The most important step
in the preparation of fruit juices is the sterilization of the juice.
Temperatures should be used which will sterilize the juices without
imparting a cooked taste. The recipes include directions for the
preparation of the fruit juices that have been found by experience to be
satisfactory beverages. Certain fruits such as peaches, apricots, and
prunes, do not give satisfactory juices and are therefore omitted.
(41) Apple Juice.
Apples for the production
of juice should possess a marked flavor. Winesap, Northern Spy,
Gravenstein, Newtown Pippin, are all good for this purpose. Use clean,
sound fruit and not wormy culls. A thermometer that may be immersed in
the juice or water will be necessary. A dairy thermometer reading to
185° F. or higher will answer the purpose. See Chap. VII for description
of crushers and presses.
1. Crush or grind the
fruit and press out the juice. If the fruit is heated to 150º to 160º F.
(not above 160° F.) for a few minutes it will press more easily. Heat
the juice to 150° F. in a pot.
2. Strain or filter the
juice through a jelly bag or other filtering device. It is usually
desirable to strain the juice twice.
3. Fill the juice into
bottles, allowing a space of about 1 1/2 inches in the necks of the
bottles for expansion of the juice during sterilization. Crown finish
bottles are best if any large amount of juice is to be put up.
4. Cork the bottles with
corks previously sterilized for 10 min. in boiling water. Tie the corks
down with a string to hold them in the bottles during sterilization. If
crown caps and bottles are used, place the caps on the bottles With a
crown bottle capping machine. (See Fig. 24.)
5. Pasteurization. Lay
the bottles in a horizontal position on the false wooden bottom of a
washboiler or large pot. Fill the boiler or pot with water. Heat the
water slowly until a thermometer held in the water registers 175° F.
Maintain this temperature for 20 min. (See Fig. 25.) For larger scale
pasteurization a large wooden vat with false bottom and heated with
steam coils may be used. The washboiler or other pasteurizer may be
filled full of bottles so long as the water completely covers them.
6. Paraffining the Corks.
As soon as the bottles are removed, clip the ends of necks and corks in
melted paraffin. Dip again when the bottles are cold. This prevents
molding. Dipping is not necessary for Crown Caps.
7. Canning Apple Juice.
The strained apple juice may also be pasteurized in cans. Enamel lined
cans are safer to use than plain tin lined cans because of the action of
the juice on tin. Fill the cans with juice. Seal them. Pasteurize as
described above for bottles. Solder top cans previously described, or
sanitary cans that may be sealed with a small hand power capping machine
may be used.
(42) Red Grape Juice.
1. Varieties of Grapes.
Red grape juice should have a pleasing and pronounced flavor in addition
to a deep red color and tart taste. Practically none of the European
varieties of red grapes grown in the United States possess all of these
characteristics. They are, however, found in Eastern varieties. They may
also he obtained from European varieties if two varieties of European
grapes are mixed or their juices blended.
An excellent combination
of European varieties is made of equal quantities of Muscat and any good
variety of red wine grape. The Muscat furnishes flavor. Petite Serah,
Zinfandel, Carignarne and Mat.aro or other common variety of red wine
grape may be used for color and acid. Better varieties for this purpose
are Barbera St. Macaire, and Refosco. The Muscat is a large white raisin
and shipping grape of very pronounced flavor. It is grown very
extensively in California. The other varieties are red wine grapes grown
in California. Any Eastern variety of good color may be used without the
addition of red wine grapes. Concord and Isabella are both good
2. Picking. The grapes
should not be too ripe. If a Balling sugar tester is available, test the
grapes from time to time during ripening. Muscat grapes should be picked
at about 22% sugar when tested with the Balling saccharometer; red
grapes at 18% to 20%, that is, when they are still quite acid or tart.
3. Crushing. Crush
thoroughly. This can be done in an agateware pot with a potato masher or
with the hands. If Muscats are used, mix with an equal amount of some
red wine grape.
4. Heating to Extract
Color. Heat the crushed grapes with a thermometer inserted until a
temperature of 140° F. is reached. Stir the grapes often. Remove the
heated grapes from the stove and allow to stand in an agateware or
aluminum pot overnight. On a large scale the grapes may be crushed in a
hand power grape crusher (see Fig. 22),. and heated in a wooden vat by
means of a tin steam coil or in a large tin lined or alum- mum steam
kettle. Both methods are used commercially. The juice may also be heated
after pressing from the grapes and then returned hot to the grapes to
remove the color.
5. Pressing. Press the
grapes after they have stood overnight as directed above. Small
quantities may be pressed through a jelly hag or flour sack. A
ciderpress (see Fig. 22), may be used for larger quantities.
6. Filtering. As directed
for apple juice, Recipe 41.
7. Bottling and
Pasteurizing. As for apple juice. Grape juice may also be pasteurized in
cans to good advantage.
Blackberry, and Raspberry Juices.
1. Use ripe well colored
berries. Crush thoroughly.
2. Heat in an agateware
or aluminum pot to 150º to 160º F. with a thermometer inserted.
3. Press hot through a
bag or press. Strain several times until fairly clear.
4. To each gallon of
loganberry or blackberry juice, add 2 lbs. of sugar. To each gallon of
raspberry juice, add 2 lbs. of sugar and 1 pt. of lemon juice.
