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Chilocco - Ponca, "Pah-Hahn-Kah," Gentle Leader

The man and the woman on the left is Lewis Broken Jaw and his wife, Louise Broken Jaw,The man and the woman on the left is Lewis Broken Jaw and his wife, Louise Broken Jaw, 1913.

The family on the right is Jack No Ear, second spouse of Creth Little Cook. The child is Alfred No Ear. Jack No Ear died and Creth remarried her first husband, Big Snake.

These names are simply attempted by English speaking interpreters to simplify the lovely descriptive language, No Ear could have been, "He Will Not Hear Quarreling." The interpreter wrote down, "No Ear."

Lewis Broken Jaw was the brother of Esther Broken Jaw, Little Cook, mother of Elizabeth Little Cook. Lewis's branch of the family returned to Nebraska with Chief Standing Bear. Lewis visited the area and his family here, only occasionally.

Sa-Su-Weh, Daniel Clark Jones, grandson of Elizabeth Little Cook, worked to film the story, "The Trial of Standing Bear," and it was aired nationally on PBS, one hundred years after the event occurred. The story was about the Ponca's forced removal from their Nebraska lands to Oklahoma.

Although the Ponca and Osage were separated, only by the Arkansas River, and were supposed to be both a branch off the Sioux, they were so different in personality. It was the Osage who named them, "Pah-Hahn-Kah," Gentle Leader". *The word Pah actually meant nose, or that part of the body to go before the rest, or in an English description, " leader."

It is sad to see the lovely, descriptive language no longer used, but since it is a difficult language to master few speak it. Too, the quiet gentle way so far apart from our everyday world is missed.

A member of the Ponca tribe, Liz King Switch, Indian name, Who-Cha, descendant of Sam Little Cook tells:

"My daughter missed the bus and didn't come home from school. I went to look for her and found her sitting on the steps of the school. She was sitting, patiently waiting. As we drove out the drive a coyote ran across the road in front of the car and I said to her, "Look! The old man has been watching you."

This is in agreement with their teaching that tells when a person is in a place where he shouldn't be, the coyotes sits off at a distance in the woods and watch their people relatives.

It is true, there is no other animal as like a human as a coyote. He is crafty, quick, inventive, and a survivor. The Poncas respect him and call him, "old man," or one who is wise.

Also, it is a warning, "Even when you think you are getting away with something, there is always someone there to see what you are doing. If it is but a coyote, remember, he is your relative."

*Page 129, The Osages, John Joseph Mathews, O.U. Press

    In March of the year 2006 Mr. and Mrs. Robinette along with their daughter. Tanya, and brother Sandy Taylor visited the Ponca tribe at White Eagle, Oklahoma. We of the Flood-Jones family were honored with their visit to our own home in the Osage.

    Upon their return to Nebraska five inches of snow fell on them and their home and we received good rains to break our short drought.  It was a way of marking, for us, our mutual pleasure at having met some of the tribe who was broken away from us so many years ago when Standing Bear returned to Nebraska.

    Here is some of Sandy Taylor's research into the Broken Jaw name. I feel this is rare and priviledged information shared.

The information below was provided by Joy Tibbits

Thank you for your permission. I have enclosed the chart with your information. Does it look okay?

Ponca Name

English Name

Donna Flood and Melvin Hardman, 1975[1]

1.     He-Sah-Dah

Rainmaker, Straight Paths


2.     Mah-Kahn



3.     Ne-Kah-Pash-Nah


No touching of deer meat


Half-Breed Clan

Children of intermarried.

5.     Wah-Zhah-She

Osage clan

The children of this clan are given snake names.

6.     The-Ah-He-Dah

Warrior clan

The chief’s clan


Elk clan


8.     Nu-Hay

Ice clan

There were only a few of these

9.     Man-Chu

Bear clan

These returned to Nebraska


Buffalo clan

Do not eat Buffalo or Deer meat. Policemen. Annie's [Little Cook] Indian name was Hay-Thaht-Dah-Way, referring to an eagle

11.   The-He-Dah

Blood clan

According to Cloe Eagle Rhoades, descendant, "We consider ourselves to be servants to the people."

12.   Unknown name


According to Melvin Hardman, who is no longer living, there were twelve clans, but he didn't know this last one.

