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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Part 4: A.D. 1015 - 1051


A.D. 1015.  This year was the great council at Oxford; where Alderman Edric betrayed Sigferth and Morcar, the eldest thanes belonging to the Seven Towns.  He allured them into his bower, where they were shamefully slain.  Then the king took all their possessions, and ordered the widow of Sigferth to be secured, and brought within Malmsbury.  After a little interval, Edmund Etheling went and seized her, against the king's will, and had her to wife.  Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary, went the etheling west-north into the Five Towns,  and soon plundered all the property of Sigferth and Morcar; and all the people submitted to him.  At the same time came King Knute to Sandwich, and went soon all about Kent into Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the Frome; and then plundered in Dorset, and in Wiltshire, and in Somerset.  King Ethelred, meanwhile, lay sick at Corsham; and Alderman Edric collected an army there, and Edmund the etheling in the north.  When they came together, the alderman designed to betray Edmund the etheling, but he could not; whereupon they separated without an engagement, and sheered off from their enemies.  Alderman Edric then seduced forty ships from the king, and submitted to Knute.  The West-Saxons also submitted, and gave hostages, and horsed the army.  And he continued there until midwinter.

A.D. 1016.  This year came King Knute with a marine force of one hundred and sixty ships, and Alderman Edric with him, over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade; whence they proceeded to Warwickshire, during the middle of the winter, and plundered herein, and burned, and slew all they met. Then began Edmund the etheling to gather an army, which, when it was collected, could avail him nothing, unless the king were there and they had the assistance of the citizens of London.  The expedition therefore was frustrated, and each man betook himself home. After this. an army was again ordered, under full penalties, that every person, however distant, should go forth; and they sent to the king in London, and besought him to come to meet the army with the aid that he could collect.  When they were all assembled, it succeeded nothing better than it often did before; and, when it was told the king, that those persons would betray him who ought to assist him, then forsook he the army, and returned again to London.  Then rode Edmund the etheling to Earl Utred in Northumbria; and every man supposed that they would collect an army King Knute; but they went into Stafforddhire, and to Shrewsbury, and to Chester; and they plundered on their parts, and Knute on his.  He went out through Buckinghamshire to Bedfordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into Northamptonshire along the fens to Stamford.  Thence into Lincolnshire.  Thence to Nottinghamshire; and so into Northumbria toward York.  When Utred understood this, he ceased from plundering, and hastened northward, and submitted for need, and all the Northumbrians with him; but, though he gave hostages, he was nevertheless slain by the advice of Alderman Edric, and Thurkytel, the son of Nafan, with him.  After this, King Knute appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, as Utred was; and then went southward another way, all by west, till the whole army came, before Easter, to the ships.  Meantime Edmund Etheling went to London to his father: and after Easter went King Knute with all his ships toward London; but it happened that King Ethelred died ere the ships came.  He ended his days on St. George's day; having held his kingdom in much tribulation and difficulty as long as his life continued.  After his decease, all the peers that were in London, and the citizens, chose Edmund king; who bravely defended his kingdom while his time was.  Then came the ships to Greenwich, about the gang-days, and within a short interval went to London; where they sunk a deep ditch on the south side, and dragged their ships to the west side of the bridge.  Afterwards they trenched the city without, so that no man could go in or out, and often fought against it: but the citizens bravely withstood them.  King Edmund had ere this gone out, and invaded the West-Saxons, who all submitted to him; and soon afterward he fought with the enemy at Pen near Gillingham. A second battle he fought, after midsummer, at Sherston; where much slaughter was made on either side, and the leaders themselves came together in the fight.  Alderman Edric and Aylmer the darling were assisting the army against King Edmund.  Then collected he his force the third time, and went to London, all by north of the Thames, and so out through Clayhanger, and relieved the citizens, driving the enemy to their ships.  It was within two nights after that the king went over at Brentford; where he fought with the enemy, and put them to flight: but there many of the English were drowned, from their own carelessness; who went before the main army with a design to plunder.  After this the king went into Wessex, and collected his army; but the enemy soon returned to London, and beset the city without, and fought strongly against it both by water and land.  But the almighty God delivered them.  The enemy went afterward from London with their ships into the Orwell; where they went up and proceeded into Mercia, slaying and burning whatsoever they overtook, as their custom is; and, having provided themselves with meat, they drove their ships and their herds into the Medway.  Then assembled King Edmund the fourth time all the English nation, and forded over the Thames at Brentford; whence he proceeded into Kent.  The enemy fled before him with their horses into the Isle of Shepey; and the king slew as many of them as he could overtake.  Alderman Edric then went to meet the king at Aylesford; than which no measure could be more ill-advised.  The enemy, meanwhile, returned into Essex, and advanced into Mercia, destroying all that he overtook.  When the king understood that the army was up, then collected he the fifth time all the English nation, and went behind them, and overtook them in Essex, on the down called Assingdon; where they fiercely came together.  Then did Alderman Edric as he often did before -- he first began the flight with the Maisevethians, and so betrayed his natural lord and all the people of England.  There had Knute the victory, though all England fought against him!  There was then slain Bishop Ednoth, and Abbot Wulsy, and Alderman Elfric, and Alderman Godwin of Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of East-Anglia, and Ethelward, the son of Alderman Ethelsy .  And all the nobility of the English nation was there undone!  After this fight went King Knute up with his army into Glocestershire, where he heard say that King Edmund was.  Then advised Alderman Edric, and the counsellors that were there assembled, that the kings should make peace with each other, and produce hostages.  Then both the kings met together at Olney, south of Deerhurst, and became allies and sworn brothers.  There they confirmed their friendship both with pledges and with oaths, and settled the pay of the army.  With this covenant they parted: King Edmund took to Wessex, and Knute to Mercia and the northern district.  The army then went to their ships with the things they had taken; and the people of London made peace with them, and purchased their security, whereupon they brought their ships to London, and provided themselves winter-quarters therein.  On the feast of St. Andrew died King Edmund; and he is buried with his grandfather Edgar at Gastonbury.  In the same year died Wulfgar, Abbot of Abingdon; and Ethelsy took to the abbacy.

