Agriculture Chapter V. The Control of
26. What Weeds tell us
Following what I had to say a few pages back about weeds
in meadow ground and the increase of yellow rattle therein, I took the
advice of a crofter correspondent in the Outer Isles, who suggested I should
describe the weeds that can be expected under different soil conditions and
in different crops, and what measures can be taken to control them. For, let
it be said, there are more ways of getting rid of weeds than the bald
frontal attack of pulling them up.
The weeds we are most likely to be troubled with in the
West Highlands are those of wet ground and sour ground, and those indicative
of light, poverty-stricken, arable soils. Let us take first those indicative
of bad drainage ; unfortunately, it does not need to be the weeds which must
first tell us that ground is wet, but at least the appearance of horsetails,
rushes and cuckooflower, and a sponge of moss may tell us of a stoppage in
an otherwise well-drained pasture. The evidence given by such plants is
worth following up, and if the drain is cleared it is probable that those
weeds indicative of wetness will disappear without our positive action
against them. But do not leave rushes to chance: when they appear first in
an otherwise clean pasture, dig them out and be done with them.
This would be good early potato ground, and seaweed
would not be hard to get. The crofts look trim and well kept. The oat
crop also looks a good one. The bracken is evidently creeping in, from
the appearance of the foreground. Many crofters in such a district as
West Sutherland would think themselves fortunate with stretches of
arable as good as this. Small mechanized agriculture is possible here,
and vegetables for the Skye tourist trade would do well.
Moss appearing in either meadow or pasture indicates too
damp conditions: it can be checked by constant spike harrowing, but it
should be remembered that prevention is better than cure—in other words,
drain the ground if possible. If horsetails appear commonly
over the surface of the ground, it is essential to drain as soon as possible
and plough the ground, because too much horsetail in hay or pasture is
dangerous to stock. Creeping buttercup is another weed of damp pastures. It
is not relished by stock and, in fact, it is detrimental in their food, and
this weed has the habit of ousting a great deal of grass and clover. It is
also a weed of sour land, and the only answer is drain, lime and plough.
The control of rushes will need a section to itself and
will be treated overleaf, especially as this has been a subject of several
letters from crofters.
Wet ground soon makes sour ground, especially if the
water is stagnant, but all sour ground is not all wet: for example, a sand
and peat mixture overlying glacier-borne gravel is common in the Highlands
and is extremely dry, but still sour to the extent that it is very poor in
lime. Such dry soils grow a fine plant of heather if they are in their
undisturbed state and we cannot look upon such good stuff as a weed, but
this land when ploughed and in regular arable use soon becomes
extraordinarily weedy. Such ground when in grass shows but a thin plant of
herbage, in which the little yellow flower, tormentil, seems to be the chief
constituent. Some people find the tormentil a nuisance when milk cows are
grazing on it, for it tends to produce stringiness in milk. I have plenty of
tormentil in my ground but have never found it cause any trouble. In its
favour, it may be said that an infusion of tormentil is a good cure for
diarrhoea in man or beast.
Ordinary sour ground inclined to dampness is ideal for
the growth of dockens, crowsfoot, sorrels and persicaria. Once more, it is
better to go for the root cause by ploughing, and liming as heavily as
possible, though dockens should be pulled by hand and burnt whenever they
appear. The roots of the docken will sprout again if the plant breaks in
pulling, and if it is pulled when early in flower and left on the field it
is hardy enough to ripen the seeds before it really dies. The crofter farms
on a small scale and should therefore have time to tackle his weeds in a
more individual manner than the larger farmer. Gather them up and burn them.
Some annual weeds will break down in a compost heap, but burning is the only
safe thing with dockens.
It is not only these weeds which are discouraged by
liming. Liming appears to be one of the most effectual means of controlling
weeds that we have—not only quick or burnt lime, but those forms more
readily available at present, such as ground limestone and shell-sand. Time
and time again we come back in our agricultural problems to this basic
necessity of liming.
27. Eradication of Rushes
Until the plough-up campaign of this war changed the face
of England, I used to think the most prominent plant in the pastures was the
creeping thistle. Happily this curse is not quite so troublesome in the West
Highlands, but there is another plant which is even commoner in our pastures
now than thistles were in England before the war. I am alluding to rushes.
This vigorous weed grows strongest in damp ground, but as
many a man has pointed out, draining is not the whole answer in getting rid
of rushes. They also grow on relatively dry land as well, though not so
strongly. The main fact is that rushes grow on land which is short of lime,
so that liming must accompany drainage if they are to be completely
It is always worth while taking the trouble to observe
how plants grow; a knowledge of their habits can help considerably in the
control of weeds. Are they annuals or perennials? What like is the rooting
system, and has the plant means of food storage? When does it seed? Does it
develop better in pasture or in meadow ground?