[1] Donna Jones Flood wroteThese clans were shared with me by Melvin Hardman shortly before he passed away circa 1975… There are presently only seven or eight remaining clans at this time at 2001. They are listed at the base of the Standing Bear Statue in Ponca City, Ok.”, 29 October 2009)

Sandy and I are good friends. He has helped me so much in compiling this genealogy. He is a gold mine of information. I intend to give these books to Sandy before I publish them anywhere. He can just look at things and tell me where I've goofed. Not to say there won't be plenty of goofs involved. I have decided to go the way of databases or else this book would be way too large. I do have more Brokenjaw info in other databases in the other Ponca genealogy book which include the following:
Names from early census records and ethnologists [James Owen Dorsey and Alice Fletcher & Francis LaFlesche

Broken Jaw

Broken Jaw, De-be-rah; 1874 Over the Land Band #4, lived in Grey Blanket Village; 1 man; 1 woman; 2 boys


Broken Jaw; The´baxon; male; Over the Land Band, 1874 Fletcher & LaFlesche Census


Broken Jaw, Lah-bah-hah; 1878 Little Picker Band #5, lived mile SE Agency, owned 3 ponies; 1 man; 2 women; 3 boys; 2 girls


Broken Jaw; ¢a-ba´-qan; male; Makan clan; Dorsey p. 39 "


Broken Jaws

Broken Jaws, Hay-bah-hon; 1860 One Leg Band #18; 1 man; 1 woman; 2 girls

1880 Dakota Territory Census

Census #

English Name

Ponca Name







Broken Jaw







Ice Woman







Old Buffalo







Kaw’s Head







Big Belly







Makes Ground Dusty By Stamping




4 months


Nebraska Allotment Rolls [Unlike in Oklahoma, married women did not receive allotments in their name. They were listed on the roll, but no allotment acreage was assigned.]



1890 Allotment Roll

1915 Allotment Roll


Anna Brokenjaw Knudsen, female, adopted child of Mary Knudsen, age 8, 90.06 acres

Anna Brokenjaw Knudsen(Rhodd), allotted 80 acres, all of allotted land patented or sold by 1915



Lewis Brokenjaw, Kanzepa, male, father, age 25, 320 acres

Brokenjaw, Lewis, living in Sep 1915, competent, part of allotted land patented or sold by 1915


Mary Brokenjaw, female, wife, age 18



Augusta Brokenjaw, female, daughter, age 1, 80 acres

Brokenjaw, Augusta, dead 30 May 1892. Heirs are Lewis Brokenjaw, Mary Keg Brokenjaw.



Edward Buffalo Chief or Edward Brokenjaw, male, son of Luther Brokenjaw, age 10, 80 acres

Buffalo Chief, Edward, living in Sep 1915, competent



Brokenjaw, Thebahan, male, father, age 64, 320 acres

Brokenjaw, dead 6 Apr 1898



Benjamin Brokenjaw, male, son, age 10, 80 acres

Brokenjaw, Benjamin, dead 19 Mar 1892. Heir is Lewis Brokenjaw.



Luther Brokenjaw, male, father, age 29, 320 acres

Brokenjaw, Luther, dead 11 Jun 1893, all of allotted land patented or sold by 1915


Rising Sun, female, wife, age 23



Alfred Brokenjaw, male, son, age 3, 80 acres

Brokenjaw, Alfred, dead 24 Aug 1906. Heirs are Edward Brokenjaw and Mildred Crazy Bear.


Nebraska Households from Census & Annuity Roll Records. "NC" is short for "Nebraska Census" and "NA" is short for "Nebraska Annuity" [I 've only completed this through 1884, but will go much longer. I will just put the first and last year someone is listed in the household. I have hopes of doing this until 1914, which will take many months to complete.]




Brokenjaw, The-ba-han, male, head of household,  ( Nov 1880 NC #101, age 54; Aug 1882 NC #16, household of 1 man & 2 boys ; Aug 1883 NC #13, household of 1 man & 2 boys; Jul 1884 NC #92, age 58)


Ice Woman, Nu-ge-win, wife of Brokenjaw in 1880 ( Nov 1880 NC #102, age 46, not listed after 1880)


Brokenjaw, Luther or Old Buffalo, Te-han-ga, male, son of Brokenjaw ( Nov 1880 NC #103, age 17, head of household in 1882)


Brokenjaw, Lewis or Kaws Head, Kan-ze-pa, male, son of Brokenjaw ( Nov 1880 NC #104, age 15;  Jul 1884 NC #94, age 19)


Big Belly, Ni-ha-tan-ga, male, grandson of Brokenjaw, ( Nov 1880 NC #105, age 3); died 4 qtr 1883 (5 Mar 1884 NA # 99)


