A great many products may
be grouped under the heading of pickles and relishes. Directions for the
home manufacture of the most important of these are given in the
following recipes. The principles involved will be found in Chap. XVI,
pars. 98-102, inclusive.
(105) Cucumber Pickles
1. Choose small
2. Prepare a brine of 2
lbs. of salt per gallon of water. Place the cucumbers in this and keep
them submerged with a wooden float. Store in this brine for about 4
weeks. Fermentation will take place and a scum will form. If the pickles
become soft, add more salt.
3. After about 4 weeks
remove the cucumbers and heat them in a large amount of water to the
simmering point for about 20 min. Discard this water and cover with
fresh water. Heat to the simmering point; remove from fire and let stand
about 2 hours to soak out the excess salt. If the pickles tend to be
soft or "flabby," add a tablespoonful of alum per gallon of water. This
will harden them and not injure health.
4. Rinse in cold water.
Drain. Store in strong cider vinegar of good quality until ready for
use. If at any time the pickles soften or mold, place them in fresh
vinegar. Pack in wide mouth corked bottles or in jars with glass tops.
Do not use metal.
(106) Onion, Green
Tomatoes, and Cauliflower Pickles in Vinegar.
1. Place the vegetables
in a brine of 3 1/2 lbs. of salt per gallon of water. Store for 4 to 6
weeks or longer keeping them submerged in the brine.
2. Remove and treat as
directed for cucumbers in preceding recipes (1), (2), and (3).
(107) Sweet Vegetable
1. Prepare the cucumbers,
green tomatoes, etc., as directed in Recipes 105 and 106 to the point
where they are ready to be placed in the vinegar. Prick the prepared
vegetables through and through in several places with silver fork. This
will permit the sweet vinegar to penetrate without shrivelling the
vegetables. If they are soft, heat them a short time in water containing
1 tablespoonful of alum per gallon.
2. Prepare a sirup as
3 cups of vinegar (1 1/2
5 cups of sugar (2 1/2 pints), brown sugar is preferred.
1 tablespoonful mace
1 tablespoonful ginger root
2 tablespoonful stick cinnamon
1 tablespoonful whole cloves
Boil the vinegar and
spices together slowly for about 5 min.
3. Heat the pickles in
the spiced vinegar to boiling and boil about 10 min. Pack boiling hot
into glass top jars and seal.
(108) Sweet Fruit
1. Peel peaches. They may
be left whole or cut in half as desired. Clingstone peaches are the
best. Peel pears and cut in half and remove cores. Cherries, plums, and
figs should be pricked with a silver fork to permit sirup to penetrate
without shrivelling them. Whole Muscat, Tokay or other large grapes may
be used. They should be left on the bunch.
2. Prepare a sirup of the
3 lbs. of sugar
I pint of water
1 pint of vinegar
1 tablespoonful of ginger root
1 1/2 tablespoonfuls of whole cloves
2 tablespoonful stick cinnamon
3. Place the fruit in
this sirup and cook till tender. Allow to stand in the sirup overnight.
On the next day pour off the sirup and boil it down until it forms a
heavy sirup. If the sirup is thick after standing overnight it will not
be necessary to boil it down further. Heat the fruit to boiling in this
sirup and pack boiling hot in glass top jars and seal at once.
(109) Sweet Pickled
1. Remove outer peel and
cut in pieces of desired size. Boil in salt water (4 tablespoonfuls salt
per quart), for 15 min. Rinse in water till the flavor of salt is gone.
2. Place in sirup made
according to preceding recipe. Boil till clear, pack hot in jars and
(110) Spiced Green
1. Prepare a sirup of the
4 lbs. of sugar
1 pint of vinegar
1 tablespoonful of cinnamon
1 tablespoonful cloves
1 teaspoonful allspice
1 teaspoonful mace
2. Drop 6 lbs. whole
small tomatoes into this sirup and cook until they are clear. Pack
boiling hot in jars and seal.
1. Take and cut in
moderate sized pieces:
2 qts. of small cucumbers
2 qts of small onions
2 qts of small green tomatoes
1 cup salt
1/4 lb. ground mustard
3 cups of sugar
2 cups of flour
2 qts. of string beans
2 large cauliflowers
6 green peppers
3 red peppers
2 tablespoonfuls ground turmeric
4 qts. of cider vinegar
1 bunch of celery
2. Remove seeds from
peppers. Sprinkle with 1 cupful of salt and add water to cover. Let
stand 24 hours. Place onions in separate salt water to stand likewise.