A.D. 1017.  This year King Knute took to the whole government of England, and divided it into four parts: Wessex for himself, East-Anglia for Thurkyll, Mercia for Edric, Northumbria for Eric. This year also was Alderman Edric slain at London, and Norman, son of Alderman Leofwin, and Ethelward, son of Ethelmar the Great, and Britric, son of Elfege of Devonshire.  King Knute also banished Edwy etheling, whom he afterwards ordered to be slain, and Edwy, king of the churls; and before the calends of August the king gave an order to fetch him the widow of the other king, Ethelred, the daughter of Richard, to wife.

A.D. 1017. This year Canute was chosen king.

A.D. 1018.  This year was the payment of the tribute over all England; that was, altogether, two and seventy thousand pounds, besides that which the citizens of London paid; and that was ten thousand five hundred pounds.  The army then went partly to Denmark; and forty ships were left with King Knute.  The Danes and Angles were united at Oxford under Edgar's law; and this year died Abbot Ethelsy at Abingdon, to whom Ethelwine succeeded.

A.D. 1019.  This year went King Knute with nine ships to Denmark, where he abode all the winter; and Archbishop Elfstan died this year, who was also named Lifing.  He was a very upright man both before God and before the world.

A.D. 1019.  And this winter died Archbishop Elfstan [of Canterbury]: he was named Living; and he was a very provident man, both as to God and as to the world.

A.D. 1020.  This year came King Knute back to England; and there was at Easter a great council at Cirencester, where Alderman Ethelward was outlawed, and Edwy, king of the churls.  This year went the king to Assingdon; with Earl Thurkyll, and Archbishop Wulfstan, and other bishops, and also abbots, and many monks with them; and he ordered to be built there a minster of stone and lime, for the souls of the men who were there slain, and gave it to his own priest, whose name was Stigand; and they consecrated the minster at Assingdon.  And Ethelnoth the monk, who had been dean at Christ's church, was the same year on the ides of November consecrated Bishop of Christ's church by Archbishop Wulfstan.

A.D. 1020.  And caused to be built there [Canterbury] a minster of stone and lime, for the souls of the men who there were slain, and gave it to one of his priests, whose name was Stigand.

A.D. 1021.  This year King Knute, at Martinmas, outlawed Earl Thurkyll; and Bishop Elfgar, the abundant giver of alms, died in the morning of Christmas day.

A.D. 1022.  This year went King Knute out with his ships to the Isle of Wight.  And Bishop Ethelnoth went to Rome; where he was received with much honour by Benedict the magnificent pope, who with his own hand placed the pall upon him, and with great pomp consecrated him archbishop, and blessed him, on the nones of October.  The archbishop on the self-same day with the same pall performed mass, as the pope directed him, after which he was magnificently entertained by the pope himself; and afterwardswith a full blessing proceeded homewards.  Abbot Leofwine, who had been unjustly expelled from Ely, was his companion; and he cleared himself of everything, which, as the pope informed him, had been laid to his charge, on the testimony of the archbishop and of all the company that were with him.

A.D. 1022.  And afterwards with the pall he there [at Rome] performed mass as the pope instructed him: and he feasted after that with the pope; and afterwards went home with a full blessing.

A.D. 1023.  This year returned King Knute to England; and Thurkyll and he were reconciled.  He committed Denmark and his son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with him to England.  This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury. This year King Knute in London, in St. Paul's minster, gave full leave  to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege.  And they did so, on the sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy corpse over the Thames to Southwark.  And there they committed the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester. There on the third day came the Lady Emma with her royal son Hardacnute; and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs of praise, carried the holy archbishop into Canterbury, and so brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before the ides of June.  Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them, lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege on the north side of the altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all humility.  May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men through the holy intercession of Elphege!

A.D. 1023.  And he caused St. Elphege's remains to be borne from London to Canterbury.

A.D. 1025.  This year went King Knute to Denmark with a fleet to the holm by the holy river; where against him came Ulf and Eglaf, with a very large force both by land and sea, from Sweden.  There were very many men lost on the side of King Knute, both of Danish and English; and the Swedes had possession of the field of battle.

A.D. 1026.  This year went Bishop Elfric to Rome, and received the pall of Pope John on the second day before the ides of November.

A.D. 1028.  This year went King Knute from England to Norway with fifty ships manned with English thanes, and drove King Olave from the land, which he entirely secured to himself.

A.D. 1029.  This year King Knute returned home to England.

A.D. 1030.  This year returned King Olave into Norway; but the people gathered together against him, and fought against him; and he was there slain, in Norway, by his own people, and was afterwards canonised.  Before this, in the same year, died Hacon the doughty earl, at sea.

A.D. 1030.  This year came King Olave again into Norway, and the people gathered against him, and fought against him; and he was there slain.

A.D. 1031.  This year returned King Knute; and as soon as he came to England he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury the haven of Sandwich, and all the rights that arise therefrom, on either side of the haven; so that when the tide is highest and fullest, and there be a ship floating as near the land as possible, and there be a man standing upon the ship with a taper-axe in his hand, whithersoever the large taper-axe might be thrown out of the ship, throughout all that land the ministers of Christ's church should enjoy their rights.  This year went King Knute to Rome; and the same year, as soon as he returned home, he went to Scotland; and Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, and became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Jehmar; but he held his allegiance a little while only.  Robert, Earl of Normandy, went this year to Jerusalem, where he died; and William, who was afterwards King of England, succeeded to the earldom, though he was a child.

A.D. 1032.  This year appeared that wild fire, such as no man ever remembered before, which did great damage in many places. The same year died Elfsy, Bishop of Winchester; and Elfwin, the king's priest, succeeded him.

A.D. 1033.  This year died Bishop Merewhite in Somersetshire, who is buried at Glastonbury; and Bishop Leofsy, whose body resteth at Worcester, and to whose see Brihteh was promoted.