Brokenjaw, Benjamin or Makes Ground Dusty by Stamping, Manasude, male, son of Brokenjaw ( Nov 1880 NC #106, age 4 months;  Jul 1884 NC #95, age 4)


Visible Sun, Migthitanin, wife of Brokenjaw in 1884 (Jul 1884 NC #93, age 55)

Brokenjaw, Luther



Brokenjaw, Luther or Old Buffalo, Tehanga, male, head of household (Aug 1882 NC #17, household of 1 man, 1 woman, 1 boy; Aug 1883 NC #14, household of 1 man, 1 woman, 1 boy; Jul 1884 NC #131, age 25


Brokenjaw, Emma Uhipatan, male, wife of Luther Brokenjaw in 1884 (Jul 1884 NC #132, age 17)


Brokenjaw, Edward or Roll Over, Okipata, male, son of Luther Brokenjaw (Jul 1884 NC #133, age 4)


Brokenjaw, Anna or New Hawk, Gthedanwitega, female, daughter of Luther Brokenjaw (Jul 1884 NC #134, age 2)

I have also completed the 1900 Federal Census for Oklahoma & Nebraska. I thought you might find the following entry of interest:


Little Cook, Esther, widowed, landlady, mother of 9 children, 6 living, lived in fixed home



born in 1848

age 51

born in Nebr

0 white


Little Cook, Fannie, widowed, mother of 1 child, 0 living



born in 1871


born in Nebr

0 white


Water, Jesse, landlord, married 8 years



born in 1864

age 36

born in Nebr

0 white


Water, Annie Little Cook, married 8 years, mother of 1 child, 0 living



born in 1871

age 28

born inNebr

0 white

You may certainly use any of this on your website.

Subject: Re: Permission
Date: Thu, 29 Oct 2009 13:02:26 -0500

So good to hear from you and what a wealth of information this is.  May I please list it on my page with the genealogy on Electric Scotland's website?
Of course, use any information I have.  There is, just to inform you, discussion about me listing 12 clans, when there are only 7 or 8 clans now.  These 12 clans were given to me by an elder who is no longer living. I know they are real because I heard my grandmother speak of them.  I have them listed here:
Here is where the Broken Jaw material I received just a couple years ago, and I would like to add your material here, too, of course, giving you credit?
This material you send me validates the Bear clan returning to Nebraska as Melvin Hardman told.
Thank you so much.

BROKEN JAW, Agent wrote “that on the evening of the 11 inst. Five Ponca Indians with their families stole off from this reservation, and a reported as having started for their old reservation in Dakota, viz. Iron Thunder, four in his family; Broken Jaw, five in family; White Dog, eight in his family; The Bear, two in family; and Little Cook five in family, making twenty-four (24) persons in all.” (15 April 1879 Ponca Agency Letter)

BROKEN JAW, father of Louis Brokenjaw, Luther Brokenjaw, Knows the Country, Benjamin Brokenjaw, Esther L. Cook and Mrs. Henry Bear (1902 Nebraska Name Revision Roll #46)

BROKENJAW; land patented 4 May1916; document # 613410; (Nebraska, Ponca Land Patents, Access Genealogy Website at ( 2 September 2009)

BROKENJAW, was married to Nujawin. They were parents of Luther Brokenjaw who died 11 June 1893, Lewis Brokenjaw and Benjamin Brokenjaw; allotted 26 May 1891, died 6 April 1898, heirs were the following:

1.     Lewis Brokenjaw, son, 7/288

2.     Jeffrey Knows the Country, grandson 24/288

3.     Albert Roy, granddaughter, 24/288

4.     Joe Four Eyes, grandson, 24/288

5.     Hairy Bear, son-in-law 18/288

6.     Annie Little Cook Waters, granddaughter, 9/288

7.     Philip No Ear, husband of granddaughter,  3/288

8.     Katherine No Ear, daughter of granddaughter 2/ 288

9.     Sarah No Ear, daughter of granddaughter 2/ 288

10.   Sadie No Ear, daughter of granddaughter, 2/288

11.   Creth Others (nee Little Cook), granddaughter 9/288

12.   Lizzie Personeau, granddaughter 9/288

13.   Henry Little Cook, grandson, 9/ 288

14.   David Little Cook, grandson, 9/288

15.   Edward Brokenjaw, grandson, 24/288

16.   Anna B. Rhodd, granddaughter, 24/288

17.   Joseph Crazy Bear, son-in-law,, 12/ 288

18.   Perry Crazy Bear, great grandson, 12/288


(Ponca Tribe of Nebraska Archives, Brokenjaw estate, Nebraska probate #95561-15, p. 1)



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