The following recipes
contain directions for the can- fling of the most important fruits.
A discussion of the
principles of fruit canning will be found in Chapter III.
(1) Canning Peaches.
1. Pick the fruit when
firm ripe. It should be canned as soon after picking as feasible. If for
sale sort into three grades for quality. These may be called Extra
Fancy, Fancy, and Pie grade. The largest and most perfect fruit forms
the first grade; medium size and quality, the second grade; and the
soft, small, and blemished fruit is placed in the Pie grade.
2. Peel the fruit,
preferably by hand. The peeling knife illustrated in Fig. 2 will be
found very useful. Lye peeling is not recommended for small quantities
of fruit. See Recipe 4. The skin may be slipped from some varieties of
peaches after scalding in hot water and chilling in cold water.
3. Cut freestone peaches
in half and remove pit. Cut clingstone peaches to pit around narrow side
of the fruit. Insert pitting spoon at stem end, cut one-half of fruit
from pit; the peach then falls in halves and the pit may be scooped from
the adhering half by means of the pitting spoon. See Fig. 2. If the
clingstone peaches are soft or difficult to pit when peeled, they should
be pitted before peeling.
4. Addition of Sugar.
If three grades of fruit have been made, add 3/4 pound of sugar to each
pound of fruit of first grade; to the second grade 1/2 pound, and to the
pie grade, no sugar. If no grading has been done, add 1/2 to 3/4 pound
of sugar per pound of fruit, depending on the degree of sweetness
desired. Add just enough water to prevent scorching. Heat slowly to
boiling and 1)011 two or three minutes. This causes the fruit to shrink
before canning. Do not cook too long.
5. Pack boiling hot into
scalded jars or cans; fill with sirup formed in heating Place scalded
rubbers and caps on jars but do not screw down tightly. Place caps on
solder top cans; seal and tip as directed in step 7.
Place jars in washboiler or other sterilizer (see Fig 14), with hot
water in boiler half-way up sides of jars. Heat water to boiling and
keep boiling about 15 mm. for freestone varieties and 20 to 30 mm. for
firm clingstone varieties, such as Philips and Tuscan. Remove and seal.
Wax top cans are treated in same way as jars; the wax is not added until
the fruit is sterilized in the cans. Sterilize solder top cans in
boiling water after sealing; No. 1 and No. 2 cans 10 min. for soft
fruit, 15 min. for firm clingstone peaches; No. 2 1/2 and No. 3 cans 15
min. for soft fruit and 20 min. for firm clingstone varieties; No. 8 and
No. 10 cans, 30 to 40 min. Chill in cold water after sterilizing. The
times given will vary somewhat with the condition of the fruit. It is a
good plan to first sterilize two or three cans as a test before canning
any large quantity of the fruit.
7. Sealing Solder Top
(1) capping steel,
(2) tipping steel,
(3) soldering fluid,
(4) small bristle brush,
(5) a gasoline torch or gas flame to heat the irons.
(6) wire solder.
Tinning the Steels.
The points of the soldering steels must be kept bright and coated with
solder to be usable. Often the steels become overheated and the coating
is burned off. The steel must then be heated hot enough to melt solder
readily. The encrustations of burned solder must then he filed off with
a sharp file until the iron surface is well exposed. The hot steel is
then dipped momentarily in soldering fluid and the surface is coated
with solder or "tinned" by melting wire solder against the working
surface; or the filed hot steel is tinned by turning it in a mixture of
crystals of sal ammoniac and small pieces of solder. The steel must be
kept clean and free from carbonized sirup, corroded solder, etc., by
wiping with a stiff rag and occasional filing. Disappointment always
ensues when dirty steels are used. See appendix for method of making
Heating the Steels.
To start the gasoline torch, pump the reservoir to good air pressure;
fill the cup of the burner with gasoline by opening the cock; close the
cock and burn off the gasoline to heat the burner jet hot enough to
vaporize the gasoline; open the cock and light the burner. It should
burn with a roaring blue flame, not a smoking luminous one. If it does
not do so, increase the air pressure and heat the vaporizing jet of the
burner until a good flame results. Place the steels in the flame and
heat until they will melt solder quickly, but not hot enough to burn off
the "tinning." Experience is the only guide.