A.D. 1034.  This year died Bishop Etheric, who lies at Ramsey.

A.D. 1035.  This year died King Knute at Shaftesbury, on the second day before the ides of November; and he is buried at Winchester in the old minster.  He was king over all England very near twenty winters.  Soon after his decease, there was a council of all the nobles at Oxford; wherein Earl Leofric, and almost all the thanes north of the Thames, and the naval men in London, chose Harold to be governor of all England, for himself and his brother Hardacnute, who was in Denmark.  Earl Godwin, and all the eldest men in Wessex, withstood it as long as they could; but they could do nothing against it. It was then resolved that Elfgiva, the mother of Hardacnute, should remain at Winchester with the household of the king her son.  They held all Wessex in hand, and Earl Godwin was their chief man. Some men said of Harold, that he was the son of King Knute and of Elfgive the daughter of Alderman Elfelm; but it was thought very incredible by many men.  He was, nevertheless, full king over all England. Harold himself said that he was the son of Knute and of Elfgive the Hampshire lady; though it was not true; but he sent and ordered to be taken from her all the best treasure that she could not hold, which King Knute possessed; and she nevertheless abode there continually within the city as long as she could.

A.D. 1036.  This year came hither Alfred the innocent etheling, son of King Ethelred, and wished to visit his mother, who abode at Winchester: but Earl Godwin, and other men who had much power in this land, did not suffer it; because such conduct was very agreeable to Harold, though it was unjust.

         Him did Godwin let,
         and in prison set.
         His friends, who did not fly,
         they slew promiscuously.
         And those they did not sell,
         like slaughter'd cattle fell!
         Whilst some they spared to bind,
         only to wander blind!
         Some ham-strung, helpless stood,
         whilst others they pursued.
         A deed more dreary none
         in this our land was done,
         since Englishmen gave place
         to hordes of Danish race.
         But repose we must
         in God our trust,
         that blithe as day
         with Christ live they,
         who guiltless died --
         their country's pride!
         The prince with courage met
         each cruel evil yet;
         till 'twas decreed,
         they should him lead,
         all bound, as he was then,
         to Ely-bury fen.
         But soon their royal prize
         bereft they of his eyes!
         Then to the monks they brought
         their captive; where he sought
         a refuge from his foes
         till life's sad evening close.
         His body ordered then
         these good and holy men,
         according to his worth,
         low in the sacred earth,
         to the steeple full-nigh,
         in the south aile to lie
         of the transept west --
         his soul with Christ doth rest.

A.D. 1036.  This year died King Canute at Shaftesbury, and he is buried at Winchester in the Old-minster: and he was king over all England very nigh twenty years.  And soon after his decease there was a meeting of all the witan at Oxford; and Leofric, the earl, and almost all the thanes north of the Thames, and the "lithsmen" at London, chose Harold for chief of all England, him and his brother Hardecanute who was in Denmark.  And Godwin the earl and all the chief men of Wessex withstood it as long as they could; but they were unable to effect anything in opposition to it.  And then it was decreed that Elfgive, Hardecanute's mother, should dwell at Winchester with the king's, her son's, house-hold, and hold all Wessex in his power; and Godwin the earl was their man.  Some men said of Harold that he was son of King Canute and of Elfgive, daughter of Elfelm the ealdorman, but it seemed quite incredible to many men; and he was nevertheless full king over all England.

A.D. 1037. This year men chose Harold king over all; and forsook Hardacnute, because he was too long in Denmark; and then drove out his mother Elgiva, the relict of King Knute, without any pity, against the raging winter!  She, who was the mother of Edward as well as of King Hardacnute, sought then the peace of Baldwin by the south sea.  Then came she to Bruges, beyond sea; and Earl Baldwin well received her there; and he gave her a habitation at Bruges, and protected her, and entertained her there as long as she had need.  Ere this in the same year died Eafy, the excellent Dean of Evesham.

A.D. 1037.  This year was driven out Elfgive, King Canute's relict; she was King Hardecanute's mother; and she then sought the protection of Baldwin south of the sea, and he gave her a dwelling in Bruges, and protected and kept her, the while that she there was.

A.D. 1038.  This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on the calends of November; and, within a little of this time, Bishop Ethelric in Sussex, who prayed to God that he would not let him live any time after his dear father Ethelnoth; and within seven nights of this he also departed.  Then, before Christmas, died Bishop Brihteh in Worcestershire; and soon after this, Bishop Elfric in East Anglia. Then succeeded Bishop Edsy to the archbishopric, Grimkytel to the see of Sussex, and Bishop Lifing to that of Worcester shire and Gloucestershire.

A.D. 1038.  This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on the kalends of November, and a little after, Ethelric, bishop in Sussex, and then before Christmas, Briteagus, Bishop in Worcestershire, and soon after, Elfric, bishop in East-Anglia.

A.D. 1039.  This year happened the terrible wind; and Bishop Britmar died at Lichfield.  The Welsh slew Edwin. brother of Earl Leofric, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and many good men with them. This year also came Hardacnute to Bruges, where his mother was.

A.D. 1039.  This year King Harold died at Oxford, on the sixteenth before the kalends of April, and he was buried at Westminster.  And he ruled England four years and sixteen weeks; and in his days sixteen ships were retained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower, in like manner as had been before done in the days of King Canute.  And in this same year came King Hardecanute to Sandwich, seven days before midsummer.  And he was soon acknowledged as well by English as by Danes; though his advisers afterwards grievously requited it, when they decreed that seventy-two ships should be retained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower.  And in this same year the sester of wheat went up to fifty-five pence, and even further.

A.D. 1040.  This year died King Harold at Oxford, on the sixteenth before the calends of April; and he was buried at Westminster.  He governed England four years and sixteen weeks; and in his days tribute was paid to sixteen ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman, as was done before in King Knute's days.  The same year they sent after Hardacnute to Bruges, supposing they did well; and he came hither to Sandwich with sixty ships, seven nights before midsummer.  He was soon received both by the Angles and Danes, though his advisers afterwards severely paid for it.  They ordered a tribute for sixty-two ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman. Then were alienated from him all that before desired him; for he framed nothing royal during his whole reign.  He ordered the dead Harold to be dragged up and thrown into a ditch.  This year rose the sester of wheat to fifty-five pence, and even further.  This year Archbishop Edsy went to Rome.