3. Drain water from
onions and scald all vegetables in the water in which the peppers have
stood and allow to drain.
4. Make a paste of mixing
the mustard, turmeric, sugar and flour with a little cold vinegar,
afterwards adding the balance of the vinegar which has come to a boil.
5. Stir for a few minutes
to a smooth consistency, then pour over the drained vegetables and cook
slowly on the back of the stove for 20 min. Pack hot in jars and seal.
(112) Mustard Pickles.
1. Place in a brine of
1/2 cup of salt per quart of water the following vegetables and let
1 pint whole small
1 pint sliced cucumbers
1 pint whole small onions
1 cup of string beans broken into lengths
3 green sweet peppers (chopped)
3 red sweet peppers (chopped)
1 pint small green tomatoes cut in half
1 pint of cauliflower
2. Freshen in clear
water. Allow to stand in a mixture of water and vinegar equal parts.
Then scald in the same liquid.
3. Prepare a mustard
dressing of 1 qt. of vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 cup of sugar,
3 tablespoonfuls of powdered mustard, 1/2 tablespoonful of celery seed.
Rub all the dry ingredients together first; heat the vinegar to boiling
and add slowly to the dry ingredients, working them into a fine paste.
Cook in a double boiler until the sauce thickens.
4. Add the hot sauce to
the pickles and heat to simmering. Pack hot in jars. Place the jars in a
washboiler sterilizer. Sterilize 15 min, at 212° F. and seal.
1. Use 8 qts. green
tomatoes, 2 or 3 green sweet peppers and 2 hot peppers. The tomatoes may
be chopped or sliced in 1/2 in. pieces. Soak the tomatoes and chopped
peppers overnight in 1 pint of salt and water to cover. Drain
2. Heat until tender in
the following mixture:
3 qts. vinegar
4 cups of sugar
1 teaspoonful ginger (ground)
1 teaspoonful cinnamon (ground)
2 tablespoonfuls mustard (ground or whole).
3. Add 1 cup of grated
horseradish. Heat to boiling and seal. Allspice, cloves, and 1 qt. of
chopped onions may be added before cooking.
(114) Chili Sauce.
1. Take the following
2 qts. of ripe tomatoes
4 green sweet peppers
4 tablespoonfuls brown sugar
1 hot pepper
1 tablespoonful ginger
1/2 teaspoonful nutmeg
2 tablespoonfuls salt
1 teaspoonful cinnamon
2. Chop the vegetables,
add the other ingredients and cook till tender (1 1/2 hours). Then add 3
cups of vinegar, boil 5 min. and seal hot in jars.
(115) Dixie Relish.
1 qt. chopped cabbage
1 pint of chopped white onions
1 pint of chopped sweet red peppers
1 pint of chopped sweet green peppers
4 tablespoonfuls mustard seed
2 tablespoonfuls celery seed (crushed)
1/2 cup of sugar
1 qt. of vinegar
5 tablespoonfuls salt
2. Soak the peppers in
brine (1 cup of salt to 1 gal. of water), for 24 hours. Freshen in clear
cold water for 1 to 2 hours. Drain well. Remove seeds and coarse white
sections. Chop separately and measure chopped cabbage, peppers, and
onions before mixing. Add spices, sugar and vinegar. Let stand overnight
covered in a crock or enameled vessel. Pack in small sterilized jars as
follows. First drain off the vinegar so jar may be well packed. Pack the
relish in the jars, pressing it carefully; then pour over it the vinegar
which was drained off. Paddle the jar thoroughly to get every bubble out
and allow the vinegar to displace all air spaces. Garnish each jar with
two quarter-inch pointed strips of red pepper 3 inches long, placing
these strips vertically on opposite sides of the seams of the jar.
