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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Part 6: A.D. 1070 - 1101


A.D. 1070.  This year Landfranc, who was Abbot of Caen, came to England; and after a few days he became Archbishop of Canterbury. He was invested on the fourth before the calends of September in his own see by eight bishops, his suffragans.  The others, who were not there, by messengers and by letter declared why they could not be there.  The same year Thomas, who was chosen Bishop of York, came to Canterbury, to be invested there after the ancient custom.  But when Landfranc craved confirmation of his obedience with an oath, he refused; and said, that he ought not to do it.  Whereupon Archbishop Landfranc was wroth, and bade the bishops, who were come thither by Archbishop Landfranc's command to do the service, and all the monks to unrobe themselves.  And they by his order so did.  Thomas, therefore, for the time, departed without consecration.  Soon after this, it happened that the Archbishop Landfranc went to Rome, and Thomas with him.  When they came thither, and had spoken about other things concerning which they wished to speak, then began Thomas his speech: how he came to Canterbury, and how the archbishop required obedience of him with an oath; but he declined it.  Then began the Archbishop Landfranc to show with clear distinction, that what he craved he craved by right; and with strong arguments he confirmed the same before the Pope Alexander, and before all the council that was collected there; and so they went home.  After this came Thomas to Canterbury; and all that the archbishop required of him he humbly fulfilled, and afterwards received consecration.  This year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king; but in the Lent of the same year the king ordered all the monasteries in England to be plundered.  In the same year came King Sweyne from Denmark into the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty with him; thinking that he would overrun the land.  Then came into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that land.  Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward and his gang: because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a French abbot, whose name was Thorold; -- that he was a very stern man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen.  Now there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes, and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold; telling him that he sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the monks.  Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood, so that they could not come in.  Then they laid on fire, and burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one house.  Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate; where the monks met them, and besought peace of them.  But they regarded nothing.  They went into the minster, climbed up to the holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which was all of red gold.  They climbed up to the steeple, brought down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short, they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures, in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another; and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster. Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely, and deposited there all the treasure.  The Danes, believing that they should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the infirmary.  Then came Abbot Thorold and eight times twenty Frenchmen with him, all full-armed.  When he came thither, he found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he would come thither.  This was done on the fourth day before the nones of June.  The two kings, William and Sweyne, were now reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid treasure, and carried it away with them.  But when they came into the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed all the ships wherein the treasures were.  Some went to Norway, some to Ireland, some to Denmark.  All that reached the latter, consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes, and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's town, called ---, and deposited it all there in the church. Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was consumed by fire.  Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned and plundered.  Almighty God have mercy on it through his great goodness.  Thus came the Abbot Thorold to Peterborough; and the monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of rite.  When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men who that evil deed had done.  There was a great famine this year: and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards for Denmark.  Earl Baldwin also died, and his son Arnulf succeeded to the earldom.  Earl William, in conjunction with the king of the Franks, was to be his guardian; but Earl Robert came and slew his kinsman Arnulf and the earl, put the king to flight, and slew many thousands of his men.

A.D. 1071.  This year Earl Edwin and Earl Morkar fled out, and roamed at random in woods and in fields.  Then went Earl Morkar to Ely by ship; but Earl Edwin was treacherously slain by his own men.  Then came Bishop Aylwine, and Siward Barn, and many hundred men with them, into Ely.  When King William heard that, then ordered he out a naval force and land force, and beset the land all about, and wrought a bridge, and went in; and the naval force at the same time on the sea-side.  And the outlaws then all surrendered; that was, Bishop Aylwine, and Earl Morkar, and all that were with them; except Hereward  alone, and all those that would join him, whom he led out triumphantly.  And the king took their ships, and weapons, and many treasures;  and all the men he disposed of as he thought proper.  Bishop Aylwine he sent to Abingdon, where he died in the beginning of the winter.

A.D. 1072.  This year King William led a naval force and a land force to Scotland, and beset that land on the sea-side with ships, whilst he led his land-force in at the Tweed;  but he found nothing there of any value.  King Malcolm, however, came, and made peace with King William, and gave hostages, and became his man; whereupon the king returned home with all his force. This year died Bishop Aylric.  He had been invested Bishop of York; but that see was unjustly taken from him, and he then had the bishopric of Durham given him; which he held as long as he chose, but resigned it afterwards, and retired to Peterborough minster; where he abode twelve years.  After that King William won England, then took he him from Peterborough, and sent him to Westminster; where he died on the ides of October, and he is there buried, within the minster, in the porch of St. Nicholas.

A.D. 1073.  This year led King William an army, English and French, over sea, and won the district of Maine; which the English very much injured by destroying the vineyards, burning the towns, and spoiling the land.  But they subdued it all into the hand of King William, and afterwards returned home to England.

A.D. 1074.  This year King William went over sea to Normandy; and child Edgar came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's mass-day; where King Malcolm and his sister Margaret received him with much pomp.  At the same time sent Philip, the King of France, a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would give him the castle of Montreuil; that he might afterwards daily annoy his enemies.  What then?  King Malcolm and his sister Margaret gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures; in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with great pomp from his territory.  But in their voyage evil befell them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they also themselves came with difficulty to the land.  Their treasure was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the French; but he himself and his best men returned again to Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably mounted.  Then King Malcolm advised him to send to King William over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king gave it him, and sent after him.  Again, therefore, King Malcolm and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and again conducted him very magnificently from their territory.  The sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king. Then King William received him with much pomp; and he was there afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to him by law.