A.D. 1040.  This year was the tribute paid; that twenty-one thousand pounds and ninety-nine pounds.  And after that they paid to thirty-two ships, eleven thousand and forty-eight pounds. And, in this same year, came Edward, son of King Ethelred, hither to land, from Weal-land; he was brother of King Hardecanute: they were both sons of Elfgive; Emma, who was daughter of Earl Richard.

A.D. 1041.  This year was the tribute paid to the army; that was, 21,099 pounds; and afterwards to thirty-two ships, 11,048 pounds. This year also ordered Hardacnute to lay waste all Worcestershire, on account of the two servants of his household, who exacted the heavy tribute.  That people slew them in the town within the minster.  Early in this same year came Edward, the son of King Ethelred, hither to land, from Weal-land to Madron.  He was the brother of King Hardacnute, and had been driven from this land for many years: but he was nevertheless sworn as king, and abode in his brother's court while he lived.  They were both sons of Elfgive Emma, who was the daughter oœ Earl Richard.  In this year also Hardacnute betrayed Eadulf, under the mask of friendship.  He was also allied to him by marriage.  This year was Egelric consecrated Bishop of York, on the third day before the ides of January.

A.D. 1041.  This year died King Hardecanute at Lambeth, on the sixth before the ides of June: and he was king over all England two years wanting ten days; and he is buried in the Old-minster at Winchester with King Canute his father.  And his mother, for his soul, gave to the New-minster the head of St. Valentine the martyr.  And before he was buried, all people chose Edward for king at London: may he hold it the while that God shall grant it to him!  And all that year was a very heavy time, in many things and divers, as well in respect to ill seasons as to the fruits of the earth.  And so much cattle perished in the year as no man before remembered, as well through various diseases as through tempests.  And in this same time died Elsinus, Abbot of Peterborough; and then Arnwius the monk was chosen abbot, because he was a very good man, and of great simplicity.

A.D. 1042.  This year died King Hardacnute at Lambeth, as he stood drinking: he fell suddenly to the earth with a tremendous struggle; but those who were nigh at hand took him up; and he spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the sixth day before the ides of June.  He was king over all England two years wanting ten nights; and he is buried in the old minster at Winchester with King Knute his father. And his mother for his soul gave to the new minster the head of St. Valentine the Martyr: and ere he was buried all people chose Edward for king in London.  And they received him as their king, as was natural; and he reigned as long as God granted him.  All that year was the season very severe in many and various respects: both from the inclemency of the weather, and the loss of the fruits of the earth.  More cattle died this year than any man ever remembered, either from various diseases, or from the severity of the weather.  At this same time died Elfsinus, Abbot of Peterborough; and they chose Arnwy, a monk, for their abbot; because he was a very good and benevolent man.

A.D. 1043.  This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester, early on Easter-day, with much pomp.  Then was Easter on the third day before the nones of April.  Archbishop Edsy consecrated him, and before all people well admonished him.  And Stigand the priest was consecrated bishop over the East Angles. And this year, fourteen nights before the mass of St. Andrew, it was advised the king, that he and Earl Leofric and Earl Godwin and Earl Siward with their retinue, should ride from Gloucester to Winchester unawares upon the lady; and they deprived her of all the treasures that she had; which were immense; because she was formerly very hard upon the king her son, and did less for him than he wished before he was king, and also since: but they suffered her to remain there afterwards.  And soon after this the king determined to invest all the land that his mother had in her hands, and took from her all that she had in gold and in silver and in numberless things; because she formerly held it too fast against him.  Soon after this Stigand was deprived of his  bishopric; and they took all that he had into their hands for the king, because he was nighest the counsel of his mother; and she acted as he advised, as men supposed.

A.D. 1043.  This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester on the first day of Easter.  And this year, fourteen days before Andrew's-mass, the king was advised to ride from Gloucester, and Leofric the earl, and Godwin the earl, and Sigwarth [Siward] the earl, with their followers, to Winchester, unawares upon the lady [Emma]; and they bereaved her of all the treasures which she possessed, they were not to be told, because before that she had been very hard with the king her son; inasmuch as she had done less for him than he would, before he was king, and also since: and they suffered her after that to remain therein.  This year King Edward took the daughter [Edgitha] of Godwin the earl for his wife.  And in this same year died Bishop Brithwin, and he held the bishopric thirty-eight years, that was the bishopric of Sherborne, and Herman the king's priest succeeded to the bishopric.  And in this year Wulfric was hallowed Abbot of St. Augustine's at Christmas, on Stephen's mass-day, by leave of the king, and, on account of his great infirmity, of Abbot Elfstun.

A.D. 1044.  This year Archbishop Edsy resigned his see from infirmity, and consecrated Siward, Abbot of Abingdon, bishop thereto, with the permission and advice of the king and Earl Godwin.  It was known to few men else before it was done; because the archbishop feared that some other man would either beg or buy it, whom he might worse trust and oblige than him, if it were known to many men.  This year there was very great hunger over all England, and corn so dear as no man remembered before; so that the sester of wheat rose to sixty pence, and even further. And this same year the king went out to Sandwich with thirty-five ships; and Athelstan, the churchwarden, succeeded to the abbacy of Abingdon, and Stigand returned to his bishopric.  In the same year also King Edward took to wife Edgitha, the daughter of Earl Godwin, ten nights before Candlemas.  And in the same year died Britwold, Bishop of Wiltshire, on the tenth day before the calends of May; which bishopric he held thirty-eight winters; that was, the bishopric of Sherborn.  And Herman, the king's priest, succeeded to the bishopric.  This year Wulfric was consecrated Abbot of St. Augustine's, at Christmas, on the mass-day of St. Stephen, by the king's leave and that of Abbot Elfstan, by reason of his great infirmity.