Cleaning the Surface
of Can and Can Top. After the can is filled, wipe out groove
carefully with a clean cloth. Apply lid. Clean the surface of groove and
edge of lid for soldering by brushing lightly with a small bristle brush
dipped in soldering fluid.
Soldering the Cap.
Clean the point of the hot capping steel with a cloth. Dip the steel in
soldering fluid an instant. Apply the steel to the groove of the can. If
solder hemmed caps are used no solder need be added. If plain caps are
used, a little solder must be melted into
the groove by pressing a
strip of wire solder against the lower part of the steel. Turn the steel
around two or three times in the groove to distribute the melted solder.
Raise the steel and press down on the rod through the center of the
steel a second or two to permit the solder to set enough to hold the lid
in place. Remove the steel. One heating of the steel is usually enough
for six to ten cans.
Tipping. After the can
has been capped and "exhausted " or heated to expand its contents, the
small hole in the center must be closed before sterilizing the can. To
do this, heat the small pointed tipping steel. Clean the point. Dip it
in soldering fluid. Clean the vent hole with the bristle brush dipped in
soldering fluid. Melt a drop of solder over the hole with the point of
the steel. With a little practice this can be (lone quickly-and neatly.
Methods for Canning Peaches.
Alternative Method A
In this method all of the
cooking of the fruit is carried out in the can or jar. Do not cook
1. Make a 60º Balling
sirup for first grade fruit (12 pounds of sugar per gallon water); see
table 3; a 40° sirup for second grade fruit, and use plain water for pie
2. Pack the peeled and
pitted fruit in cans or jars. Fill with boiling hot sirup or water
(according to grade of fruit).
3. Sterilize in jars as
in Recipe 1 for 20 min. at 212° F. for freestone peaches and 25 to 30
min. for clingstone peaches; 15 min. in cans for freestone peaches and
20 to 25 min, for clingstone peaches.
Alternative Method B. Use
of Fruit Juices Instead of Sugar
When sugar is very scarce
and expensive the amount needed for canning can be greatly reduced or in
some cases sugar may be omitted entirely by using the following method:
1. Press and strain the
juice from ripe grapes or apples or other fruit available. It should be
strained boiling hot.
2. To the strained juice
add baking soda in very small amounts. Stir after each addition and
taste. Continue the additions until almost all of the acid or tart taste
has disappeared. If this is not sweet enough add sugar to taste. Omit
soda if juice is very sweet.
3. Pack the prepared
fruit in cans or jars. heat the juice to boiling and fill the jars and
cans with it. Sterilize in the containers as directed in Alternative
Method A above.
(3) Canning Apricots.
1. Use ripe fruit that is
not too soft. Grade into Extra Fancy, Fancy, and Pie Grades.
2. Wash, cut in half and
remove pits. Do not peel.
3. Add 3/4 pound sugar to
each pound of best grade fruit; one-half pound to second grade, and none
to third grade. Add a small amount of water to prevent scorching. Bring
to a boil for 2 or 3 min.
4. Pack hot into jars or
cans. Seal and tip cans, but leave caps and rubbers loosely on jars.
5. Sterilize cans of No.
1 and No. 2 sizes, 8 mm.; No. 2 1/2 and No. 3, 15 min.; No. 8 and No. 10
cans and jars 20 to 25 min. Count time after the water boils. Use
washboiler or other convenient sterilizer. Chill cans in water after
sterilizing. Seal jars and wax top cans after sterilizing.
6. Alternative Methods
Alternative Method A
Make 60% and 40% sirups.
Pack pitted fruit in cans or jars cold. Add hot 60% sirup to Extra
Fancy, 40% to Fancy, and water to pie fruit. Seal cans. Sterilize as in
above method but increase the time 5 min. in each case.
Alternative Method B.
Canning in Fruit Juice
The method for canning
peaches in fruit juice de-acidified with baking soda may be used for
apricots. Omit soda if juice is sweet. See Recipe 2, Part B.