A.D. 1075.  This year King William gave Earl Ralph the daughter of William Fitz-Osborne to wife.  This same Ralph was British on his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was English; and born in Norfolk.  The king therefore gave his son the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to Norwich.

         There was that bride-ale
         The source of man's bale.

There was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots; who there resolved, that they would drive the king out of the realm of England.  But it was soon told the king in Normandy how it was determined.  It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph who were the authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them.  Roger went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to the king's annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great disadvantage of himself.  He was however prevented.  Ralph also in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen that were in England and also the people of the land, came against him, and prevented him from doing anything.  He escaped however to the ships at Norwich.   And his wife was in the castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her. The king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his relative, and put him in prison.  And Earl Waltheof went over sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and proffered gifts of ransom.  The king, however, let him off lightly, until he  came to England; when he had him seized. Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst not maintain a fight with King William.  They went rather to York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much treasure, and so went away.  They made for Flanders over sea; but they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him.  This year died the Lady Edgitha, who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king caused her to be brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King Edward, her lord.  And the king was then at Westminster, at midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the bride-ale at Norwich.  Some were punished with blindness; some were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia. So were the traitors of King William subdued.

A.D. 1076.  This year died Sweyne, King of Denmark; and Harold his son took to the kingdom.  And the king gave the abbacy of Westminster to Abbot Vitalis, who had been Abbot of Bernay.  This year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, on the mass-day of St. Petronilla;  and his body was carried to Croyland, where he lies buried.  King William now went over sea, and led his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the Bretons defended it, until the king came from France; whereupon William departed thence, having lost there both men and horses, and many of his treasures.

A.D. 1077.  This year were reconciled the king of the Franks and William, King of England.  But it continued only a little while. This year was London burned, one night before the Assumption of St. Mary, so terribly as it never was before, since it was built. This year the moon was eclipsed three nights before Candlemas; and in the same year died Aylwy, the prudent Abbot of Evesham, on the fourteenth day before the calends of March, on the mass-day of St. Juliana; and Walter was appointed abbot in his stead; and Bishop Herman also died, on the tenth day before the calends of March, who was Bishop in Berkshire, and in Wiltshire, and in Dorsetshire.  This year also King Malcolm won the mother of Malslaythe.... and all his best men, and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself not easily escaped.... This year also was the dry summer; and wild fire came upon many shires, and burned many towns; and also many cities were ruined thereby.

A.D. 1079.  This year Robert, the son of King William, deserted from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders; because his father would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he himself, and also King Philip with his permission, had given him. The best men that were in the land also had sworn oaths of allegiance to him, and taken him for their lord.  This year, therefore, Robert fought with his father, without Normandy, by a castle called Gerberoy; and wounded him in the hand; and his horse, that he sat upon, was killed under him; and he that brought him another was killed there right with a dart.  That was Tookie Wiggodson.  Many were there slain, and also taken.  His son William too was there wounded; but Robert returned to Flanders.  We will not here, however, record any more injury that he did his father.  This year came King Malcolm from Scotland into England, betwixt the two festivals of St. Mary, with a large army, which plundered Northumberland till it came to the Tine, and slew many hundreds of men, and carried home much coin, and treasure, and men in captivity.

A.D. 1080.  This year was Bishop Walker slain in Durham, at a council; and an hundred men with him, French and Flemish.  He himself was born in Lorrain.  This did the Northumbrians in the month of May.

A.D. 1081.  This year the king led an army into Wales, and there freed many hundreds of men.

A.D. 1082.  This year the king seized Bishop Odo; and this year also was a great famine.

A.D. 1083.  This year arose the tumult at Glastonbury betwixt the Abbot Thurstan and his monks.  It proceeded first from the abbot's want of wisdom, that he misgoverned his monks in many things.  But the monks meant well to him; and told him that he should govern them rightly, and love them, and they would be faithful and obedient to him.  The abbot, however, would hear nothing of this; but evil entreated them, and threatened them worse.  One day the abbot went into the chapter-house, and spoke against the monks, and attempted to mislead them;  and sent after some laymen, and they came full-armed into the chapter-house upon the monks.  Then were the monks very much afraid of them, and wist not what they were to do, but they shot forward, and some ran into the church, and locked the doors after them.  But they followed them into the minster, and resolved to drag them out, so that they durst not go out.  A rueful thing happened on that day.  The Frenchmen broke into the choir, and hurled their weapons toward the altar, where the monks were; and some of the knights went upon the upper floor,  and shot their arrows downward incessantly toward the sanctuary; so that on the crucifix that stood above the altar they stuck many arrows.  And the wretched monks lay about the altar, and some crept under, and earnestly called upon God, imploring his mercy, since they could not obtain any at the hands of men.  What can we say, but that they continued to shoot their arrows; whilst the others broke down the doors, and came in, and slew  some of the monks to death, and wounded many therein; so that the blood came from the altar upon the steps, and from the steps on the floor.  Three there were slain to death, and eighteen wounded. And in this same year departed Matilda, queen of King William, on the day after All-Hallow-mass.  And in the same year also, after mid-winter, the king ordained a large and heavy contribution over all England; that was, upon each hide of land, two and seventy pence.

A.D. 1084.  In this year died Wulfwold, Abbot of Chertsey, on the thirteenth day before the calends of May.