A.D. 1044.  This year died Living, Bishop in Devonshire, and Leoftic succeeded thereto; he was the king's priest.  And in this same year died Elfstan, Abbot of St. Augustine's, on the third before the nones of July.  And in this same year was outlawed Osgod Clapa.

A.D. 1045.  This year died Elfward, Bishop of London, on the eighth day before the calends of August.  He was formerly Abbot of Evesham, and well furthered that monastery the while that he was there.  He went then to Ramsey, and there resigned his life: and Mannie was chosen abbot, being consecrated on the fourth day before the ides of August.  This year Gunnilda, a woman of rank, a relative of King Knute, was driven out, and resided afterwards at Bruges a long while, and then went to Denmark.  King Edward during the year collected a large fleet at Sandwich, through the threatening of Magnus of Norway; but his contests with Sweyne in Denmark prevented him from coming hither.

A.D. 1045.  This year died Grimkytel, Bishop in Sussex, and Heca, the king's priest, succeeded thereto.  And in this year died Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, on the fourth before the kalends of September; and Stigand, bishop to the north [Flanders], succeeded thereto.  And in the same year Sweyn the earl went out to Baldwin's land [Of Elmham] to Bruges and abode there all the winter; and then in summer he went out.

A.D. 1046.  This year died Lifting, the eloquent bishop, on the tenth day before the calends of April.  He had three bishoprics; one in Devonshire, one in Cornwall, and another in Worcestershire.  Then succeeded Leofric, who was the king's priest, to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop Aldred to Worcestershire.  This year died Elfwine, Bishop of Winchester, on the fourth day before the calends of September; and Stigand, Bishop of Norfolk, was raised to his see.  Ere this, in the same year, died Grimkytel, Bishop of Sussex; and he lies at Christ-church, in Canterbury.  And Heca, the' king's priest, succeeded to the bishopric.  Sweyne also sent hither, and requested the aid of fifty ships against Magnus, king of the Norwegians; but it was thought unwise by all the people, and it was prevented, because that Magnus had a large navy: and he drove Sweyne out, and with much slaughter won the land.  The Danes then gave him much money, and received him as king.  The same year Magnus died.  The same year also Earl Sweyne went out to Baldwin's land, to Bruges; and remained there all the winter.  In the summer he departed.

A.D. 1046.  This year went Earl Sweyne into Wales; and Griffin, king of the northern men with him; and hostages were delivered to him.  As he returned homeward, he ordered the Abbess of Leominster to be fetched him; and he had her as long as he list, after which he let her go home.  In this same year was outlawed Osgod Clapa, the master of horse, before midwinter.  And in the same year, after Candlemas, came the strong winter, with frost and with snow, and with all kinds of bad weather; so that there was no man then alive who could remember so severe a winter as this was, both through loss of men and through loss of cattle; yea, fowls and fishes through much cold and hunger perished.

A.D. 1046.  This year died Brithwin, bishop in Wiltshire, and Herman was appointed to his see.  In that year King Edward gathered a large ship-force at Sandwich, on account of the threatening of Magnus in Norway: but his and Sweyn's contention in Denmark hindered his coming here.  This year died Athelstan, Abbot of Abingdon, and Sparhawk, monk of St. Edmund's-bury, succeeded him.  And in this same year died bishop Siward, and Archbishop Eadsine again obtained the whole bishopric.  And in this same year Lothen and Irling came with twenty-five ships to Sandwich, and there took unspeakable booty, in men, and in gold, and in silver, so that no man knew how much it all was.  And they then went about Thanet, and would there do the like; but the land's-folk strenuously withstood them, and denied them as well landing as water; and thence utterly put them to flight.  And they betook themselves then into Essex, and there they ravaged, and took men, and property, and whatsoever they might find.  And they betook themselves then east to Baldwine's land, and there they sold what they had plundered; and after that went their way east, whence they before had come.  In this year was the great synod at St. Remi's [Rheins].  Thereat was Leo the pope, and the Archbishop of Burgundy [Lyons], and the Archbishop of Besancon, and the Archbishop of Treves, and the Archbishop of Rheims; and many men besides, both clergy and laity.  And King Edward sent thither Bishop Dudoc [Of Wells], and Wulfric, Abbot of St. Augustine's, and Abbot Elfwin [Of Ramsey], that they might make known to the king what should be there resolved on for Christendom.  And in this same year King Edward went out to Sandwich with a great fleet.  And Sweyn the earl, son of Godwin the earl, came in to Bosham with seven ships; and he obtained the king's protection, and he was promised that he should be held worthy of everything which he before possessed.  Then Harold the earl, his brother, and Beorn the earl contended that he should not be held worthy of any of the things which the king had granted to them: but a protection of four days was appointed him to go to his ships.  Then befell it during this, that word came to the king that hostile ships lay westward, and were ravaging. Then went Godwin the earl west about with two of the king's ships; the one commanded Harold the earl, and the other Tosty his brother; and forty-two of the people's ships.  Then Harold the earl was removed from the king's ship which Harold the earl before had commanded.  Then went they west to Pevensey, and lay there weather-bound.  Upon this, after two days, then came Sweyn the earl thither, and spoke with his father, and with Beorn the earl, and begged of Beorn that he would go with him to the king at Sandwich, and help him to the king's friendship: and he granted it.  Then went they as if they would go to the king. Then whilst they were riding, then begged Sweyn of him that he would go with him to his ships: saying that his seamen would depart from him unless he should at the soonest come thither. Then went they both where his ships lay.  When they came thither, then begged Sweyn the earl of him that he would go with him on ship-board.  He strenuously refused, so long as until his seamen seized him, and threw him into the boat, and bound him, and rowed to the ship, and put him there aboard.  Then they hoisted up their sails and ran west to Exmouth, and had him with them until they slew him: and they took the body and buried it in a church. And then his friends and litsmen came from London, and took him up, and bore him to Winchester to the Old-minster, and he is there buried with King Canute his uncle.  And Sweyn went then east to Baldwin's land, and sat down there all the winter at Bruges, with his full protection.  And in the same year died Eadnoth [II.] bishop [Of Dorchester] of the north and Ulf was made bishop.