5. Bottle, and pasteurize
as for apple juice.
6. The juice is diluted
with from one to two cups of water to each cup of juice before serving.
Loganberry juice has become one of the most popular fruit juice
beverages of the United States.
(44) Lemon Juice.
Lemon juice does not
retain its flavor well after pasteurizing. Cull lemons and "juice"
lemons may often be obtained from lemon orchards or packing houses very
1. Cut the lemons in
half. Remove the pulp and juice in a lemon squeezer or on a glass lemon
cone. Strain out coarse pulp.
2. Bottle and pasteurize
as directed for apple juice. (Recipe 41.)
Lemon juice develops a
"limey" or "stale" flavor in time but is still good for lemonade.
(45) Orange Juice.
1. Use ripe fruit.. Fruit
at the beginning of the season will make a bitter juice.
2. Peel the fruit to
remove oil cells. Crush and press out juice. Or cut the whole oranges in
half and remove pulp and juice on an orange cone.
3. Strain through a
cheesecloth. Do not remove all the pulp by straining because it contains
the flavor. Do not allow oil from the skins to get into the juice
because this in time becomes stale in flavor.
4. Bottle and pasteurize
as for apple juice. (See Recipe 41.)
Orange juice retains its
flavor only a short time, not more than two or three months and is not
very satisfactory as a bottled juice.
1. Mix 1 pint of lemon
juice with each gallon of orange juice. Add 2 lbs. of sugar to each
2. Bottle and pasteurize
as directed for apple juice. (Recipe 41.) To serve this juice, dilute
each cup of juice with 1 or 2 cupfuls of water.
This juice retains its
flavor much better than ordinary orange juice.
(47) Grape Fruit Juice.
1. Cut the fruit in half
and remove pulp and juice on a glass cone.
2. Strain through
3. Heat in an agateware
pot to 175° F. and fill into scalded bottles, filling them full.
4. Cork and tie down the
5. Place bottles in water
previously heated to 175° F. and keep at 175° F. for 20 min.
6. Remove bottles and
seal with paraffin. This method removes the air from the bottles and
prevents darkening of the juice, which would otherwise take place.
Grape fruit juice is the
most satisfactory of all citrus fruit juices. A great deal of this is
now bottled in Florida for sale.
(48) Pomegranate Juice.
1. Choose well colored
ripe fruit.. Cut fruit in half and remove kernels. Be careful not to get
any of rind or pulp mixed with the kernels.
2. Crush the kernels,
press out the juice and heat to 150º F.
3. Allow the juice to
stand overnight. Strain until fairly clear.
4. Add 1 lb. of sugar to
each gallon of juice.
5. Bottle and pasteurize
as directed for apple juice. (See Recipe 41).
(49) Pineapple Juice.
1. Use well ripened
fruit. Remove butts and rinds. Crush the pulp and press out the juice.
2. Heat the juice to 150º
to 160° F. in an agateware or aluminum pot. Allow to stand overnight.
3. Bottle and pasteurize
as directed for apple juice.
(50) Clarification of
In addition to
filtration, fruit juices may be made clear by the addition of various
substances which will coagulate and settle, carrying with them to the
bottom of the container, the material which causes the cloudiness. Clay,
casein, and the white of egg are the most suitable materials for this
purpose. Clay and casein are coagulated by the acid of the fruit juice.
Egg white must be coagulated by heating the juice.
1. Clarification with
Clay. Prepare a solution of good grade of clay by soaking 1 lb. of dry
clay in each gallon of water. (A clay known as Spanish clay is
considered best for this purpose, it being a medium grade of potters'
clay.) The clay is soaked for about 10 days and then worked with the
hands until it forms a smooth thin mud with the water.
To clarify apple juice
with clay, add 1 pint of the thoroughly mixed clay to each 10 pints of
juice and heat with stirring to 150° F. Let stand overnight.
The next morning pour off
the clear juice and filter the sediment. The juice is then bottled and
pasteurized as directed for unclarified juice. If clarification is
imperfect, use more clay.
For grape juice, use 3/4
pint of the clay to each 10 pints of juice; other juices, 1 pint to 10
of juice and proceed as with apple juice. Occasionally, the juice will
not become clear with this amount of clay and more must be added.
2. Clarification with
Casein. Casein may be bought through a drug store. It comes as a
granular powder. To dissolve it, add to each 3 oz. by weight of the
casein, 1 tablespoonful of sal soda and 1 pint of water. Boil till
dissolved and then add 7 pints of water.
Casein is used for grape
juice only. To each 10 gallons of juice, add 1/2 gallon of the casein
solution. Heat to 150° F.; allow to stand overnight; pour off clear
juice. and filter the sediment.
3. Clarification by
Combined Use of Casein and Clay. This combination gives good results
with grape juice. Add 1/2 gallon of the casein solution and 1/2 gallon
of the clay solution to each 10 gallons of juice and proceed as in "1."
4. Clarification with Egg
White. Mix the white of 1 egg with a half pint of water. Add this to
each gallon of grape juice. Heat to 175° F. and proceed as above. Egg
white gives good results with grape juice but is not satisfactory for
most other juices.