A.D. 1085.  In this year men reported, and of a truth asserted, that Cnute, King of Denmark, son of King Sweyne, was coming hitherward, and was resolved to win this land, with the assistance of Robert, Earl of Flanders;  for Cnute had Robert's daughter.  When William, King of England, who was then resident in Normandy (for he had both England and Normandy), understood this, he went into England with so large an army of horse and foot, from France and Brittany, as never before sought this land; so that men wondered how this land could feed all that force.  But the king left the army to shift for themselves through all this land amongst his subjects, who fed them, each according to his quota of land.  Men suffered much distress this year; and the king caused the land to be laid waste about the sea coast; that, if his foes came up, they might not have anything on which they could very readily seize.  But when the king understood of a truth that his foes were impeded, and could not further their expedition,  then let he some of the army go to their own land; but some he held in this land over the winter. Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Glocester with his council, and held there his court five days.  And afterwards the archbishop and clergy had a synod three days.  There was Mauritius chosen Bishop of London, William of Norfolk, and Robert of Cheshire.  These were all the king's clerks.  After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men.  Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire."  Also he commissioned them to record in writing, "How much  land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his abbots, and his earls;" and though I may be prolix and tedious, "What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it were worth."  So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ.  And all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him.

A.D. 1086.  This year the king bare his crown, and held his court, in Winchester at Easter; and he so arranged, that he was by the Pentecost at Westminster, and dubbed his son Henry a knight there.  Afterwards he moved about so that he came by Lammas to Sarum; where he was met by his councillors; and all the landsmen that were of any account over all England became this man's vassals as they were; and they all bowed themselves before him, and became his men, and swore him oaths of allegiance that they would against all other men be faithful to him.  Thence he proceeded into the Isle of Wight; because he wished to go into Normandy, and so he afterwards did; though he first did according to his custom; he collected a very large sum from his people, wherever he could make any demand, whether with justice or otherwise.  Then he went into Normandy; and Edgar Etheling, the relation of King Edward, revolted from him, for he received not much honour from him; but may the Almighty God give him honour hereafter.  And Christina, the sister of the etheling, went into the monastery of Rumsey, and received the holy veil.  And the same year there was a very heavy season, and a swinkful and sorrowful year in England, in murrain of cattle, and corn and fruits were at a stand, and so much untowardness in the weather, as a man may not easily think; so tremendous was the thunder and lightning, that it killed many men; and it continually grew worse and worse with men.  May God Almighty better it whenever it be his will.

A.D. 1087.  After the birth of our Lord and Saviour Christ, one thousand and eighty-seven winters; in the one and twentieth year after William began to govern and direct England, as God granted him, was a very heavy and pestilent season in this land.  Such a sickness came on men, that full nigh every other man was in the worst disorder, that is, in the diarrhoea; and that so dreadfully, that many men died in the disorder.  Afterwards came, through the badness of the weather as we before mentioned, so great a famine over all England, that many hundreds of men died a miserable death through hunger.  Alas!  how wretched and how rueful a time was there!  When the poor wretches lay full nigh driven to death prematurely, and afterwards came sharp hunger, and dispatched them withall!  Who will not be penetrated with grief at such a season?  or who is so hardhearted as not to weep at such misfortune?  Yet such things happen for folks' sins, that they will not love God and righteousness.  So it was in those days, that little righteousness was in this land with any men but with the monks alone, wherever they fared well.  The king and the head men loved much, and overmuch, covetousness in gold and in silver; and recked not how sinfully it was got, provided it came to them.  The king let his land at as high a rate as he possibly could; then came some other person, and bade more than the former one gave, and the king let it to the men that bade him more. Then came the third, and bade yet more; and the king let it to hand to the men that bade him most of all: and he recked not how very sinfully the stewards got it of wretched men, nor how many unlawful deeds they did; but the more men spake about right law, the more unlawfully they acted.  They erected unjust tolls, and many other unjust things they did, that are difficult to reckon. Also in the same year, before harvest, the holy minster of St. Paul, the episcopal see in London, was completely burned, with many other minsters, and the greatest part, and the richest of  the whole city.  So also, about the same time, full nigh each head-port in all England was entirely burned.  Alas!  rueful and woeful was the fate of the year that brought forth so many misfortunes.  In the same year also, before the Assumption of St. Mary, King William went from Normandy into France with an army, and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king, and slew many of his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading the life of anachorets, were burned therein.  This being thus done,   King William returned to Normandy.  Rueful was the thing he did; but a more rueful him befel.  How more rueful?  He fell sick, and it dreadfully ailed him.  What shall I say?  Sharp death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also. He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St. Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster, which he   had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold gifts.  Alas!  how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! He that was before a rich king, and lord of many lands, had not then of all his land more than a space of seven feet!  and he that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered with mould!  He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called Robert, who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called William, who wore the crown after him in England; and the third, called Henry, to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure.  If any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon him, and lived sometime in his court.  This King William then that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were.  He was mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure severe to the men that gainsayed his will.  On that same spot where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it.  In his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also very many others over all England.  This land was moreover well filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St. Benedict.  But such was the state of Christianity in his time, that each man followed what belonged to his profession -- he that would.  He was also very dignified.  Thrice he bare his crown each year, as oft as he was in England.  At Easter he bare it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Glocester.  And then were with him all the rich men over all England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and knights.  So very stern was he also and hot, that no man durst do anything against his will.  He had earls in his custody, who acted against his will.  Bishops he hurled from their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into prison.  At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a very rich bishop in Normandy.  At Baieux was his episcopal stall; and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king.  He had an earldom in England; and when the king was in Normandy, then was he the mightiest man in this land.  Him he confined in prison.  But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of gold.  No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will, he soon lost the limb that he played with.  He truly reigned over England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.  The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal.  So also he subdued Scotland by his great strength.  As to Normandy, that was his native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine; and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons.  Assuredly in his time had men much distress, and very many sorrows.  Castles he let men build, and miserably swink the poor.  The king himself was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his people, for little need, by right and by unright.  He was fallen into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal.  He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight.  As he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved the tall deer as if he were their father.  Likewise he decreed by the hares, that they should go free.  His rich men bemoaned it, and the poor men shuddered at it.  But he was so stern, that he recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal the king's will, if they would live, or have land, or possessions, or even his peace.  Alas!  that any man should presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men.  May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins!  These things have we written concerning him, both good and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to the kingdom of heaven.  Many things may we write that were done in this same year.  So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that ever could be.  They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church.  It happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their dominion.  But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent everywhere into each land, and desired assistance.  And they came to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land again, through God's assistance.  In this land also, in the same year, died many rich men; Stigand, Bishop of Chichester, and the Abbot of St. Augustine, and the Abbot of Bath, and the Abbot of Pershore, and the lord of them all, William, King of England, that we spoke of before.  After his death his son, called William also as the father, took to the kingdom, and was blessed to king by Archbishop Landfranc at Westminster three days ere Michaelmas day.  And all the men in England submitted to him, and swore oaths to him.  This being thus done, the king went to Winchester, and opened the treasure house, and the treasures that his father had gathered, in gold, and in silver, and in vases, and in palls, and in gems, and in many other valuable things that are difficult to enumerate.  Then the king did as his father bade him ere he was dead; he there distributed treasures for his father's soul to each monastery that was in England; to some ten marks of gold, to some six, to each upland  church sixty pence.  And into each shire were sent a hundred pounds of money to distribute amongst poor men for his soul.  And ere he departed, he bade that they should release all the men that were in prison under his power. And the king was on the midwinter in London.