A.D. 1047.  This year died Athelstan, Abbot of Abingdon, on the fourth day before the calends of April; and Sparhawk, monk of St. Edmundsbury, succeeded him.  Easter day was then on the third day before the nones of April; and there was over all England very great loss of men this year also.  The same year came to Sandwich Lothen and Irling, with twenty-five ships, and plundered and took incalculable spoil, in men, and in gold, and in silver, so that no man wist what it all was; and went then about Thanet, and would there have done the same; but the land-folk firmly withstood, and resisted them both by land and sea, and thence put them to flight withal.  They betook themselves thence into Essex, where they plundered and took men, and whatsoever they could find, whence they departed eastward to Baldwin's land, and having deposited the booty they had gained, they returned east to the place whence they had come before.

A.D. 1047.  This year died Living the eloquent bishop, on the tenth before the kalends of April, and he had three bishoprics; one in Devonshire, and in Cornwall, and in Worcester.  Then Leofric  succeeded to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop Aldred to Worcester.  And in this year Osgod, the master of the horse, was outlawed: and Magnus [King of Norway] won Denmark.  In this year there was a great council in London at mid-Lent, and nine ships of lightermen were discharged, and five remained behind.  In this same year came Sweyn the earl into England.  And in this same year was the great synod at Rome, and King Edward sent thither Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred; and they came thither on Easter eve.  And afterwards the pope held a synod at Vercelli, and Bishop Ulf came thereto; and well nigh would they have broken his staff, if he had not given very great gifts; because he knew not how to do his duty so well as he should.  And in this year died Archbishop Eadsine, on the fourth before the kalends of November.

A.D. 1048.  This year came Sweyne back to Denmark; and Harold, the uncle of Magnus, went to Norway on the death of Magnus, and the Northmen submitted to him.  He sent an embassy of peace to this land, as did also Sweyne from Denmark, requesting of King Edward naval assistance to the amount at least of fifty ships; but all the people resisted it.  This year also there was an earthquake, on the calends of May, in many places; at Worcester, at Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere wide throughout England; with very great loss by disease of men and of cattle over all England; and the wild fire in Derbyshire and elsewhere did much harm.  In the same year the enemy plundered Sandwich, and the Isle of Wight, and slew the best men that were there; and King Edward and the earls went out after them with their ships.  The same year Bishop Siward resigned his bishopric from infirmity, and retired to Abingdon; upon which Archbishop Edsy resumed the bishopric; and he died within eight weeks of this, on the tenth day before the calends of November.

A.D. 1048.  This year was the severe winter: and this year died Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, and Bishop Stigand was raised to his see.  And before that, in the same year, died Grinketel, Bishop in Sussex, and Heca the priest succeeded to the bishopric.  And Sweyn also sent hither, begging assistance against Magnus, King of Norway; that fifty ships should be sent to his aid.  But it seemed unadvisable to all people: and it was then hindered by reason that Magnus had a great ship-force.  And he then drove out Sweyn, and with much man-slaying won the land: and the Danes paid him much money and acknowledged him as king.  And that same year Magnus died.  In this year King Edward appointed Robert, of London, Archbishop of Canterbury, during Lent.  And in the same Lent he went to Rome after his pall: and the king gave the bishopric of London to Sparhafoc, Abbot of Abingdon; and the king gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulf, his kinsman.  Then came the archbishop from Rome one day before St. Peter's mass-eve, and entered on his archiepiscopal see at Christ's Church on St. Peter's mass-day; and soon after went to the king.  Then came Abbot Sparhafoc to him with the king's writ and seal, in order that he should consecrate him Bishop of London.  Then the archbishop refused, and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for that purpose, and there desired episcopal ordination; and the archbishop constantly refused him, and said that the pope had forbidden it him.  Then went the abbot to London, and occupied the bishopric which the king before had granted him, with his full leave, all the summer and the harvest.  And then came Eustace [Earl of Boulogne] from beyond sea soon after the bishop, and went to the king, and spoke with him that which he then would, and went then homeward.  When he came to Canterbury, east, then took he refreshment there, and his men, and went to Dover.  When he was some mile or more, on this side of Dover, then he put on his breast-plate, and so did all his companions, and went to Dover.  When they came thither, then would they lodge themselves where they chose.  Then came one of his men, and would abide in the house of a householder against his will, and wounded the householder; and the householder slew the other.  Then Eustace got upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and they went to the householder, and slew him within his own dwelling; and they went up towards the town, and slew, as well within as without, more than twenty men.  And the townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded they knew not how many.  And Eustace escaped with a few men, and went again to the king, and made known to him, in part, how they had fared.  And the king became very wroth with the townsmen.  And the king sent off Godwin the earl, and bade him go into Kent in a hostile manner to Dover: for Eustace had made it appear to the king, that it had been more the fault of the townsmen than his: but it was not so.  And the earl would not consent to the inroad, because he was loth to injure his own people.  Then the king sent after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester, nigh the aftermass of St. Mary.  Then had the Welshmen erected a castle in Herefordshire among the people of Sweyn the earl, and wrought every kind of harm and disgrace to the king's men there about which they could.  Then came Godwin the earl, and Sweyn the earl, and Harold the earl, together at Beverstone, and many men with them, in order that they might go to their royal lord, and to all the peers who were assembled with him, in order that they might have the advice of the king and his aid, and of all this council, how they might avenge the king's disgrace, and the whole nation's.  Then were the Welshmen with the king beforehand, and accused the earls, so that they might not come within his eyes' sight; because they said that they were coming thither in order to betray the king.  Thither had come Siward the earl [Of Northumbria] and Leofric the earl [Of Mercia], and much people with them, from the north, to the king; and it was made known to the Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king and the men who were with him, were taking counsel concerning them: and they arrayed themselves on the other hand resolutely, though it were loathful to them that they should stand against their royal lord.  Then the peers on either side decreed that every kind of evil should cease: and the king gave the peace of God and his full friendship to either side.  Then the king and his peers decreed that a council of all the nobles should be held for the second time in London at the harvest equinox; and the king directed the army to be called out, as well south of the Thames as north, all that was in any way most eminent.  Then declared they Sweyn the earl an outlaw, and summoned Godwin the earl and Harold the earl, to the council, as quickly as they could effect it.  When they had come thither, then were they summoned into the council.  Then required he safe conduct and hostages, so that he might come, unbetrayed, into the council and out of the council.  Then the king demanded all the thanes whom the earls before had: and they granted them all into his hands.  Then the king sent again to them, and commanded them that they should come with twelve men to the king's council.  Then the earl again required safe conduct and hostages, that he might defend himself against each of those things which were laid to him.  Then were the hostages refused him; and he was allowed a safe conduct for five nights to go out of the land.  And then Godwin the earl and Sweyn the earl went to Bosham, and shoved out their ships, and betook themselves beyond sea, and sought Baldwin's protection, and abode there all the winter.  And Harold the earl went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter within the king's protection.  And soon after this happened, then put away the king the lady who had been consecrated his queen [Editha], and caused to be taken from her all which she possessed, in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things, and delivered her to his sister at Wherwell.  And Abbot Sparhafoc was then driven out of the bishopric of London, and William the king's priest was ordained thereto.  And then Odda was appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over the Welsh.  And Algar, the son of Leofric the earl, was appointed to the earldom which Harold before held.