Alternative Method C. Lye
Apricots may be lye
peeled by the method given in Recipe 4. It is, however, not recommended
for home use.
(4) Lye Peeling
Peaches and Apricots.
This method of peeling is
not strictly suited to home use, but may be useful in larger scale
1. Prepare a 10% lye
solution, 12 ounces of lye per gallon of water. Heat this to boiling in
an iron pot or tank; do not use aluminum or tin. Keep at the boiling
2. Cut peaches and
apricots in half and remove pits. The fruit must be firm.
3. Immerse the fruit in
the boiling lye long enough to separate the skins from the flesh. This
will take 30 to 60 seconds. A metal conveyer is used in factories to
carry the fruit through the boiling lye. A wire basket will answer for
4. Immerse the fruit in
cold water after dipping and wash off the loosened peels. Rinse in water
till all lye is removed. The loosened skins can also be removed by
vigorous sprays of cold water. All lye must be removed or the fruit will
5. The peeled fruit is
then ready for canning or drying.
(5) Canning Pears.
The Bartlett pear is the
most popular for canning.
1. Gather the fruit when
it has reached full size but is still hard in texture. Allow it to ripen
in a cool, shady place. The flavor and texture of fruit so ripened are
superior to those of tree ripened fruit.
2. Peel; cut in half and
remove cores. See Fig. 2 for appearance of peeling and coring knives.
3. Grade into three
grades. If pears are held very long after peeling, cover with water to
4. Add 1/2 pound of sugar
to each pound of best grade; and about 1/4 pound to each pound of second
grade, and only water to pie grade,-Add water to cover to all grades to
prevent scorching. Pears will require more water than peaches or
apricots. Boil 2 to 3 min. and pack hot. Seal solder top and sanitary
5. Sterilize No. 2 1/2
and No. 3 cans 20 min; No. 8 and No. 10 cans 30 to 35 min; and jars 25
min, in boiling water. Cool cans in water and seal jars after
6. Alternative Methods.
Alternative Method A
Prepare a 40% sirup and a
20% sirup; 5 3/4 and 2 pounds sugar per gallon respectively. Pack
uncooked fruit, peeled in cans and jars Add boiling hot 40% sirup to
best grade; 20% to second grade, and water to pie grade. Seal cans.
Sterilize as above but add 5 min. time of cooking in each case. Pears do
not shrink very much in canning and therefore this method is well suited
Alternative Method B. Use
of Fruit Juices
Fruit juices may be
substituted for sugar sirups if method B of Recipe 2 is used.
(6) Canning of
Cherries for canning
should be of the sweet varieties and thoroughly ripe.
1. Stem and grade into
2. Pit with small kitchen
size pitter, if desired. Unpitted canned cherries develop a slight pit
flavor that many prefer to the flavor of the pitted fruit.
3. To best grade add 1/2
pound of sugar per pound of fruit; to second grade 1/4 pound. Add water
to cover. Add only water to pie fruit. Heat very slowly to boiling. Pack
boiling hot in cans or jars.
4. Sterilize as directed
for apricots and for same lengths of time. (See Recipe 3.)
(7) Canning of Apples.
Apples are usually canned
for pie making, and for thiS purpose sugar is ordinarily omitted. Use
ripe, sound fruit.
1. Peel and core the
apples and cut into quarters. Grading is not necessary. (See Fig. 4 for
small peeling and coring machine.)
2. Add a small amount of
water to apples in pot. Heat to boiling. Pack boiling hot into cans or
3. Sterilize No. 2 1/2 or
No. 3 cans, and wax top cans 10 min.; No. 8 and No. 10 cans 15 min. and
jars 15 min: in washboiler or similar sterilizer, counting time after
4. Sugar may be added in
"2" at rate of 1/2 pound of sugar per pound of fruit, if desired.
(8) Canning of Plums.
Plums tend to break up
badly during cooking and sterilization because the fruit is soft when
ripe. The white egg plum is popular for canning purposes.