A.D. 1088.  In this year was this land much stirred, and filled with great treachery; so that the richest Frenchmen that were in this land would betray their lord the king, and would have his brother Robert king, who was earl in Normandy.  In this design was engaged first Bishop Odo, and Bishop Gosfrith, and William, Bishop of Durham.  So well did the king by the bishop [Odo] that all England fared according to his counsel, and as he would.  And the bishop thought to do by him as Judas Iscariot did by our Lord.  And Earl Roger was also of this faction; and much people was with him all Frenchmen.  This conspiracy was formed in Lent. As soon as Easter came, then went they forth, and harrowed, and burned, and wasted the king's farms; and they despoiled the lands of all the men that were in the king's service.  And they each of  them went to his castle, and manned it, and provisioned it as well as they could.  Bishop Gosfrith, and Robert the peace-breaker, went to Bristol, and plundered it, and brought the spoil to the castle.  Afterwards they went out of the castle, and plundered Bath, and all the land thereabout; and all the honor of Berkeley they laid waste.  And the men that eldest were of Hereford, and all the shire forthwith, and the men of Shropshire, with much people of Wales, came and plundered and burned in Worcestershire, until they came to the city itself, which it was their design to set on fire, and then to rifle the minster, and win the king's castle to their hands.  The worthy Bishop Wulfstan, seeing these things, was much agitated in his mind, because to him was betaken the custody of the castle. Nevertheless his hired men went out of the castle with few attendants, and, through God's mercy and the bishop's merits, slew or took five hundred men, and put all the others to flight. The Bishop of Durham did all the harm that he could over all by the north.  Roger was the name of one of them;  who leaped into the castle at Norwich, and did yet the worst of all over all that land.  Hugh also was one, who did nothing better either in Leicestershire or in Northamptonshire.  The Bishop Odo being one, though of the same family from which the king himself was descended, went into Kent to his earldom, and greatly despoiled it;  and having laid waste the lands of the king and of the archbishop withal, he brought the booty into his castle at Rochester.  When the king understood all these things, and what treachery they were employing against him, then was he in his mind much agitated.  He then sent after Englishmen, described to them his need, earnestly requested their support, and promised them the best laws that ever before were in this land; each unright guild he forbade, and restored to the men their woods and chaces.  But it stood no while.  The Englishmen however went to the assistance of the king their lord.  They advanced toward Rochester, with a view to get possession of the Bishop Odo; for they thought, if they had him who was at first the head of the conspiracy, they might the better get possession of all the others.  They came then to the castle at Tunbridge; and there were in the castle the knights of Bishop Odo, and many others who were resolved to hold it against the king.  But the Englishmen advanced, and broke into the castle, and the men that were therein agreed with the king.  The king with his army went toward Rochester.  And they supposed that the bishop was therein; but it was made known to the king that the bishop was gone to the castle at Pevensea.  And the king with his army went after, and beset the castle about with a very large force full six weeks.  During this time the Earl of Normandy, Robert, the king's brother, gathered a very considerable force, and thought to win England with the support of those men that were in this land against the king.  And he sent some of his men to this land, intending to come himself after.  But the Englishmen that guarded the sea lighted upon some of the men, and slew them, and drowned more than any man could tell.  When provisions afterwards failed those within the castle, they earnestly besought peace, and gave themselves up to the king; and the bishop swore that he would depart out of England, and no more come on this land, unless the king sent after him, and that he would give up the castle at Rochester.  Just as the bishop was going with an intention to give up the castle, and the king had sent his men with him, then arose the men that were in the castle, and took the bishop and the king's men, and put them into prison.  In the castle were some very good knights; Eustace the Young, and the three sons of Earl Roger, and all the best born men that were in this land or in Normandy.  When the king understood this thing, then went he after with the army that he had there, and sent over all England. and bade that each man that was faithful should come to him, French and English, from sea-port and from upland.  Then came to him much people; and he went to Rochester, and beset the castle, until they that were therein agreed, and gave up the castle.  The Bishop Odo with the men that were in the castle went over sea, and the bishop thus abandoned the dignity that he had in this land.  The king afterwards sent an army to Durham, and allowed it to beset the castle, and the bishop agreed, and gave up the castle, and relinquished his bishopric, and went to Normandy. Many Frenchmen also abandoned their lands, and went over sea; and the king gave their lands to the men that were faithful to him.