3. Place in a washboiler
sterilizer with caps and rubbers on loosely. Heat the water to boiling
and boil 10 mm. Remove and seal. (See Fig. 15 for diagram of the
1. Mix the following
12 apples finely chopped
6 green tomatoes finely chopped
6 small red peppers finely chopped
2 small onions finely chopped
1/2 cup mint leaves
4 tablespoonfuls salt
1 tablespoonful white mustard seed
2 cups of sugar
2 cups raisins finely chopped
2 cups vinegar
1/4 cup lemon juice
2. Seal cold or let stand
in a cool place in earthen or glass jar. No sterilization is necessary.
(117) Pickled Sweet
1. 12 green or ripe sweet
2 qts. cabbage
4 tablespoonfuls white mustard seed
3 tablespoonfuls celery seed
4 sweet peppers chopped
1 hot pepper
1/2 cup of sugar
2. Remove stems and seeds
from sweet peppers. Soak overnight in brine (1 cup of salt to 1 gal. of
3. Chop the cabbage and
the 4 sweet peppers separately, add 1 tablespoonful of salt to each and
let stand overnight. Drain. Mix with the other ingredients and stuff the
4. Place the stuffed
peppers in jars, cover with hot vinegar and seal.
(118) Green Tomato
1. 1 gal. green tomatoes
1/2 doz. large onions
3 cups of brown sugar
3 pods of red peppers
3 cups of vinegar
1 tablespoonful whole black pepper
1 tablespoonful whole cloves
1 tablespoonful whole allspice
1 tablespoonful celery seed crushed
1 mustard seed
1 ground mustard
2. Slice the tomatoes and
onions very thin. Sprinkle over them 1/2 cup of salt and let stand
overnight in a crock or enameled vessel. Drain well.
3. Tie the pepper,
cloves, allspice, and celery seed in a cheesecloth bag. Slice the lemon
and chop 2 pepper pods very fine. Add all seasoning except one pepper
pod to the vinegar, then add the drained tomato and onions.
4. Cook for 1/2 hour,
stirring gently at intervals to prevent burning. Remove spice bag to
prevent darkening of the product. Pack hot in small jars and garnish
with slender strips of the red pepper, placing them vertically on
opposite sides of the jar.
5. Place covers and
rubbers on jars loosely and process 15 min. at 212° and seal. (See Fig.
(119) Tomato Ketchup.
1. Select ripe tomatoes
of deep red color. Cook the tomatoes thoroughly and put through a
colander or sieve to remove seeds and skins.
2. For each gallon of the
pulp so obtained use:
2 tablespoonfuls of salt
4 tablespoonfuls of sugar
1 tablespoonfuls powdered mustard
1 tablespoonfuls whole cloves
1 tablespoonfuls allspice
1 tablespoonfuls cinnamon
1 tablespoonfuls pepper
2 small red peppers cut finely
1 pint of vinegar (preferably cider vinegar)
4 tablespoonfuls ground paprika (not essential but desirable)
Tie the whole spices in a
bag of cheseclotii and add the other ingredients, except the vinegar.
The paprika gives a bright red color and flavor, but may be omitted.
3. Cook until almost
thick enough (usually 1 1/2 hours), and add the vinegar. Continue
cooking till thick.
4. Pour hot into scalded
bottles and cork with corks sterilized in boiling water 10 min. The
corks are not pressed in at first but left loosely in the necks of the
5. Put the bottles
upright in a washboiler sterilizer with hot water one-half way up the
bottles. heat water to boiling and boil 1 hour with cover on the boiler.
Drive corks into the bottles. Allow to cool. Seal with paraffin or wax.
(120) Tomato Paste.
No vinegar is used for
this product but it is given here in conjunction with tomato ketchup.
1. Boil ripe red tomatoes
until soft. Pass through a screen to remove seeds and skins.
2. Boil down quickly on a
stove to about the consistency of thick ketchup. Then place it on the
back of the stove or better in a double boiler and cook down until it is
as thick as thick peanut butter.
3. Pack hot in jars or
4. Sterilize 1 hour at
212° F. in a washboiler sterilizer and seal. This product can be used as
a flavoring for various dishes, that is, macaroni, stews, rice, beans,
etc., in the same way that canned tomatoes are used. It may be flavored
by adding a button of garlic, a tablespoonful of cayenne pepper and two
sweet red peppers and salt to taste per gallon of pulp before cooking.
Then when thick, a little olive oil may be beaten in before packing in
jars or cans. This product is also known as tomato "conserve" by the
Italians. It is used by them in great quantities.