Let us watch the common rush. It grows from seed and not
from underground stems, but the plant which grows from one seed so enlarges
its basal area that it can quite well occupy a square yard of ground. You
will notice that the stems are packed together extremely closely and exclude
most other kinds of growth. Now cattle will graze the tops of young rushes
and make it a little harder for them to become strongly established, but
sheep will not touch them, and instead graze most carefully all round the
clump. This is exactly what the rushes want—the competitive growth of grass
is being removed and the clump grows bigger, until it eventually comes
against the outer edge of the next clump and the grass is excluded. If
rushes are newly appearing in a grass park, eradication would be hastened by
taking a hay crop off it instead of grazing it, and putting strong cattle on
to clear the aftermath.
Cattle cannot be expected to get down a well-established
stand of rushes. The answer is very hard work. A scythe snath should be
fitted with a short wrought-iron blade of the old-fashioned kind we used to
have before the type with the riveted spine became common. The grass-hook
should also be strong and well secured. The blade needs keen and frequent
sharpening. All that is now needed is a strong back and perseverance.
The rush clump should be cut absolutely flush with the
ground, or as the clump often tends to form a mound of earth and old growth,
the mound itself should be shorn off. Nothing but a stiff wrought-iron blade
will stand up to that sort of treatment and the snatch it is necessary to
put into the stroke to get through the clump at all. As soon as the rushes
are cleared, I have found myself that the best deterrent to further growth
is a thick layer of shell-sand over the exposed crown of the clump. [Mr
Duncan Macaulay, Breascleit, Isle of Lewis, and of the Lewis W.A.E.C., tells
me that he has had excellent results in eradicating rushes by covering the
shorn crown of the rush clump with a good dollop of seaweed. The effect is
one of smothering the plant, as in my own treatment of shell-sand.]
The ground should be used for hay in the next year after an autumn grazing.
The rushes themselves should be dried and stacked for
bedding so that they may ultimately be returned to the ground as manure.
There is no doubt, of course, that ploughing is the best
means of getting rid of rushes, or disc harrowing a sufficient number of
times to cut up the roots into fragments and leave them loose on the top.
What is needed then is time and fine weather to rake the dried masses of
roots into heaps for burning.
28. Corn Spurrey or Yarr
One of the most prevalent weeds of arable land in the
Highlands is corn spurrey, or yarr as we more generally call it. It has
ruined many a corn crop and beaten the hoe in root crops when labour has
been short or the season unduly wet. And it has the added disadvantage of a
most objectionable scent.
How are we to get rid of it?
First of all, let us always remember what weeds indicate
in the way of soil conditions, and ask ourselves how we can alter those
conditions so that extermination of weeds does not depend wholly on our
banging away at them with the hoe. A field overrun by yarr means shortage of
lime. The application of two tons of ground limestone or five tons of
shell-sand to the acre would effect an immediate improvement, though, of
course, lime does not do away with the necessity of applying elbow grease as
well! Again, when I see the yarr running ahead of the corn crop in spring
and the few shoots of corn themselves looking yellow, I know the soil is
short of nitrogen. About 1½ cwt. of nitro-chalk to
the acre when the corn is very young would stimulate the growth of the corn
more than of the yarr, so that the corn would get above the yarr and not be
choked out. Once again, this indirect method of overcoming the weed is
lazy-man's farming unless it is backed up by a direct attack on the weed at
such times in the rotation as it is possible.
My advice to anyone with a field of young corn overrun by
yarr is to cut the loss by letting the ewes and lambs on to it. Let them eat
it hard down; then plough it in, apply lime if possible, and sow out the
ground direct with grass seed late in June. The manuring and treading by the
sheep will be a great help to the success of the grass seeds.
If, however, you know quite well in the early spring that
the ground is foul with yarr, there is no point in sowing oats there and
losing the crop. The best thing would be to get on the ground early, plough
it and cultivate it; wait till the weeds germinate, and then cultivate it
and harrow it again to kill that particular batch. Another lot will soon be
growing and that should be treated the same way. Lime could be applied at
any time during these cultivations. Keep the cultivator or harrows going all
through the dry spring weather. It may be too late then to sow out in corn,
and in any case, as the ground is probably very poor, you would do better to
miss a year of the rotation and sow rape and Italian rye-grass instead. This
will be fit to graze in July and should be kept grazed while ever there is a
bite on it. The ground could then be ploughed in the following spring and
either sown with corn or planted with potatoes. The yarr will have been
drastically reduced and the condition of the soil much improved. Remember
the lime and use as much shell-sand as you can afford to carry.
