aging, Clearing
    • 95. Other Fermented Fruit Juices
  • Chapter XVI - Preservation of Vegetables and Fruits by Salting and Pickling
    • 96. Preservation of Vegetables by Salt
      • (a) Dry Salting
      • (b) Salt and Fermentation
      • (c) Strong Brine
    • 97. Dill Pickles
    • 98. Pickling Vegetables in Vinegar
      • (a) Storage in Brine
      • (b) Removal of Salt
      • (c) Addition of Vinegar
    • 99. Pickling Fruits in Vinegar
    • 100. Olives
      • (a) Pickled Ripe Olives
      • (b) Green Olives
      • (c) "Greek" Olives
    • 101. Tomato Ketchup
      • (a) Pulping
      • (b) Addition of Flavoring Materials
      • (c) Boiling
      • (d) Sterilizing
    • 102. Miscellaneous Tomato Products
      • (a) Tomato Paste
      • (b) Puree
      • (c) Chili Sauce, Piccalilli, and Relishes
  • Chapter XVII - Preservation of Meat
    • 103. Salting Meats
      • (a) Dry Salting
      • (b) Preserving Meats in Brine
    • 104. Drying Meats
    • 105. Preservation of Meats by Smoking
      • (a) Salting
      • (b) The Smoke House
      • (c) Smoke Producing Substances
      • (d) Length of Smoking
      • (e) Storing Smoked Meats
    • 106. Miscellaneous Meat Products
    • 107. Preservation of Eggs with Water Glass
  • Chapter XVIII - Milk Products
    • 108. Sterilization and Pasteurization of Milk
      • (a) Sterilization
      • (b) Pasteurization of Milk in the Household
    • 109. Storage of Butter
    • 110. Cheese
      • (a) "Cottage" Cheese
      • (b) Cheddar Cheese
      • (c) Other Types of Cheese