A.D. 1089.  In this year the venerable father and favourer of monks, Archbishop Landfranc, departed this life; but we hope that he is gone to the heavenly kingdom.  There was also over all England much earth-stirring on the third day before the ides of August, and it was a very late year in corn, and in every kind of fruits, so that many men reaped their corn about Martinmas, and yet later.

A.D. 1090.  Indiction XIII.  These things thus done, just as we have already said above, by the king, and by his brother and by this men, the king was considering how he might wreak his vengeance on his brother Robert, harass him most, and win Normandy of him.  And indeed through his craft, or through bribery, he got possession of the castle at St. Valeri, and the haven; and so he got possession of that at Albemarle.  And therein he set his knights; and they did harm to the land in harrowing and burning.  After this he got possession of more castles in the land; and therein lodged his horsemen.  When the Earl of Normandy, Robert, understood that his sworn men deceived him, and gave up their castles to do him harm, then sent he to his lord, Philip, king of the Franks; and he came to Normandy with a large army, and the king and the earl with an immense force beset the castle about, wherein were the men of the King of England.  But the King William of England sent to Philip, king of the Franks; and he for his love, or for his great treasure, abandoned thus his subject the Earl Robert and his land; and returned again to France, and let them so remain.  And in the midst of these things this land was much oppressed by unlawful exactions and by many other misfortunes.

A.D. 1091.  In this year the King William held his court at Christmas in Westminster, and thereafter at Candlemas he went, for the annoyance of his brother, out of England into Normandy. Whilst he was there, their reconciliation took place, on the condition, that the earl put into his hands Feschamp, and the earldom of Ou, and Cherbourg; and in addition to this, that the king's men should be secure in the castles that they had won against the will of the earl.  And the king in return promised him those many [castles] that their father had formerly won, and also to reduce those that had revolted from the earl, also all that his father had there beyond, except those that he had then given the king, and that all those, that in England before for the earl had lost their land, should have it again by this treaty, and that the earl should have in England just so much as was specified in this agreement.  And if the earl died without a son by lawful wedlock, the king should be heir of all Normandy; and by virtue of this same treaty, if the king died, the earl should be heir of all England.  To this treaty swore twelve of the best men of the king's side, and twelve of the earl's, though it stood but a little while afterwards.  In the midst of this treaty was Edgar Etheling deprived of the land that the earl had before permitted him to keep in hand; and he went out of Normandy to the king, his sister's husband, in Scotland, and to his sister.  Whilst the King William was out of England, the King Malcolm of Scotland came hither into England, and overran a great deal of it, until the good men that governed this land sent an army against him and repulsed him.  When the King William in Normandy heard this, then prepared he his departure, and came to England, and his brother, the Earl Robert, with him; and he soon issued an order to collect a force both naval and military; but the naval force, ere it could come to Scotland, perished almost miserably, a few days before St. Michael's mass.  And the king and his brother proceeded with the land-force; but when the King Malcolm heard that they were resolved to seek him with an army, he  went with his force out of Scotland into Lothaine in England, and there abode.  When the King William came near with his army, then interceded between them Earl Robert, and Edgar Etheling, and so made the peace of the kings, that the King Malcolm came to our king, and did homage,  promising all such obedience as he formerly paid to his father; and that he confirmed with an oath. And the King William promised him in land and in all things whatever he formerly had under his father.  In this settlement was also Edgar Etheling united with the king.  And the kings then with much satisfaction departed; yet that stood but a little while.  And the Earl Robert tarried here full nigh until Christmas with the king, and during this time found but little of the truth of their agreement; and two days before that tide he took ship in the Isle of Wight, and went into Normandy, and Edgar Etheling with him.

A.D. 1092.  In this year the King William with a large army went north to Carlisle, and restored the town, and reared the castle, and drove out Dolphin that before governed the land, and set his own men in the castle, and then returned hither southward.  And a vast number of rustic people with wives and with cattle he sent thither, to dwell there in order to till the land.

