Most dairy products are
best made on a factory scale. This is especially true of cheese. For
this reason only one recipe for hard cheese has been given. This recipe
has been recommended by the. University of Minnesota Experiment Station
as being the most suitable for farm use. The recipe given for cottage
cheese is one of the most approved and easily followed. Recipe 146 deals
with the preservation of butter by salting.
(142) Gouda Cheese.
This cheese is made from
whole sweet milk. One hundred pounds of milk will make 10 lbs. of
finished cheese. It is best adapted to home manufacture of the 100
varieties of cheese on the American market. No special equipment is
1. The Tools. An ordinary
washboiler serves very well as a vat. The curd may be heated by placing
the boiler on the edge of the kitchen stove. The curd is best cut with
many bladed knives called curd knives, made for the purpose, one with
vertical and one with horizontal knives; but the cutting may be done
with a common wire bread toaster or even with a coil of hay wire.
2. The wooden mold should
be made like a strong box, about 10 x 8 in. inside measurement. The top
and bottom should be loose and small enough to fall down through the
mold; or in other words, to follow down when the cheese is pressed.
The press is made of a
cleat nailed against the wall, a box in front, and a 2 x 4 or-pole 10 or
12 ft. long for a lever. A pail of stones makes an excellent weight.
An accurate thermometer
is needed for uniform work. The floating dairy kind is most convenient,
but an ordinary weather thermometer may be used.
3. The Milk. The best
cheese is made from clean, fresh, morning's milk, before it is 4 hours
old. If night's milk is used it should either be made up at once or be
thoroughly cooled after milking. Milk that is even slightly turned will
make a quick acting, hard, dry cheese. If the milk is not clean or is
too old the cheese is likely to become gassy and ill flavored.
4. The Rennet. The most
practical rennet for farm use is that in tablet form, obtainable from
any creamery supply company. One No. 2 fresh rennet tablet will thicken
12 gals. or 100 lbs. of milk. When the tablets are old, more must be
used. Just before being used, the tablets should be dissolved at the
rate of 1 tablet per pint of cold water. hot water will kill the rennet.
Rennet is improved by an ounce of salt to a pint of water, especially if
it must be held for several minutes after being dissolved.
5. heating. Heat the milk
in the washboiler to 88° F.; not over 90° F. and not under 86° F.
6. Setting. The rennet
solution at the rate of 1 tablet per 12 gals, is then added and
thoroughly stirred for 2 min. The surface should be stirred for another
2 min. to prevent the cream from separating from the milk and being
7. Holding. The mixture
is then covered and allowed to stand at 88° F. until the curd has become
thick. This should require not less than 12 nor more than 18 min.
8. Cutting. The curd is
ready to cut when it has coagulated enough to cause it to break clear
over the forefinger when the finger is inserted into the curd at an
angle of 45°, lifted upward and touched on the top of the thumb. The
curd is cut into small cubes to allow the whey to escape more quickly
and perfectly. Therefore the curd lumps or cubes should be cut in
uniform size and about one-third of an inch across.
9. Stirring. Stirring is
necessary to obtain a uniform removal of the whey as the curd
continually settles and mats into large masses unless broken up by hand
or by a small rake. The curd should be stirred gently at intervals until
it is sufficiently cooked.
10. Heating. After the
cutting and the first thorough stirring, the curd should be slowly
heated to about 100º F. This may be done by edging the boiler back on
the stove or by pouring clean hot water directly into the boiler or vat.
The whey may be dipped off and more hot water added until the desired
temperature is reached.
11. Dipping and Draining.
When the curd has become so firm that a handful firmly squeezed, will
fall apart when released, it is ready to be removed and put to press.
Draining can be done by straining through cheesecloth.
12. Pressing. When the
whey and water have been drained off, the granules of curd are firmly
pressed into the mold or form. If the wooden form is used, a clean piece
of cheesecloth should be first laid over and pressed down into the box
and then the curd pressed into all corners. When the form is filled the
cloth should be folded over it, the follower head inserted, and the
whole put to press, first with little pressure and later with more. If
the metal form is used, the curd is first pressed in without the cloth
to permit the water to escape promptly, but upon being dressed it is
covered with thick, firmly woven cloth bandages.
13. Dressing. After the
cheese has been pressed for an hour or two it should be taken out and
turned over in the form, all wrinkles in the bandage being smoothed out.
It should then be returned to the press and should remain under heavy
pressure for half a day or even until the next morning, when it should
be taken out and put into salt as directed in the next step.
14. Salting. Salting is
best done by floating the young cheese in brine made as strong as
possible (332 lbs. of salt per gallon of water). Dry salt is sprinkled
on the top of the cheese and every 12 hours the cheese is turned over in
the water and resalted. This is continued from 30 to 40 hours. It is
then wiped dry and stored in a cool place.
15. Paraffining. By the
old system the cheese was greased to keep the moisture in and rubbed
firmly by hand every (lay to keep off mold, but a better way is to allow
the cheese to become slightly dry and then dip into hot paraffin. A
kettle filled with water, with half an inch of paraffin on the water,
brought to a boil, makes an excellent paraffining tank. If the parafin
is too hot, it will draw the fat out of the cheese and will not cling
well. If the cheese is too moist the paraffin will not cling well.
Melted paraffin may also be painted on the cheese.
16. A cellar or other
fairly cool place is best for curing. If too warm, the cheese will ripen
too fast and may develop an off flavor, while if too cold it will work
too slowly. A temperature of about 60° F. is very good. Cheese made in
this way should be ready to eat in from three to eight weeks. It should
keel) for six months or more.
(143) Cottage Cheese.
1. Souring the Milk.
Allow sweet clean milk to stand in a warm kitchen until thick and
2. Cutting. Cut in small
cubes with a case knife. In making large quantities it is well to use
regular curd knives. Allow to stand undisturbed for several minutes or
until the whey has been fairly well forced out.
3. Heating. heat with
gentle stirring to 93-98° F. Allow to stand at this temperature until it
is fairly firm to the touch. Then it should be drained.
4. Draining. Pour into a
bag of cheesecloth and allow to drain an hour or two.
5. Finishing. Add salt to
taste. Cream may be added if desired and also white pepper. Chopped
pimentoes or red peppers may be added. Paprika may also be used and adds
very much to the flavor. Mix with a large spoon or silver fork. The
cheese should be used the day on which it is made.
(144) The Preservation
of Butter by Salt.
1. By Dry Salt. Use fresh
sweet butter. Weigh carefully. Weigh 1 lb. of salt for each 10 lbs. of
butter. Work it in thoroughly. Pack tightly in crocks and cover with
salt. Store in a cold place. When the butter is to be used, freshen it
by working it in cold water.
2. In Brine. To each 10
lbs. of butter, add 1/2 lb. of salt and work in thoroughly. Make a brine
of 3 1/2 lbs. of salt per gal. Pack the butter down in this brine and
store in a cool place. Keep the butter immersed in the brine with
weights if necessary. Before use, freshen by working iii cold water.