Self-respect is one of the great upholders of human life.
It pervades all our activities and without it we sink into apathy and
defeatism, which means the finish of us as a race of people. For an
agricultural community, a countryside overgrown with weeds is a deep wound
to self-respect. At least, if you doubt me, see what a kick the man with a
really clean croft gets out of life. A garden or a crop of roots overgrown
with annual weeds may be the result of bad luck, such as a wet spring which
did not give hoeing time but grew the weeds, or the urgent presence of some
other task. But when we look over a piece of permanent grassland in
September and see it growing yellow heads of ragwort, red heads of dockens
and snowy heads of seeding thistles, we know there is more to it than bad
luck; there is bad management.
Ragwort is a horrible weed, of which I have read that it
is eaten by sheep and can be kept in check by grazing them. I am not
impressed by this oft-repeated half-truth. The West Highlands have quite
twice as many sheep wandering about the low ground than there should be, yet
there are several thousand times as much ragwort than there should be on
that same ground. It is not only growing in the permanent grass of the
crofts themselves in many townships, but it has invaded the common grazings
and roadsides as well. The weed can be a definite poison to horses and is
probably responsible for more trouble in cattle than we know. Where it
occurs in grass cut for hay it does not dry as other weeds do, but continues
green and soft, and may prevent the hay being carried when the grass itself
Happily, ragwort has a tough stem and no deep taproot.
The sovereign remedy is to pull it up. The weed comes away good and clear,
and I know that I feel a real pleasure in pulling them up. The plants so
pulled are finished, and it is possible in a few years to rid the ground
completely. Few weeds advertise themselves so well and few are easier
pulled. The right hand should be held thumb down round the stem near the
ground, and the left hand helping to pull higher up the stem. The weeds
should be gathered in bundles and burnt, as they have the power of ripening
and disseminating the seed for a good while after they have been pulled.
The ragwort on common grazings where the soil tends to be
sandy presents a problem to be tackled co-operatively. When a thing is
nobody's private responsibility it becomes everybody's public
responsibility; at least, that is how it should be. I have recently read a
book called The Gael Fares Forth, by N. R. Mackenzie, describing the
success in New Zealand of a large group of Highlanders from the
north-western districts. These men and women were the great-uncles and aunts
of the crofters of to-day, and they did not hesitate to co-operate whenever
the public good demanded it. When there was a big job of work to do they
organized a "frolic" as they called it and made light of the labour in the
fun they got out of the social occasion. War on the ragwort could best be
waged by an annual frolic in July, with sports for the children to follow.
30. Dockens, Thistles, Onion Couch and Twitch
What a picture of decrepitude is conjured up by this
sub-title! Dockens and thistles are often encouraged by using dirty grass
seed—or to put it more bluntly, by not using a proper seeds mixture at all
but using the sweepings of the byre loft or barn after the winter. There is
no doubt that the first measure of control of these two weeds is to use
clean seeds mixtures. Onion couch grass and the stringy-rooted twitch grass
are weeds of arable ground which has not been fallowed enough or has not
been cleaned well while it was under a root crop. But these two grasses do
also reproduce from seed, so once more we can say it is wise to sow clean
When dockens appear so thick in a crop of young grass as
to make it almost impossible to pull them up, roots and all, it is better to
graze the ground continuously. Both cattle and sheep enjoy the young docken
leaves, and after a few years the weed will disappear. Careful pulling and
burning is desirable in ground which must be kept under the plough, and if
the produce of docken-infested ground is fed to stock or used for bedding
them, care should be taken with the manure heap to get it hot and so kill
the seeds. Heating in the manure can be encouraged by turning the heap and
mixing in seaweed and a certain amount of horse manure. Both dockens and
thistles should be prevented from seeding.
Thistles are of several kinds. The spear thistle, so dear
as a Scottish emblem, has nothing but handsome appearance to commend it.
Fortunately, it lives only two years and does not increase in any other way
than by seeding. The strict use of the spud on these thistles would soon
clear the ground. But the creeping thistle is a much worse enemy. I once
heard a farmer say he doubted whether the seeds of creeping thistle did
germinate at all. It is quite possible they do not ripen sufficiently every
year, but the farmer was emphasizing his respect for the creeping powers of
this thistle. And this I echo. Though it is not as common a weed in the West
Highlands generally as it is in the Lowlands, there are pockets of it on the
better soils and we ought to tackle it conscientiously each year.
I am doubtful whether creeping thistles can be kept down
in pasture by regular mowing before they seed. I have tried this on an
experimental patch for five years and they are still as strong as ever.