A.D. 1093.  In this year, during Lent, was the King William at Glocester so sick, that he was by all reported dead.  And in his illness he made many good promises to lead his own life aright; to grant peace and protection to the churches of God, and never more again with fee to sell; to have none but righteous laws amongst his people.  The archbishopric of Canterbury, that before remained in his own hand, he transferred to Anselm, who was before Abbot of Bec; to Robert his chancellor the bishopric of Lincoln; and to many minsters he gave land; but that he afterwards took away, when he was better, and annulled all the good laws that he promised us before.  Then after this sent the King of Scotland, and demanded the fulfilment of the treaty that was promised him.  And the King William cited him to Glocester, and sent him hostages to Scotland; and Edgar Etheling, afterwards, and the men returned, that brought him with great dignity to the king.  But when he came to the king, he could not be considered worthy either of our king's speech, or of the conditions that were formerly promised him.  For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm returned to Scotland.  And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him; and Robert, the Earl of Northumberland, surrounded him unawares with his men, and slew him.  Morel of Barnborough slew him, who was the earl's steward, and a baptismal friend  of King Malcolm.  With him was also slain Edward his son; who after him should have been king, if he had lived.  When the good Queen Margaret heard this -- her most beloved lord and son thus betrayed she was in her mind almost distracted to death.  She with her priests went to church, and performed her rites, and prayed before God, that she might give up the ghost.  And the Scots then chose  Dufenal to king, Malcolm's brother, and drove out all the English that formerly were with the King Malcolm.  When Duncan, King Malcolm's son, heard all that had thus taken place (he was then in the King William's court, because his father had given him as a hostage to our king's father, and so he lived here afterwards), he came to the king, and did such fealty as the king required at his hands; and so with his permission went to Scotland, with all the support that he could get of English and French, and deprived his uncle Dufenal of the kingdom, and was received as king.  But the Scots afterwards gathered some force together, and slew full nigh all his men; and he himself with a few made his escape.  Afterwards they were reconciled, on the condition that he never again brought into the land English or French.

A.D. 1094.  This year the King William held his court at Christmas in Glocester; and messengers came to him thither from his brother Robert of Normandy; who said that his brother renounced all peace and conditions, unless the king would fulfil all that they had stipulated in the treaty; and upon that he called him forsworn and void of truth, unless he adhered to the treaty, or went thither and explained himself there, where the treaty was formerly made and also sworn.  Then went the king to Hastings at Candlemas; and whilst he there abode waiting the weather, he let hallow the minster at Battel, and deprived Herbert Losang, the Bishop of Thetford, of his staff; and thereafter about mid-Lent went over sea into Normandy.  After he came, thither, he and his brother Robert, the earl, said that they should come together in peace (and so they did), and might be united.  Afterwards they came together with the same men that before made the treaty, and also confirmed it by oaths; and all the blame of breaking the treaty they threw upon the king; but he would not confess this, nor even adhere to the treaty; and for this  reason they parted with much dissatisfaction.  And the king afterwards won the castle at Bures, and took the earl's men therein; some of whom he sent hither to this land.  On the other hand the earl, with the assistance of the King of France, won the castle at Argence, and took therein Roger of Poitou,  and seven hundred of the king's knights with him; and afterwards that at Hulme; and oft readily did either of them burn the towns of the other, and also took men.  Then sent the king hither to this land, and ordered twenty thousand Englishmen to be sent out to Normandy to his assistance; but when they came to sea, they then had orders to return, and to pay to the king's behoof the fee that they had taken; which was half a pound each man; and they did so.  And the earl after this, with the King of France, and with all that he could gather together, went through the midst of Normandy, towards Ou, where the King William was, and thought to besiege him within; and so they advanced until they came to Luneville.  There was the King of France through cunning turned aside; and so afterwards all the army dispersed.  In the midst of these things the King William sent after his brother Henry, who was in the castle at Damfront; but because he could not go through Normandy with security, he sent ships after him, and Hugh, Earl of Chester.  When, however, they should have gone towards Ou where the king was, they went to England, and came up at Hamton,  on the eve of the feast of All Saints, and here afterwards abode; and at Christmas they were in London.  In this same year also the Welshmen gathered themselves together, and with the French that were in Wales, or in the neighbourhood, and had formerly seized their land, stirred up war, and broke into many fastnesses and castles, and slew many men.  And when their followers had increased, they divided themselves into larger parties.  With some part of them fought Hugh, Earl of Shropshire, and put them to flight.  Nevertheless the other part of them all this year omitted no evil that they could do.  This year also the Scots ensnared their king, Duncan, and slew him; and afterwards, the second time, took his uncle Dufenal to king, through whose instruction and advice he was betrayed to death.