PART III. Food Preservation Recipes

  • Chapter XIX - Fruit Canning Recipes
    • 1. Canning Peaches
    • 2. Alternative Method for Canning Peaches
    • 3. Canning Apricots
    • 4. Lye Peeling Peaches and Apricots
    • 5. Canning Pears
    • 6. Canning Cherries
    • 7. Canning Apples
    • 8. Canning Plums
    • 9. Canning Rhubarb
    • 10. Canning Rhubarb without Sterilization
    • 11. Canning Figs
    • 12. Canning Strawberries
    • 13. Canning Blackberries
    • 14. Canning Raspberries and Loganberries
    • 15. Canning Oranges
    • 16. Canning Grape Fruit
    • 17. Canning Grapes
    • 18. Canning Pineapple
    • 19. Canning Currants, Cranberries, and Gooseberries
  • Chapter XX - Canning Vegetables
    • 20. Canning Artichokes
    • 21. Canning Asparagus
    • 22. Canning Green String Beans and Wax Beans
    • 23. Canning Beets
    • 24. Canning Carrots, Turnips, Parsnips, and Onions
    • 25. Canning Corn
    • 26. Canning Green Peas
    • 27. Canning Pimentos and Sweet Peppers
    • 28. Canning Pumpkin and Squash
    • 29. Canning Spinach and Other Greens
    • 30. Canning Tomatoes
    • 31. Canning Sweet Potatoes
    • 32. Canning Dried Beans
    • 33. Canning Hominy
    • 34. Canning Egg Plant
    • 35. Canning Okra
  • Chapter XXI - Canning Meats
    • 36. Canning Meats without Preliminary Cooking
    • 37. Canning Cooked Meats
    • 38. Canning Corned Beef
    • 39. Canning Fresh Fish
    • 40. Canning Kippered Fish
  • Chapter XXII - Fruit Juices
    • 41. Apple Juice
    • 42. Red Grape Juice
    • 43. Loganberry, Blackberry, and Raspberry Juices
    • 44. Lemon Juice
    • 45. Orange Juice
    • 46. Orange-Lemon Juice
    • 47. Grape Fruit Juice
    • 48. Pomegranate Juice
    • 49. Pineapple Juice
    • 50. Clarification of Fruit Juices
  • Chapter XXIII - Recipes for Sirups
    • 51. Fruit Sirups for Cooking Purposes
    • 52. Fruit Sirups for Table Use
    • 53. Fruit Sirups by Sun Evaporation
    • 54. Fruit Sirups Made by the Addition of Sugar
    • 55a. Sorghum Sirup
    • 55b. Manufacture of Sorghum on Small Commercial Scale
    • 56. Sugar Beet Sirup
  • Chapter XXIV - Recipes for Jellies and Marmalades
    • 57. Jellies
    • 58. Jelly Stocks
    • 59. Jellies without Cooking
    • 60. Orange Marmalade
    • 61. Grape Fruit and Other Marmalades
  • Chapter XXV - Recipes for Fruit, Butters, and Pastes
    • 62. Fruit Jams
    • 63. Fruit Butters with the Addition of Sugar
    • 64. Fruit Butters without the Addition of Sugar
    • 65. Fruit Pastes
  • Chapter XXVI - Recipes for Preserves
    • 66. Fig Preserves
    • 67. Peach, Pear, and Quince Preserves
    • 68. Strawberry Preserves
    • 69. Watermelon Preserves
    • 70. Tomato Preserves
    • 71. Preserved Kumquats
    • 72. Preserves made without Cooking
  • Chapter XXVII - Candied Fruits
    • 73. Candied Fruits with Use of Sugar Tester
    • 74. Candying Fruits without the Use of a Sugar Tester
  • Chapter XXVIII - Recipes for Drying Fruits
    • 75. Sun Drying Apricots, Pears, Peaches, and Apples
    • 76. Sun Drying Prunes
    • 77. Drying Thompson Seedless and Sultana Grapes
    • 78. Drying Muscat and "Currant" Grapes
    • 79. Packing Raisins
    • 80. Sun Drying Cherries
    • 81. Sun Drying Figs
    • 82. Drying Fruits in Evaporators
      • (a) Driers
      • (b) Preparation of Fruit
      • (c) Apples
      • (d) Apricots and Peaches
      • (e) Berries
      • (f) Cherries
      • (g) Pears
      • (h) Prunes
      • (i) Grapes
      • (j) Figs
      • (k) Processing and Storing
  • Chapter XXIX - Recipes for Drying Vegetables
    • 83. Sun Drying String Beans and Peas
    • 84. Sun Drying Corn
    • 85. Sun Drying Irish Potatoes
    • 86. Sun Drying Sweet Potatoes
    • 87. Sun Drying Carrots, Turnips, Onions, Cabbage, and Cauliflower
    • 88. Sun Drying Beets, Pumpkin, and Squash
    • 89. Sun Drying Tomatoes
    • 90. Sun Drying Peppers
    • 91. Drying Vegetables in an Artificial Evaporator
  • Chapter XXX - Recipes for Vinegar Making
    • 92. Home Manufacture of Vinegar from Whole Fruits
    • 93. Vinegar from Cores, Peels, and Fruit Scraps
    • 94. Vinegar from Honey and Sirups
    • 95. Clarifying Vinegar
  • Chapter XXXI - Recipes for Fruit Wines
    • 96. Red Wine
    • 97. White Wine
    • 98. Hard Cider from Apples, Oranges, and other Fruits
  • Chapter XXXII - Recipes for Preservation of Vegetables by Salt or Fermentation
    • 99. Preservation of Vegetables by Dry Salt
    • 100. Preservation of Vegetables in Strong Brine
    • 101. Preservation of Cabbage by Fermentation (Sauerkraut)
    • 102. Preservation of String Beans, Beets, and Greens by Fermentation
    • 103. Preservation of Vegetables by Fermentation in Brine
    • 104. Dill Pickles
  • Chapter XXXIII - Recipes for Pickles and Relishes
    • 105. Cucumber Pickles in Vinegar
    • 106. Onion, Green Tomato, and Cauliflower Pickles in Vinegar
    • 107. Sweet Vegetable Pickles
    • 108. Sweet Fruit Pickles
    • 109. Sweet Pickled Watermelon Rind
    • 110. Spiced Green Tomatoes
    • 111. Chow Chow
    • 112. Mustard Pickles
    • 113. Piccalilli
    • 114. Chili Sauce
    • 115. Dixie Relish
    • 116. Chutney
    • 117. Stuffed Pickled Sweet Peppers
    • 118. Green Tomato Pickle
    • 119. Tomato Ketchup
    • 120. Tomato Paste
    • 121. Ripe Olive Pickles
    • 122. Green Olive Pickles
    • 123. Ripe Olive Paste
    • 124. Ripe Olives Cured by the Salt Process
    • 125. Dessicated Olives
  • Chapter XXXIV - Recipes for the Home Preservation of Meats and Eggs
    • 126. Plain Salt Pork
    • 127. Corned Beef
    • 128. Sugar Curing Hams and Bacon for Smoking
    • 129. Dry Curing of Pork for Smoking
    • 130. Salting Beef for Drying
    • 131. Preservation of Fish by Salting
    • 132. Home Made Smoke House
    • 133. Fuel for Smoking
    • 134. Ham and Bacon
    • 135. Dried Smoked Beef
    • 136. Smoking Large Fish
    • 137. Smoking Small Fish
    • 138. Drying Fish
    • 139. Dried Beef and Venison ("Jerkey")
    • 140. Preservation of Eggs in Water Glass
    • 141. Preservation of Eggs in Lime and Salt
  • Chapter XXXV - Recipes for Dairy Products
    • 142. Gouda Cheese
    • 143. Cottage Cheese
    • 144. The Preservation of Butter by Salt
  • Appendix

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