Vegetables may be
preserved by heavy salting with dry salt, by storage in strong brine and
by fermentation in a weak brine or in the presence of a small amount of
salt. Recipes for the use of all three methods are given. If the salting
is carefully done, the salted vegetables will be very attractive in
flavor and appearance. They will possess more of the fresh vegetable
flavor and odor than will canned vegetables. The principles of
preservation of vegetables by salt will be found in Chap. XVI, pars. 96
and 97. A knowledge of these principles will be of great assistance in
carrying out the directions given in the recipes.
(99) Preservation of
Vegetables by Dry Salt.
1. Slice or shred the
vegetables and weigh. String beans are prepared and broken as for
2. Weigh 1 lb. of salt to
each 4 lbs. of vegetables. Place a layer of the salt in the bottom of a
crock or barrel or wooden tub. Do not use metal containers. Build the
sliced or broken vegetables and salt up in alternate layers until the
container is full. Cover last layer of vegetables with a layer of salt.
3. Place a false wooden
head small enough to fit inside the container on top of the mixture.
Place a heavy weight on this head. Leave until the liquid is forced out
of the vegetables and they are immersed in the brine formed by their own
juice and the salt. This will be in about 2 weeks.
4. Remove the false head
and weight and seal with paraffin to prevent evaporation of the liquid.
5. The vegetables will
keep indefinitely and retain much of the original appearance and flavor
of the fresh vegetables. To use them, soak in a large volume of water
overnight; for example, by suspending them in a cheesecloth bag near the
surface of a large pot of water. Or parboil to remove salt. Then cook
and prepare for the table in the usual ways.
(100) Preservation of
Vegetables in Strong Brine.
1. Prepare a brine of 3
1/2 lbs. of salt per gallon of water. Immerse the whole vegetables in
this and keep them submerged by means of a wooden float. Do not use
metal containers. This method is especially good for peppers,
artichokes, cauliflower and other vegetables not readily preserved by
the dry salting process.
2. If the vegetables show
mold or fermentation at any time add more salt. They will keep better if
the container is sealed with paraffin.
3. Freshen for use as in
(101) Preservation of
Cabbage by Fermentation (Sauerkraut).
1. Shred the cabbage into
narrow strips and weigh.
2. For each 10 lbs. of
cabbage weight 6 oz. to 8 oz. (1/2 lb.) of cooking or fine dairy salt.
3. Mix the salt and
cabbage very thoroughly in a stoneware crock or wooden container. Place
a false head on the cabbage. A wooden head to fit inside the container
may be made or a plate may be used for small amounts of material in a
crock. Place a heavy weight on the false head (do not use limestone
because it is acted upon by the sauerkraut).
4. Leave in a warm place.
The juice of the cabbage soon forms a brine. Fermentation will soon
start and foam will appear. After about three weeks the kraut should
have the desired flavor. When a scum appears, skim it off. If this scum
is left undisturbed, it may completely spoil the product.
5. When fermentation
ceases and the kraut has developed the proper flavor, it may be kept by
sealing it over with paraffin. A better way is to heat it to boiling and
pack boiling hot in jars. Sterilize 1/2 hour in a wash-boiler sterilizer
at 212° F. and seal. It will then keep indefinitely.
(102) Preservation of
String Beans, Beets, and Greens by Fermentation.
1. String and break the
beans into lengths as for cooking. They should be small and tender. Peel
the beets and slice. Trim greens as for cooking for the table.
2. Weigh the vegetables
and for each 10 lbs. of vegetables weigh out 1/2 lb. of cooking or dairy
salt. Mix vegetables and salt intimately in a crock or barrel. Place
false wooden cover and heavy weight on the material. Leave in warm
place. The juice of the vegetables will form a brine in which
fermentation will take place. The fermentation should be done in 3
3. Seal with a thick
layer of melted paraffin.
4. Whenever the container
is opened to remove material for cooking, it should be resealed again
(103) Preservation of
Vegetables by Fermentation in Brine.
1. Cucumbers, string
beans, green tomatoes, beets, beet tops, and turnip tops, peas, corn and
peppers may, be preserved in this way.
2. Wash the vegetables
and drain off the surplus moisture. Pack in a keg or crock or other
utensil until nearly full (within about 3 in. of the top). Prepare a
weak brine as follows: To each gallon of water used, add 1/2 pint of
vinegar and 3/4 cup of salt and stir until salt is entirely dissolved.
The amount of brine necessary to cover the vegetables will be equal to
about one-half the volume of the vegetables.
3. Pour the brine over
the vegetables to cover them and keep them submerged by means of a
wooden cover. Leave in a warm place until fermentation is over.
4. Remove to a cool place
and seal with melted paraffin. If mold has formed, skim it off before
sealing. Dill and spices may be added to the brine if desired, when it
is poured oil vegetables. Vegetables prepared in this way have a sour
(104) Dill Pickles.
1. Wash the cucumbers.
Prepare a crock or keg, barrel or wooden bucket. Do not use metal.
2. Place a layer of dill
plant in the bottom of the container and a small quantity of mixed "dill
pickle spices." These may be obtained from a grocery. Place two or three
layers of cucumbers on these spices and dill plant. Add another layer of
dill plant and spices and two or three layers of cucumbers, repeating
the alternation of layers until the container is almost full.
3. Cover with a layer of
beet leaves or grape leaves at least 1 in. thick. Fill and cover with a
brine made of 1 lb. of salt, 10 qts. of water and 2/3 qt. of vinegar.
4. Allow to stand until
fermentation ceases (3 to 4 weeks). Seal with paraffin.
5. If large barrels are
used the barrels may be headed up after filling with the cucumbers and
spice and then filled with a brine, made as above. Leave the bunghole
open. When fermentation is over the barrel may be completely filled with
the brine and the bunghole closed.
6. Dill pickles may be
kept indefinitely by heating to boiling in the brine in which they are
made and sealing boiling hot in glass top jars.