A.D. 1095.  In this year was the King William the first four days of Christmas at Whitsand, and after the fourth day came hither, and landed at Dover.  And Henry, the king's brother, abode in this land until Lent, and then went over sea to Normandy, with much treasure, on the king's behalf, against their brother, Earl Robert, and frequently fought against the earl, and did him much harm, both in land and in men.  And then at Easter held the king his court in Winchester; and the Earl Robert of Northumberland would not come to court.  And the king was much stirred to anger with him for this, and sent to him, and bade him harshly, if he would be worthy of protection, that he would come to court at Pentecost.  In this year was Easter on the eighth day before the calends of April; and upon Easter, on the night of the feast of St Ambrose, that is, the second before the nones of April, nearly over all this land, and almost all the night, numerous and manifold stars were seen to fall from heaven; not by one or two, but so thick in succession, that no man could tell it.  Hereafter at Pentecost was the king at Windsor, and all his council with him, except the Earl of Northumberland; for the king would neither give him hostages, nor own upon truth, that he might come and go with security.  And the king therefore ordered his army, and went against the earl to Northumberland; and soon after he came thither, he won many and nearly all the best of the earl's clan in a fortress, and put them into custody; and the castle at Tinemouth he beset until he won it, and the earl's brother therein, and all that were with him; and afterwards went to Bamborough, and beset the earl therein.  But when the king saw that he could not win it, then ordered he his men to make a castle before Bamborough, and called it in his speech "Malveisin"; that is in English, "Evil Neighbour".  And he fortified it strongly with his men, and afterwards went southward.  Then, soon after that the king was gone south, went the earl one night out of Bamborough towards Tinemouth; but they that were in the new castle were aware of him, and went after him, and fought him, and wounded him, and afterwards took him. And of those that were with him some they slew, and some they took alive.  Among these things it was made known to the king, that the Welshmen in Wales had broken into a castle called Montgomery, and slain the men of Earl Hugo, that should have held it.  He therefore gave orders to levy another force immediately, and after Michaelmas went into Wales, and shifted his forces, and went through all that land, so that the army came all together by All Saints to Snowdon.  But the Welsh always went before into the mountains and the moors, that no man could come to them.  The king then went homeward; for he saw that he could do no more there this winter.  When the king came home again, he gave orders to take the Earl Robert of Northumberland, and lead him to Bamborough, and put out both his eyes, unless they that were therein would give up the castle.  His wife held it, and Morel who was steward, and also his relative.  Through this was the castle then given up; and Morel was then in the king's court; and through him were many both of the clergy and laity surrendered, who with their counsels had conspired against the king.  The king had before this time commanded some to be brought into prison, and afterwards had it very strictly proclaimed over all this country, "That all who held land of the king, as they wished to be considered worthy of protection, should come to court at the time appointed."  And the king commanded that the Earl Robert should be led to Windsor, and there held in the castle.  Also in this same year, against Easter, came the pope's nuncio hither to this land.  This was Bishop Walter, a man of very good life, of the town of Albano; and upon the day of Pentecost on the behalf of Pope Urban he gave Archbishop Anselm his pall, and he received him at his archiepiscopal stall in Canterbury.  And Bishop Walter remained afterwards in this land a great part of the year; and men then sent by him the Rome-scot,  which they had not done for many years before.  This same year also the weather was very unseasonable; in consequence of which throughout all this land were all the fruits of the earth reduced to a moderate crop.

A.D. 1096.  In this year held the King William his court at Christmas in Windsor; and William Bishop of Durham died there on new-year's day; and on the octave of the Epiphany was the king and all his councillors at Salisbury.  There Geoffry Bainard challenged William of Ou, the king's relative, maintaining that he had been in the conspiracy against the king.  And he fought with him, and overcame him in single combat; and after he was overcome, the king gave orders to put out his eyes, and afterwards to emasculate him; and his steward, William by name, who was the son of his stepmother, the king commanded to be hanged on a gibbet.  Then was also Eoda, Earl of Champagne, the king's son-in-law, and many others, deprived of their lands; whilst some were led to London, and there killed.  This year also, at Easter, there was a very great stir through all this nation and many others, on account of Urban, who was declared Pope, though he had nothing of a see at Rome.  And an immense multitude went forth with their wives and children, that they might make war upon the heathens.  Through this expedition were the king and his brother, Earl Robert, reconciled; so that the king went over sea, and purchased all Normandy of him, on condition that they should be united.  And the earl afterwards departed; and with him the Earl of Flanders, and the Earl of Boulogne, and also many other men of rank .  And the Earl Robert, and they that went with him, passed the winter in Apulia; but of the people that went by Hungary many thousands miserably perished there and by the way.  And many dragged themselves home rueful and hunger-bitten on the approach of winter.  This was a very heavy-timed year through all England, both through the manifold tributes, and also through the very heavy-timed hunger that severely oppressed this earth in the course of the year.  In this year also the principal men who held this land, frequently sent forces into Wales, and many men thereby grievously afflicted, producing no results but destruction of men and waste of money.

A.D. 1097.  In this year was the King William at Christmas in Normandy; and afterwards against Easter he embarked for this land; for that he thought to hold his court at Winchester; but he was weather-bound until Easter-eve, when he first landed at Arundel; and for this reason held his court at Windsor.  And thereafter with a great army he went into Wales, and quickly penetrated that land with his forces, through some of the Welsh who were come to him, and were his guides; and he remained in that country from midsummer nearly until August, and suffered much loss there in men and in horses, and also in many other things.  The Welshmen, after they had revolted from the king, chose them many elders from themselves; one of whom was called Cadwgan,  who was the worthiest of them, being brother's son to King Griffin.  And when the king saw that he could do nothing in furtherance of his will, he returned again into this land; and soon after that he let his men build castles on the borders. Then upon the feast of St. Michael, the fourth day before the nones of October,  appeared an uncommon star, shining in the evening, and soon hastening to set. It  was seen south-west, and the ray that stood off from it was thought very long, shining south-east.  And it appeared on this wise nearly all the week. Many men supposed that it was a comet.  Soon after this Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury obtained leave  of the king (though it was contrary to the wishes of the king, as men supposed), and went over sea; because he thought that men in this country did little according to right and after his instruction. And the king thereafter upon St. Martin's mass went over sea into Normandy; but whilst he was waiting for fair weather, his court in the county where they lay, did the most harm that ever court or army could do in a friendly and peaceable land.  This was in all things a very heavy-timed year, and beyond measure laborious from badness of weather, both when men attempted to till the land, and afterwards to gather the fruits of their tilth; and from unjust contributions they never rested.  Many counties also that were confined to London by work, were grievously oppressed on account of the wall that they were building about the tower, and the bridge that was nearly all afloat, and the work of the king's hall that they were building at Westminster; and many men perished thereby.  Also in this same year soon after Michaelmas went Edgar Etheling with an army through the king's assistance into Scotland, and with hard fighting won that land, and drove out the King Dufnal; and his nephew Edgar, who was son of King Malcolm and of Margaret the queen, he there appointed king in fealty to the King William; and afterwards again returned to England.