Ploughing out early in the year is probably the best cure, with plenty of
fallowing cultivations in the dry weather of March and May. A well-cleaned
root crop on such ground would finish off the thistles.
Couch grass is a truly dreadful weed, common at the edge
of cultivated ground and in poor, thin grass. Do not knock it about with
harrows or the little strings of "onions" will break up, and each of these
little stores of food material will make a new plant of couch. The best way
is to plough with two ploughs, the first taking off a thin layer and putting
it upside down at the bottom of a deep furrow. The second plough turns over
a deep furrow slice on top of the couch which will now be buried. Subsequent
cultivations should not be deep enough to disturb the buried layer.
Of course, many of our crofting soils are not deep enough
for this treatment. The only thing to do then is to grow a smother crop in
spring like white mustard, eat it off with cattle and sheep as quickly as
possible when it is ready, then plough again immediately and sow out with
good grass and clover at the end of June. Rushes serve as a reservoir and
hiding-place of onion couch grass. Though this weed likes dry conditions and
dense rushes like damp, it will be found that the heart of a clump of rushes
provides a good dry bed in which the couch can grow.
Twitch, or creeping bent, needs bare fallowing, because
it cannot be hoed successfully from a root crop. Grass is exasperating stuff
under a hoe because it does not cut clean, but every segment of this
creeping twitch will produce a new root if it gets half a chance. The bare
fallow is a form of husbandry we should do well to use a little oftener in
the West Highlands, though I fully realize that at the moment we are short
of men and the means of cultivation to work land for no crop until the end
of June. As Highland economy is arranged at present, the period of dry
weather in May when bare fallowing should be taking place is unfortunately
fully occupied by cutting and drying the peats.
There are quite half a million acres of bracken in
Scotland. No other weed can equal this in extent, nor in damage to grazing.
Yet it is not among the "scheduled" weeds, for the powers-that-be realize
that this immense total of bracken, much of it growing on steep hillsides,
could not be cut each year, however willing we might be to do it. All the
same, I am not sure that we are quite willing enough to do what we can,
because I see lots of bracken growing luxuriantly on ground which could be
ploughed. Such a state of affairs as that is out-and-out bad farming.
There are many ways of getting rid of bracken, both
mechanical and biological, but they are all expensive and grow even more so
with the rise in agricultural wages. The value of hill grazing, where most
of the bracken is, remains at between sixpence and two shillings an acre a
year. One way of reducing bracken is to cut it twice a year in June and
August for several years in succession. This is perhaps the surest way, but
the cost is repaid only on land which is then fit to run as arable. You can
also import herds of pigs and fold them on the patches of bracken: though
you may agree with my personal feeling that the cure would be worse than the
disease! These are examples of a mechanical and biological method of
control. There are also chemical methods such as spraying with potassium
chlorate, and it is possible that this may be the cheapest way in the future
when we can have our bracken sprayed from out-of-work bombers. But I don't
profess to know.
Some people have taken up a cry that cattle grazing will
cure bracken, and such a statement has been actually attributed to me. I
have said no such thing because I know it to be wrong. The truth is this:
bracken has increased enormously in the last half century, and its increase
has in some measure corresponded with a decrease in the number of cattle
grazing the hills. There can be no doubt that bracken increases under sheep
grazing and under sparse grazing of cattle. But this is a very different
thing from saying that a heavier stocking of cattle will cure bracken. It
won't. Where bracken has properly got hold of a hillside no grazing density
of cattle will keep it down. Where there is little or no bracken, an
increased cattle population may be expected to preserve such a happy state.
That is all we can say at present.
Sheep farming calls for much more moor burning than when
a large number of cattle is kept in addition to a moderate number of sheep.
In my opinion, this far too constant burning is one of the main causes for
the increase of bracken. I have particularly watched several pieces of
heather burning in the West and have noticed the immediate increase of
bracken on such patches. Indeed, the line of the burning can be seen years
after by a total covering of bracken in some instances. This happens
especially on very poor geological formations such as the Torridonian
There is at present a most unfortunate antagonism between
forestry and sheep farming, the sheep men bitterly resenting what they
consider to be the encroachment of forestry on to their best slopes. But
what can the sheep farmers do about the immense acreage of bracken on
hillsides which are inaccessible to machines? These areas provide grazing
for only a very short period of the year and in ever-lessening quantity. I
believe these hillsides should be afforested as soon as possible as the only
means of eradicating the bracken during the life span of the trees, and
without the expensive intervention of human labour. Concomitantly, the
Forestry Commission might co-operate with the sheep farmer in being prepared
to fence some rather odd shapes of ground. There is no doubt that forestry
will be one of the main opportunities for part-time labour for crofters in
the years ahead—and surely it is better than cutting bracken!
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