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Home and Farm Food Preservation
Food Preservation Recipes
Chapter XXIV - Recipes for Jellies and Marmalades

The recipes given in this chapter are designed primarily for the making of jellies and marmalades in the home. Especial attention has been given to the jelly tests. These are of great value in determining when a jelly or marmalade has been boiled long enough; in determining whether a given fruit is suitable for jelly making; and in determining how to correct a fruit that has been proven by test to be unsuitable.

(57) Jellies.

1. Fruits for Jelly. Most apples, crab apples, loganberries, currants, cranberries, sour blackberries, lemons, oranges and lemons mixed, grape fruit, guava and lemon mixed, sour plums, and Eastern varieties of grapes give good jellies. Other fruits must be mixed with fruits rich in pectin or their juices must be mixed before a good jelly may be obtained. Oranges must be thoroughly ripe, or the jelly will be bitter.

2. Crush or slice the fruit. Add water to cover unless the fruit is very juicy; for example, loganberries and currants require no water. Currants, berries, and other soft fruits are heated to boiling for not longer than 5 min.; boil apples about 20 min. and citrus fruits about 1 hour. If the water boils off too much, add more during the boiling process.

3. Pour the hot fruit and juice into a jelly hag and drain off the hot juice. Press the residual pulp and keep the pressed juice separate from the strained juice. Strain the juice till clear.

4. Pectin Test. To test whether the juice has sufficient pectin to make a jelly, first obtain a little grain alcohol from the druggist. Place 1 teaspoonful of alcohol and 1 of juice in a glass and mix. If after 4 or 5 min. standing a heavy gelatinous precipitate forms, the juice has sufficient pectin; if the precipitate is small, a fruit juice richer in pectin must be added or less sugar than usual must be added. The pectin test is useful but not necessary.

5. Acid Test. Compare the taste of the juice with a dilute lemonade made of 8 teaspoonfuls of water and 1 of lemon juice and 32 teaspoonful of sugar. If the juice is very much less tart in taste than the lemonade, an acid juice must be added to the fruit juice to make up the deficiency. This test is useful but not necessary.

6. Addition of Sugar. If the juice is rich in pectin and acid, add 1 cup of sugar to each cup of juice; if only moderately rich in these constituents, add only 3/4 cup of sugar to 1 of juice; if poor in pectin, add only 1/2 cup of sugar to 1 of juice.

7. Boiling. Boil in small lots on a rapid fire. Skim if necessary. The skimmings are good food; do not waste them.

8. Jelly Tests. Boil until the jelly "sheets" in large pieces from a spoon. A better test is to insert a candy thermometer; or a chemical thermometer reading to 250º F. The jelly is done when it boils at 220º F.

Another test is the appearance of the bubbles during boiling. The jelly is done when the bubbles become very large and the jelly "tries to jump out of the pot into the glass."

Another very good test is the hydrometer test. Pour the hot jelly into a cylinder. Insert a Baumé or Balling hydrometer. The jelly is done when it tests 30° Baumé or 57° Balling. For very hot climates boil down to 32° Baumé or 60° Balling.

9. Pour into dry glasses and allow to cool.

10. Paraffining. Add hot paraffin to the cold jelly to cover it. If a thin knife blade is run around the edges of the jelly after adding the paraffin, it will run down the sides of the glass and make a seal that will not be so apt to "leak" or "sweat."

11. Some Causes of Failure. They are use of fruit too low in pectin or acid and the use of too much sugar. Very few cases will be found where more than 1 cup of sugar to 1 of juice can be used. The poorer the fruit is for jelly making the less sugar can be used.

(58) Jelly Stocks.

Fruit juices for jelly making can be sterilized and used later at any time for jelly.

1. Prepare the juice for jelly making as in Recipe 57 but do not add sugar.

2. Heat to boiling and pour into scalded jars or bottles. Seal at once with scalded corks or caps. Invert to cool so that the hot juice will sterilize corks and jars. Seal corks by dipping ends of bottles in melted paraffin.

3. The juice may also be put up as follows: Bottle and seal with sterilized corks. Pasteurize as described for apple juice in Recipe 41 at 175° F. for 20 min.

4. To make jelly from this jelly stock, open at any time and proceed as with fresh juice under Recipe 57.

(59) Jellies without Cooking.

Currants, loganberries, and cranberries will make jelly without cooking because they are exceedingly rich in pectin and acid.

1. Crush the fruit very thoroughly and press as completely as possible. Do not heat the fruit or juice. Strain the juice.

2. Add 1 1/2 cups of sugar to each cup of juice and mix until sugar dissolves. Pour into glasses (preferably shallow ones), and leave in the sun. The juice will set to a jelly in a few days. The sun evaporates the excess moisture. A bright sun is necessary. After jelly has set, seal with paraffin.

(60) Orange Marmalade.

1. Use 12 oranges to 3 lemons. Cut 4 of the oranges in very thin slices. Cut the remaining 8 oranges and 3 lemons into medium slices.

2. To the 8 oranges and 3 lemons add water to cover. Boil slowly for 1 hour. Add water occasionally to replace that boiling off. Press out the juice and strain till clear.

3. To the thinly sliced 4 oranges add water to cover and boil slowly till tender (3/4 to 1 hour). Drain off the juice. Do not press. The slices must be kept whole. Strain the juice and add to that from the first 8 oranges.

4. Mix the thin slices with whole lot of juice.

5. Add 1 cup of sugar to each cup of mixed juiceand slices. Boil slowly until a good jelly test is obtained or until the marmalade boils at 220º F. or until the liquid tests 32° Baumé or 60° Balling.

6. Allow to stand in the pot about 5 min. or until the liquid cools to about 160° F. before pouring into glasses. This allows the slices to absorb the sirup and prevents their coming to the surface. Pour into glasses. Allow to cool and seal with hot paraffin.

(61) Grape Fruit and Other Marmalades.

1. Grape Fruit Marmalade. Proceed as in Recipe 60 but use grape fruit instead of oranges. Use the same amount of lemon as in Recipe 60.

2. Apricot and Peach Marmalade. Prepare an apple juice rich in pectin by boiling apples and pressing as for jelly. To each cup of this juice add 3/4 cup of sugar and about 1/4 cup of finely sliced peaches or apricots. Boil down until a good jelly test is obtained. Pour boiling hot into glasses and seal.

Other marmaldes may be made in a similar way.

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