A.D. 1098.  In this year at Christmas was the King William in Normandy; and Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester, and Baldwin, Abbot of St. Edmund's, within this tide  both departed.  And in this year also died Turold, Abbot of Peterborough.  In the summer of this year also, at Finchamstead in Berkshire, a pool welled with blood, as many true men said that should see it.  And Earl Hugh was slain in Anglesey by foreign pirates,  and his brother Robert was his heir, as he had settled it before with the king.  Before Michaelmas the heaven was of such an hue, as if it were burning, nearly all the night.  This was a very troublesome year through manifold impositions; and from the abundant rains, that ceased not all the year, nearly all the tilth in the marsh- lands perished.

A.D. 1099.  This year was the King William at midwinter in Normandy, and at Easter came hither to land, and at Pentecost held his court the first time in his new building at Westminster; and there he gave the bishopric of Durham to Ranulf his chaplain, who had long directed and governed his councils over all England. And soon after this he went over sea, and drove the Earl Elias out of Maine, which he reduced under his power, and so by Michaelmas returned to this land.  This year also, on the festival of St. Martin, the sea-flood sprung up to such a height, and did so much harm, as no man remembered that it ever did before.  And this was the first day of the new moon.  And Osmond, Bishop of Salisbury, died in Advent.

A.D. 1100.  In this year the King William held his court at Christmas in Glocester, and at Easter in Winchester, and at Pentecost in Westminster.  And at Pentecost was seen in Berkshire at a certain town blood to well from the earth; as many said that should see it.  And thereafter on the morning after Lammas day was the King William shot in hunting, by an arrow from his own men, and afterwards brought to Winchester, and buried in the cathedral.   This was in the thirteenth year after that he assumed the government.  He was very harsh and severe over his land and his men, and with all his neighbours; and very formidable; and through the counsels of evil men, that to him were always agreeable, and through his own avarice, he was ever tiring this nation with an army, and with unjust contributions. For in his days all right fell to the ground, and every wrong rose up before God and before the world.  God's church he humbled; and all the bishoprics and abbacies, whose elders fell in his days, he either sold in fee, or held in his own hands, and let for a certain sum; because he would be the heir of every man, both of the clergy and laity; so that on the day that he fell he had in his own hand the archbishopric of Canterbury, with the bishopric of Winchester, and that of Salisbury, and eleven abbacies, all let for a sum; and (though I may be tedious) all that was loathsome to God and righteous men, all that was customary in this land in his time.  And for this he was loathed by nearly all his people, and odious to God, as his end testified: -- for he departed in the midst of his unrighteousness, without any power of repentance or recompense for his deeds.  On the Thursday he was slain; and in the morning afterwards buried; and after he was buried, the statesmen that were then nigh at hand, chose his brother Henry to king.  And he immediately  gave the bishopric of Winchester to William Giffard; and afterwards went to London; and on the Sunday following, before the altar at Westminster, he promised God and all the people, to annul all the unrighteous acts that took place in his brother's time, and to maintain the best laws that were valid in any king's day before him.  And after this the Bishop of London, Maurice, consecrated him king; and all in this land submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men.  And the king, soon after this, by the advice of those that were about him, allowed men to take the Bishop Ranulf of Durham, and bring him into the Tower of London, and hold him there.  Then, before Michaelmas, came the Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury hither to this land; as the King Henry, by the advice of his ministers had sent after him, because he had gone out of this land for the great wrongs that the King William did unto him.  And soon hereafter the king took him to wife Maud, daughter of Malcolm, King of Scotland, and of Margaret the good queen, the relative of King Edward, and of the right royal  race of England.  And on Martinmas day she was publicly given to him with much pomp at Westminster, and the Archbishop Anselm wedded her to him, and afterwards consecrated her queen.  And the Archbishop Thomas of York soon hereafter died.  During the harvest of this same year also came the Earl Robert home into Normandy, and the Earl Robert of Flanders, Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, from Jerusalem.  And as soon as the Earl Robert came into Normandy, he was joyfully received by all his people; except those of the castles that were garrisoned with the King Henry's men.  Against them he had many contests and struggles.

A.D. 1101.  In this year at Christmas held the King Henry his court in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester.  And soon thereafter were the chief men in this land in a conspiracy against the king; partly from their own great infidelity, and also  through the Earl Robert of Normandy, who with hostility aspired to the invasion of this land.  And the king afterwards sent ships out to sea, to thwart and impede his brother; but some of them in the time of need fell back, and turned from the king, and surrendered themselves to the Earl Robert.  Then at midsummer went the king out to Pevensey with all his force against his brother, and there awaited him.  But in the meantime came the Earl Robert up at Portsmouth twelve nights before Lammas; and the king with all his force came against him.  But the chief men interceded between them, and settled the brothers on the condition, "that the king should forego all that he held by main strength in Normandy against the earl; and that all then in England should have their lands again, who had lost it before through the earl, and Earl Eustace also all his patrimony in this land; and that the Earl Robert every year should receive from England three thousand marks of silver; and particularly, that whichever of the brothers should survive the other, he should be heir of all England and also of Normandy, except the deceased left an heir by lawful wedlock."  And this twelve men of the highest rank on either side then confirmed with an oath.  And the earl afterwards remained in this land till after Michaelmas; and his men did much harm wherever they went, the while that the earl continued in this land.  This year also the Bishop Ranulf at Candlemas burst out of the Tower of London by night, where he was in confinement, and went into Normandy; through whose contrivance and instigation mostly the Earl Robert this year sought this land with hostility.


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