The recipes given in this
chapter are designed primarily for the making of jellies and marmalades
in the home. Especial attention has been given to the jelly tests. These
are of great value in determining when a jelly or marmalade has been
boiled long enough; in determining whether a given fruit is suitable for
jelly making; and in determining how to correct a fruit that has been
proven by test to be unsuitable.
1. Fruits for Jelly. Most
apples, crab apples, loganberries, currants, cranberries, sour
blackberries, lemons, oranges and lemons mixed, grape fruit, guava and
lemon mixed, sour plums, and Eastern varieties of grapes give good
jellies. Other fruits must be mixed with fruits rich in pectin or their
juices must be mixed before a good jelly may be obtained. Oranges must
be thoroughly ripe, or the jelly will be bitter.
2. Crush or slice the
fruit. Add water to cover unless the fruit is very juicy; for example,
loganberries and currants require no water. Currants, berries, and other
soft fruits are heated to boiling for not longer than 5 min.; boil
apples about 20 min. and citrus fruits about 1 hour. If the water boils
off too much, add more during the boiling process.
3. Pour the hot fruit and
juice into a jelly hag and drain off the hot juice. Press the residual
pulp and keep the pressed juice separate from the strained juice. Strain
the juice till clear.
4. Pectin Test. To test
whether the juice has sufficient pectin to make a jelly, first obtain a
little grain alcohol from the druggist. Place 1 teaspoonful of alcohol
and 1 of juice in a glass and mix. If after 4 or 5 min. standing a heavy
gelatinous precipitate forms, the juice has sufficient pectin; if the
precipitate is small, a fruit juice richer in pectin must be added or
less sugar than usual must be added. The pectin test is useful but not
5. Acid Test. Compare the
taste of the juice with a dilute lemonade made of 8 teaspoonfuls of
water and 1 of lemon juice and 32 teaspoonful of sugar. If the juice is
very much less tart in taste than the lemonade, an acid juice must be
added to the fruit juice to make up the deficiency. This test is useful
but not necessary.
6. Addition of Sugar. If
the juice is rich in pectin and acid, add 1 cup of sugar to each cup of
juice; if only moderately rich in these constituents, add only 3/4 cup
of sugar to 1 of juice; if poor in pectin, add only 1/2 cup of sugar to
1 of juice.
7. Boiling. Boil in small
lots on a rapid fire. Skim if necessary. The skimmings are good food; do
not waste them.
8. Jelly Tests. Boil
until the jelly "sheets" in large pieces from a spoon. A better test is
to insert a candy thermometer; or a chemical thermometer reading to 250º
F. The jelly is done when it boils at 220º F.
Another test is the
appearance of the bubbles during boiling. The jelly is done when the
bubbles become very large and the jelly "tries to jump out of the pot
into the glass."
Another very good test is
the hydrometer test. Pour the hot jelly into a cylinder. Insert a Baumé
or Balling hydrometer. The jelly is done when it tests 30° Baumé or 57°
Balling. For very hot climates boil down to 32° Baumé or 60° Balling.
9. Pour into dry glasses
and allow to cool.
10. Paraffining. Add hot
paraffin to the cold jelly to cover it. If a thin knife blade is run
around the edges of the jelly after adding the paraffin, it will run
down the sides of the glass and make a seal that will not be so apt to
"leak" or "sweat."
11. Some Causes of
Failure. They are use of fruit too low in pectin or acid and the use of
too much sugar. Very few cases will be found where more than 1 cup of
sugar to 1 of juice can be used. The poorer the fruit is for jelly
making the less sugar can be used.
(58) Jelly Stocks.
Fruit juices for jelly
making can be sterilized and used later at any time for jelly.
1. Prepare the juice for
jelly making as in Recipe 57 but do not add sugar.
2. Heat to boiling and
pour into scalded jars or bottles. Seal at once with scalded corks or
caps. Invert to cool so that the hot juice will sterilize corks and
jars. Seal corks by dipping ends of bottles in melted paraffin.
3. The juice may also be
put up as follows: Bottle and seal with sterilized corks. Pasteurize as
described for apple juice in Recipe 41 at 175° F. for 20 min.
4. To make jelly from
this jelly stock, open at any time and proceed as with fresh juice under
(59) Jellies without
and cranberries will make jelly without cooking because they are
exceedingly rich in pectin and acid.
1. Crush the fruit very
thoroughly and press as completely as possible. Do not heat the fruit or
juice. Strain the juice.
2. Add 1 1/2 cups of
sugar to each cup of juice and mix until sugar dissolves. Pour into
glasses (preferably shallow ones), and leave in the sun. The juice will
set to a jelly in a few days. The sun evaporates the excess moisture. A
bright sun is necessary. After jelly has set, seal with paraffin.
(60) Orange Marmalade.
1. Use 12 oranges to 3
lemons. Cut 4 of the oranges in very thin slices. Cut the remaining 8
oranges and 3 lemons into medium slices.
2. To the 8 oranges and 3
lemons add water to cover. Boil slowly for 1 hour. Add water
occasionally to replace that boiling off. Press out the juice and strain
3. To the thinly sliced 4
oranges add water to cover and boil slowly till tender (3/4 to 1 hour).
Drain off the juice. Do not press. The slices must be kept whole. Strain
the juice and add to that from the first 8 oranges.
4. Mix the thin slices
with whole lot of juice.
5. Add 1 cup of sugar to
each cup of mixed juiceand slices. Boil slowly until a good jelly test
is obtained or until the marmalade boils at 220º F. or until the liquid
tests 32° Baumé or 60° Balling.
6. Allow to stand in the
pot about 5 min. or until the liquid cools to about 160° F. before
pouring into glasses. This allows the slices to absorb the sirup and
prevents their coming to the surface. Pour into glasses. Allow to cool
and seal with hot paraffin.
(61) Grape Fruit and
1. Grape Fruit Marmalade.
Proceed as in Recipe 60 but use grape fruit instead of oranges. Use the
same amount of lemon as in Recipe 60.
2. Apricot and Peach
Marmalade. Prepare an apple juice rich in pectin by boiling apples and
pressing as for jelly. To each cup of this juice add 3/4 cup of sugar
and about 1/4 cup of finely sliced peaches or apricots. Boil down until
a good jelly test is obtained. Pour boiling hot into glasses and seal.
Other marmaldes may be
made in a similar way.