A.D. 1049.   This year the emperor gathered an innumerable army against Baldwin of Bruges, because he had destroyed the palace of Nimeguen, and because of many other ungracious acts that he did against him.  The army was immense that he had collected together.  There was Leo, the Pope of Rome, and the patriarch, and many other great men of several provinces.  He sent also to King Edward, and requested of him naval aid, that he might not permit him to escape from him by water.  Whereupon he went to Sandwich, and lay there with a large naval armament, until the emperor had all that he wished of Baldwin.  Thither also came back again Earl Sweyne, who had gone from this land to Denmark, and there ruined his cause with the Danes.  He came hither with a pretence, saying that he would again submit to the king, and be his man; and he requested Earl Beorn to be of assistance to him, and give him land to feed him on.  But Harold, his brother, and Earl Beorn resisted, and would give him nothing of that which the king had given them.  The king also refused him everything.  Whereupon Swevne retired to his ships at Bosham. Then, after the settlement between the emperor and Baldwin, many ships went home, and the king remained behind Sandwich with a few ships.  Earl Godwin also sailed forty-two ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Earl Beorn went with him.  Then the king gave leave to all the Mercians to return home, and they did so.  Then it was told the king that Osgod lay at Ulps with thirty-nine ships; whereupon the king sent after the ships that he might dispatch, which before had gone homewards, but still lay at the Nore.  Then Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges; and they went back again with six ships; but the rest went towards Essex, to Eadulf's-ness, and there plundered, and then returned to their ships.  But there came upon them a strong wind, so that they were all lost but four persons, who were afterwards slain beyond sea.  Whilst Earl Godwin and Earl Beorn lay at Pevensey with their ships, came Earl Sweyne, and with a pretence requested of Earl Beorn, who was his uncle's son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, and better his condition with him; adding, that he would swear oaths to him, and be faithful to him.  Whereupon Beorn concluded, that he would not for their relationship betray him.  He therefore took three companions with him, and they rode to Bosham, where his  ships lay, as though they should proceed to Sandwich; but they suddenly bound him, and led him to the ships, and went thence with him to Dartmouth, where they ordered him to be slain and buried deep.  He was afterwards found, and Harold his cousin fetched him thence, and led him to Winchester, to the old minster, where he buried him with King Knute, his uncle.  Then the king and all the army proclaimed Sweyne an outlaw.  A little before this the men of Hastings and thereabout fought his two ships with their ships, and slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king.  Eight ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn; afterwards they all forsook him except two; whereupon he went eastward to the land of Baldwin, and sat there all the winter at Bruges, in full security.  In the same year came up from Ireland thirty-six ships on the Welsh coast, and thereabout committed outrages, with the aid of Griffin, the Welsh king.  The people were soon gathered against them, and there was also with them Bishop Eldred, but they had too little assistance, and the enemy came unawares on them very early in the morning, and slew on the spot many good men; but the others burst forth with the bishop.  This was done on the fourth day before the calends of August.  This year died the good Bishop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; and Oswy, Abbot of Thomey; and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and King Edward gave the bishopric which Ednoth had to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided him; and he was driven from it, because he did nought like a bishop therein, so that it shameth us now to say more.  Bishop Siward also died who lies at Abingdon.  In this same year King Edward put nine ships out of pay; and the crews departed, and went away with the ships withal, leaving five ships only behind, for whom the king ordered twelve months pay.  The same year went Bishops Hereman and Aldred to the pope at Rome on the king's errand.  This year was also consecrated the great minster at Rheims, in the presence of Pope Leo and the emperor.  There was also a great synod at St. Remy;  at which was present Pope Leo, with the Archbishops of Burgundy, of Besancon, of Treves, and of Rheims; and many wise men besides, both clergy and laity. A great synod there held they respecting the service of God, at the instance of St. Leo the pope.  It is difficult to recognise all the bishops that came thither, and also abbots.  King Edward sent thither Bishop Dudoc, and Abbot Wulfric, of St. Augustine's, and Elfwin, Abbot of Ramsey, with the intent that they should report to the king what was determined there concerning Christendom.  This same year came Earl Sweyne into England.

A.D. 1049.  This year Sweyn came again to Denmark, and Harold. uncle of Magnus, went to Norway after Magnus was dead; and the Normans acknowledged him: and he sent hither to land concerning peace.  And Sweyn also sent from Denmark, and begged of King Edward the aid of his ships.  They were to be at least fifty ships: but all people opposed it.  And this year also there was an earthquake,  on the kalends of May, in many places in Worcester, and in Wick, and in Derby, and elsewhere; and also there was a great mortality among men, and murrain among cattle: and moreover, the wild-fire did much evil in Derbyshire and elsewhere.