(121) Ripe Olives.
1. Varieties. Olives for
pickling are grown extensively in California and to a slight extent in
Arizona. These are the only two states of the United States that grow
them. The most popular variety is the Mission olive and the next popular
the Manzanillo. Practically no others are used for ripe pickles.
2. Choose olives that
have become red to black in color. Underripe fruit gives a tough,
inferior product; overripe fruit may be soft. Olives are exceedingly
bitter and must be treated with lye to remove this.
3. Prepare a lye of 3 oz.
of soda lye per gallon of water. This is 1 lb. per 5 gals. or about 3
tablespoonfuls per gallon.
4. Place the olives in a
stoneware crock or glass jar or wooden vessel. Do not use metal. Cover
thoroughly with the lye. Stir frequently.
5. Once every hour remove
two or three olives and cut in half. Note whether the lye has penetrated
through the skin. This can be determined by the fact that the lye will
change the color of the skin and flesh of the olive.
6. When the cutting test
shows that the lye has penetrated the skins and a little way into the
flesh of the olives, pour off the lye into another vessel (usually the
lye will penetrate in 3 to 4 hours).
7. The olives are now
exposed to the air in the vessel in which they were treated. Stir twice
daily and leave exposed until they are black or dark in color. This will
take from 1 to 5 days. The exposure is to bring back the color removed
by the lye treatment.
8. Return the used lye to
the olives and leave until the lye has reached the pits of the olives,
as indicated by cutting a sample to the pit with a sharp knife. Eight to
12 hours' time will usually be required.
9. Pour off the lye.
Cover the olives with water. Change the water twice daily until there is
no longer any taste of lye. This will usually require 1 week.
10. Make a brine of 5 oz.
(5 tablespoonfuls), of salt per gallon of water. Cover the olives with
this and heat to boiling. Pack hot in jars or cans. Sterilize 1 hour at
212° F. and seal (see Fig. 15 for appearance of a wash- boiler
(122) Green Olive
1. Varieties. The Sevillano and Ascolano olive are usually employed
because of their large size. Mission and Manzanillo may also be used.
2. Pick the olives when
full size but hard green.
3. Prepare a lye of 3 oz.
of soda lye per gallon of water. (1 lb. per 5 gals.). Place the green
olives in this and leave until the lye reaches the pits; as indicated by
cutting a sample to the pit. It will take the lye about 24 hours to
reach the pit.
4. Pour off and discard
the lye. Cover the olives with water. Change this twice daily until the
lye is all removed; about 1 week.
5. Prepare a brine of 9
oz. of salt per gallon of water (a little more than 1/2 lb. per gallon).
Pack the olives in a keg or barrel or glass jar. Fill completely with
the brine and drive bung into keg or barrel or seal the jar. Leave in a
quiet place until the proper flavor develops. This will be in about 2
6. Pour off the brine and
strain it. Pack the olives in jars. Heat the brine to boiling and fill
the jars with the boiling hot brine. Seal. No further treatment is
(123) Ripe Olive Paste.
1. Pickle ripe olives as
in Recipe 121. Pit the olives with a cherry pitter. Grind them to a
paste in a food grinder or sausage grinder. Flavor with salt, red
pepper, chopped green chili and paprika to taste.
2. Pack the paste in
small jars. Sterilize 1 1/2 hours at 212° F. in a washboiler or similar
sterilizer and seal.
(124) Ripe Olives
Cured by the Salt Process.
1. Choose black ripe
olives. Weigh. For each 4 lbs. of olives weigh 1 lb. of salt.
2. Mix the olives and
salt thoroughly in crock or wooden vessel. Cover with a layer of salt.
Leave until the olives have lost most of their bitterness; about a month
or six weeks. They will be shrivelled in appearance. Brush off the salt
and dip in olive oil. Pack in jars. Do not sterilize. These olives will
have a slight bitter flavor and more "olive" flavor than olives pickled
by the lye process. They are used extensively in Europe and in America
by Italians and Greeks. This process was used by the ancient Romans and
1. Pickle ripe olives as
directed in Recipe 121.
2. Place in a slow oven
and dry. The olives will first shrivel and become hard. Heat them until
they swell again to their original size. These olives will be dry and
very light and porous. They are an excellent "between meal" morsel.