1. Remove stems and grade
fruit into three grades. To each pound of best grade add one pound of
sugar; to second grade 1/2 pound. Add a little water to all three
grades. Heat to boiling and boil 2 or 3 min. Pack hot into jars or cans.
2. Sterilize for same
lengths of time as directed for apricots. (See Recipe 3, 5.)
3. Alternative Methods.
Plums may also be canned by the methods given in Recipe 2.
(9) Canning of Rhubarb.
Rhubarb, although a
vegetable, resembles the sour fruits in composition. It is canned as a
fruit rather than as a vegetable. It cooks down badly during
sterilization; it is therefore advisable to cook it before canning.
Plain tin cans cannot be used because of the high acidity of the
rhubarb. Enamel lined cans or glass jars must be employed.
1. Wash the rhubarb and
cut into lengths 1 to 2 inches long and place in a pot. If for sauce,
add 1 pound of sugar to each pound of rhubarb with a little water; if
for pie stock, only, add a little water. Bring to boil. Boil 3 to 4 min.
and pack hot into jars or cans. Use enamel lined cans; plain tin will
2. Sterilize in a
washboiler or other sterilizer in boiling water; No. 2 1/2 or No. 3 cans
10 min. and jars 15 min.
(10) Canning of
Rhubarb without Sterilization.
1. Choose clean sound
stalks. Cut in lengths to fit the jars used. Wash the rhubarb thoroughly
and scald the jars and caps.
2. Pack the rhubarb into
the jars and fill jars to overflowing with cold water. Seal tightly and
store in a cool place.
Rhubarb because of its
extreme acidity will keep several months to a year put up in this way.
(11) Canning of Figs.
Figs are canned as
preserves. White figs are preferred to black. Pick the figs firm ripe
but not too soft. Handle carefully.
1. To each pound of figs
in a pot add 1 pound of sugar and 2 pints of water. Cook very slowly
down to a heavy preserve or until the sirup boils at 220° F., or until
the hot sirup tests 28° Baumé or to 60° Balling. This will take at least
one hour. The figs should hold their shape. Some varieties of figs will
show shriveling during cooking unless the fruit is pierced in a number
of places with a tooth pick or large needle or table fork, so that the
sirup will penetrate. The figs will usually be more plump if punctured
in this way before cooking.
2. Pack the boiling hot
figs and sirup into cans or jars. Sterilize cans 15 min. and jars 20
min. at the temperature of boiling water as directed for peaches and
3. Figs in Water or Light
Sirup. During the rush of the season, it may be inconvenient, to make
the figs into preserves. If so, they may be canned in water or a 25%
sirup. Pack the fresh figs into cans or jars. Cover with a hot 25% sirup
(1 cup sugar to 3 cups water or 2 3/4 pounds per gallon), or with water.
Seal cans except wax top cans. Place covers and rubbers on jars and wax
top cans loosely. Sterilize 1 1/4 hours in boiling water. Figs are very
difficult to sterilize under these conditions and require at least one
hour at 212° F. Later these jars or cans may be opened and the figs
cooked down to a preserve with sugar. The Kadota, Brown Turkey, and
White Endich are the best of California grown figs for canning. The
Adriatic is fairly satisfactory. The Smyrna breaks up badly and the
Mission is dark colored. The Magnolia is used in Texas for canning. The
Celeste fig is excellent.
(12) Canning of
Strawberries are usually
preserved in a heavy sirup; but are also canned more or less extensively
in medium sirup. Strawberries shrink badly during sterilization.
Therefore, they should be cooked before canning. Use sound, ripe, well
1. Wash, sort, and stem.
2. Place the fruit in a
kettle and add an equal amount of sugar by weight. Heat slowly to
boiling. Boil slowly about 5 min. Allow to stand in the pot over night.
This allows the sirup to penetrate.
3. Pack into cans or
jars. Heat solder top and sanitary cans iii boiling water 3 to 5 min.
4. Sterilize cans 10 min.
and jars 15 min. in boiling water.
(13) Canning of
1. Sort into two grades:
one Fancy and the other Pie Grade.