A.D. 1050.  This year returned the bishops home from Rome; and Earl Sweyne had his sentence of outlawry reversed.  The same year died Edsy, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the fourth day before the calends of November; and also in the same year Elfric, Archbishop of York, on the eleventh before the calends of February, a very venerable man and wise, and his body lies at Peterborough.  Then had King Edward a meeting of the great council in London, in mid-lent, at which he appointed Robert the Frank, who was before Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury; and he, during the same Lent, went to Rome after his pall.  The king meanwhile gave the see of London to Sparhawk, Abbot of Abingdon, but it was taken from him again before he was consecrated.  The king also gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulph his cousin.  The same year he put all the lightermen out of pay.   The pope held a council again, at Vercelli; and Bishop Ulf came thither, where he nearly had his staff broken, had he not paid more money, because he could not perform his duties so well as he should do.  The same year King Edward abolished the Danegeld which King Ethelred imposed.  That was in the thirty-ninth year after it had begun.  That tribute harassed all the people of England so long as is above written; and it was always paid before other imposts, which were levied indiscriminately, and vexed men variously.

A.D. 1050.  Thither also came Sweyn the earl, who before had gone from this land to Denmark, and who there had ruined himself with the Danes.  He came thither with false pretences; saying that he would again be obedient to the king.  And Beorn the earl promised him that he would be of assistance to him.  Then, after the reconciliation of the emperor and of Baldwin, many of the ships went home, and the king remained behind at Sandwich with a few ships; and Godwin the earl also went with forty-two ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Beorn the earl went with him. Then was it made known to the king that Osgood lay at Ulps with thirty-nine ships; and the king then sent after the ships which before had gone home, that he might send after him.  And Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges, and they went back again with six ships.  And the others landed in Sussex [Essex] at Eadulf-ness, and there did harm, and went again to their ships: and then a strong wind came against them, so that they were all destroyed, except four, whose crews were slain beyond sea.  While Godwin the earl and Beorn the earl lay at Pevensey, then came Sweyn the earl, and begged Beorn the earl, with fraud, who was his uncle's son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, and better his affairs with him.  He went then, on account of the relationship, with three companions, with him; and he led him then towards Bosham, where his ships lay: and then they bound him, and led him on ship-board.  Then went he thence with him to Dartmouth, and there ordered him to be slain, and deeply buried. Afterwards he was found, and borne to Winchester, and buried with king Canute his uncle.  A little before that, the men of Hastings and thereabout, fought two of his ships with their ships; and slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king. Eight ships he had before he betrayed Beorn; after that all forsook him except two.  In the same year arrived in the Welsh Axa, from Ireland, thirty-six ships, and thereabout did harm, with the help of Griffin the Welsh king.  The people were gathered together against them; Bishop Aldred [Of Worchester] was also there with them; but they had too little power.  And they came unawares upon them at very early morn; and there they slew many good men, and the others escaped with the bishop: this was done on the fourth before the kalends of August.  This year died, in Oxfordshire, Oswy, Abbot of Thorney, and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and Ulf the priest was appointed as pastor to the bishopric which Eadnoth had held; but he was after that driven away; because he did nothing bishop-like therein: so that it shameth us now to tell more about it.  And Bishop Siward died: he lieth at Abingdon. And this year was consecrated the great minster at Rheims: there was Pope Leo [IX.] and the emperor [Henry III]; and there they held a great synod concerning God's service.  St. Leo the pope presided at the synod: it is difficult to have a knowledge of the bishops who came there, and how many abbots: and hence, from this land were sent two -- from St. Augustine's and from Ramsey.

A.D. 1051.  This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king.  Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop oœ London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him.  Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him.  Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace, who had the sister of King Edward to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward.  When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover.  When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover.  When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived.  Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other.  Then was Eustace quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men.  The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many.  Eustace escaped with a few men, and went again to the king, telling him partially how they had fared.  The king was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin, bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover.  For Eustace had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his.  But it was not so: and the earl would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people.  Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary.  Meanwhile Godwin took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen.  Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne, his son, over his; and Harold, his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle.  This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward, and summoned their retinues.  At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord.  So did Ralph also over his earldom.  Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king, though it was late.  So unanimous were they all in defence of the king, that they would seek Godwin's army if the king desired it.  But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England.  They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves.  Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them.  And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne his other son.  When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away.  In the morning the king held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole army; himself and his wife, and all his three sons -- Sweyne and Tosty and Grith.  And he went south to Thorney,  with his wife, and Sweyne his son, and Tosty and his wife, a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges, and his son Grith.  Earl Harold with Leofwine went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship.  But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss.  He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted.  In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne, and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's men thereabout as they could.  Then came Earl Godwin, and Earl Sweyne, and Earl Harold, together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king, and to all the nation.  But the Welshmen were before with the king, and bewrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king.  There was now assembled before the king Earl Siward, and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord.  Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party.  Then advised the king and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was.  Then was Earl Sweyne proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin and Earl Harold were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery.  The king then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands.  Then sent the king again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's council.  Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge.  But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land.  Then went Earl Godwin and Earl Sweyne to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin; and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's security.  It was from Thorney  that Godwin and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man.  Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus!  For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's darlings; and his daughter wedded and united to the king.  Soon after this took place, the king dismissed the lady who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell.  Soon after came Earl William from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again.  Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William the king's priest was invested therewith.  Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold before possessed.

A.D. 1051.  In this year died Eadsine, Archbishop of Canterbury; and the king gave to Robert the Frenchman, who before had been Bishop of London, the archbishopric.  And Sparhafoc, Abbot of Abingdon, succeeded to the bishopric of London; and it was afterwards taken from him before he was consecrated.  And Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred went to Rome.


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