Meats are seldom canned
in the household, because of the great difficulty of sterilizing them
without a steam retort, and because of the fear of serious or fatal
poisoning from the use of improperly sterilized meat. Sterilization can
be safely accomplished without special equipment if care is used.
Chicken, rabbit, salmon, trout, fresh pork, and other meats of which
there, for some reason, may be a surplus, may be preserved in attractive
form in this way.
22. Preparation of
Meats for Canning. Meats are canned fresh or after curing or after a
Chicken and rabbit are
usually first cooked and canned in the boneless condition or in pieces
as the meat comes from the roasting oven or fry pan. The fresh meat may
also be cut in pieces to fit the containers and sterilized without
previous cooking. By the last process the meat is not usually so
attractive as where it is first cooked in some way before canning. A
suitable sauce or gravy should be added.
Beef is usually corned
before canning (see Recipe 129) and canned with a gelatin broth which
sets to a firm jelly when the meat is cooked after sterilization.
Fish is ordinarily canned
fresh after cutting to fit the can. Various sauces or oil may be used to
fill the cans, especially with small fish such as sardines. Tomato sauce
is also used extensively. "Kippered" fish is also canned. This is fish
soaked in brine and smoked a short time. (See Recipe 139.) Salmon, tuna,
shad roe, etc., are canned without added liquid.
23. Sterilization of
Meats. Meats because of their low' acidity, high protein content,
and the presence of spore-bearing bacteria, are very difficult to
sterilize. Pressure sterilizers or intermittent sterilization are very
necessary in order that fatal poisoning from botulinus bacteria may not
result. Mrs. Thomas of San Francisco, now with the Extension Division of
the University of California, has made experiments in which she
sterilized chicken in a brine acidified with about five ounces of lemon
juice per gallon. She found that the meat was easily sterilized in
boiling water. The method has not been tested sufficiently, to warrant a
recommendation for its general use. It seems very promising, however.
Meats should be
sterilized under 10 to 15 pounds pressure for one heating or for 1%
hours in actively boiling water on each of three successive (lays. The
one-period method at 212° F. is not recommended.