2. To the better grade,
add an equal weight of sugar. Cook slowly until the sugar dissolves.
Pack into cans or jars. To pie grade add very small amount of water and
heat to boiling. Pack hot. Use enamel lined cans and glass jars only.
3. Sterilize cans 10 min,
at the boiling point of water and jar's 15 min.
4. Alternative Methods.
Alternative Method A
In this method pack the
berries into cans or jars before cooking. Add hot 50% sirup (1 pound
sugar to 1 pint of water), to better grade and water to pie grade.
Sterilize 20 min. at temperature of boiling water. Blackberries canned
in this way will shrink badly in volume after canning.
Alternative Method B
The berries may also be
canned as directed in Method B, Recipe 2.
(14) Canning of
Raspberries and Loganberries.
These berries may be
canned as directed for blackberries. (see Recipe 13.)
(15) Canning of
Oranges must, be
sterilized below the boiling point of water; not above 180° F. The fruit
must be very ripe or almost overripe in order that it will not turn
bitter in the can. A thermometer is necessary.
1. Peel and cut in slices
about 3/ inch thick. Pack into enamel lined cans or glass jars.
2. Prepare a 50% sirup (1
pound sugar to 1 pint of water). Heat the sirup to 150º F. and fill the
cans or jars. Seal the jars and cans tightly.
3. Place in a large pot
or boiler of water at about 120° F. The pot or boiler should contain a
false bottom of wire screen or wooden slats to protect the jars from the
direct heat of the fire. The jars and cans must be completely immersed.
4. Heat the water slowly
to 175° F. Keep it at this temperature for 45 min. Keep thermometer
inserted in the water and watch the temperature carefully; it should not
exceed 180° F.
Canned oranges do not
retain their flavor for any great length of time, usually not longer
than three months. After that time they become "stale" in flavor but are
(16) Canning of Grape
Grape fruit after
sterilization in cans or jars is very satisfactory as a base for fruit
cocktails, "before breakfast dishes," etc.
1. Peel and cut fruit in
small pieces about 34 inch square or of proper size for fruit cocktails,
etc. Pack into jars; if not in jars, in enamel lined cans. Plain tin
corrodes and cannot be used. Fill the jars or cans with fresh grape
fruit juice which has been heated to 150° to 160° F. Use a thermometer.
2. Sterilize as directed
for oranges for 30 min. at 175° F. (See Recipe 15.)
(17) Canning of Grapes.
The Muscat is the most
popular grape for canning. Use large, thoroughly ripe fruit. They are
used largely for pies. Other varieties may be used.
1. Wash and remove from
stems. Cut the grapes in half and remove seeds if a high quality product
2. Pack in cans or jars
without previous heating. To fruit for dessert purposes add a hot 40%
sirup, and to pie fruit, hot water.
3. Sterilize in a
washboiler or other sterilizer at 212° F.; cans 10 min.; jars 20 min.
Grapes may also be canned without removing seeds, but the quality of the
finished product is much better if seeds are removed.
(18) Canning of
extensively grown for canning in the Hawaiian Islands. Only fruit
thoroughly ripened in the field is used.
The fruit is first topped
and butted by machinery. It is next, peeled or cut to the diameter of a
No. 2 1/2 can and the core is removed in the same machine. The fruit is
then sliced. It is packed in cans, several grades being made according
to appearance of slices. A 50% (1 pound of sugar to 1 pint of water),
sirup is added to the best grade. The poorest grade is shredded and
canned in a light sirup. The cans are sterilized 35 to 40 min. at 212°
Canned pineapple may be
purchased more cheaply than fresh pineapple and unless there is a supply
of home grown material, it will not pay to can.
(19) Canning of
Currants, Cranberries, and Gooseberries.
These fruits may be put
up in jars for use in jams, jellies, and pies. Do not use tin because of
the high acidity of the fruit.
1. Wash and pack in jars
2. Add water hot and
sterilize with caps on jars loosely 10 min. in a washboiler or similar
sterilizer, counting the time from the time the water boils. Remove jars
and tighten caps.