"Chapels lurking among
Where a few villagers on bended knees
Find solace which a busy world disdains.
traditions and history of the parish are not without interest. It has
two ecclesiastical ruins of some importance.
(1) Invergowrie Church,
or, as it is now commonly called, Dargie Church, stands on an almost
insular knoll1 washed by the Invergowrie burn, on the very borders of
Forfarshire, and within a stone's throw of the Tay. The Dundee and Perth
railway passes close to it, but, in spite of every change, this little
church-crowned islet is one of the quietest old-time nooks in the
district. It is a favourite subject for artists, and its sweet repose
has made it a favourite haunt of many. The late Mr. M'Cheyne, during his
first years in Dundee, " often rode out in an afternoon to the ruined
church of Invergowrie, to enjoy an hour's perfect solitude; for he felt
meditation and prayer to be the very sinews of his work."
It is not certainly known
when, or even by whom, the church was built. In his History of the
Popes, Mill says that a church stood at Invergowrie so early as 431 a.d.
This would make it perhaps the earliest church north of the Tay. We
doubt if this can be claimed for it.
The tradition ;s that it
was founded by Bonifacivis Queretinus, but the story of this saint is
hopelessly mixed up with fable. The legend is that "he was the Pope of
that name, of a Jewish stock, descended from a sister of St. Peter and
St. Andrew, and born at Beth-saida; he was ordained priest by John, the
patriarch of Jerusalem, in his thirty-sixth year; four years after he
came to Rome, where he reigned more than seven years; with seven
bishops, two abbesses, and a retinue of seven priests, seven deacons,
and of all the minor orders by sevens, he came to Pictland, and founded
churches at Invergowrie and Resti-noth, Forfarshire. He baptized King
Nectan and all his court. After evangelising and building churches among
the South Picts, he went to Ross-shire, founded a church at Rosemarkie,
and dedicated it to St. Peter; and at the age of eighty and upwards he
died at Rosemarkie, and was buried in the church of St Peter (Smith's
Dictionary of Christian Biography, i. 330). Boniface's memory is still
kept alive at Rosemarkie by a well and a fair.
Two of the bishops who
are said to have accompanied him were Pensandus and Madianus, whose
names are perhaps preserved in Kil-spindie and St. Madoes in the Carse
of Gowrie. But Johnston derives Kilspindie or Kynspinedy from Gaelic,
ceann spuinneadaire, "height of the plunderer."
The greater part of this
story is clearly legendary. Skene thinks that the truth at the bottom of
it is, that Boniface was an Italian priest who came to Scotland in the
seventh or eighth century, with a view to bring the Scottish Church to
adopt the Roman customs. Boniface is described as "a grave and venerable
person." Archbishop Spotswood, in his History of the Church of Scotland\
refers thus to his coming to Invergowrie : "Landing in the river of Tay,
at the mouth of a little Water (Gobriat or Gowrie, cf. Utrecht MSS.)
that divided the countries of Angus and Mernis, he there built a church
to the memory of St. Peter the Apostle; another, not far from thence, he
built at Telin, and a third at Restennoth." As has been already said, it
is not certain when the church was built, but it was one of the earliest
north of the 1 ay. Two curious boulders may be. seen not very far from
it. Legend tells that one day whilst Dargie Church was building, Satan
was standing on the hills of Fife. Incensed at the sight of the rising
church, Satan took and threw those stones to destroy it. Both of them
missed thei" mark. The one fell beyond it, and lies in the Greystane
grounds (the Paddock Stone); the other fell short of it, and is embedded
in the river. It would seem that the Prince of Darkness had a persistent
ill-will to the Carse of Gowrie. Whether to revenge his defeat or not,
we cannot say, but legend tells he was once desirous of coming from
Kirkcaldy to the Carse. He took with him a lapful of stones, which he
meant to use as stepping-stones across the Tay into the lands of Gowrie.
Just as he was stepping over Benarty Hill n Kinross, he stumbled,
dropping on the land beneath, the boulders that mark it.
Prior to the Reformation,
Dargie Church belonged to the Abbey of Scone. The Monastery of Scone was
a Culdee foundation of an early date. It was reformed in 1114 or 1115 by
King Alexander I., who established there a community of Canons regular
of St. Augustine, whom he brought from near Pontefract. There are two
versions of the story as to how Invergowrie Church came to be attached
to Scone. Sir James Balfour tells it this way : " After the death of
Edgar, his brother Alexander, surnamed Ferss, succedit him. Quhill he
was a priut man, he had at his christening, by the donatione of hes
unckell, Donald Bane, Earle of Gowrey, the lands of Liffe and
Innergowrey, quher, in the first zeire of his raing, he began then to
buld a staitly palace and castle, bot was interrupted by the rebells of
Meirnes and Murray, quho besett him in the night, and had doubtesly
killed him, had not Alexander Carrone firmly carried the king save away
. . . and by a small boat saived themselves, to Fyffe and the south
pairts of the kingdom, where he raised ane armey, and marched against
the forsaid rebells of Meirnes and Murray, quhome he totally overthrew
and subdewed, for which great mercy and preser-vatione, in a thankful
retribution to God, he foundit the monasterey of Scone; and too it gave
hes first lands of Liffe and Innergowrey, in A. 1114."
Wyntown in his Cronykil
tells the story more picturesquely and somewhat differently. When King
Edgar died in 1107, "Be-north Tay in-til Dunde," his brother Alexander
was crowned king, and rc.igned seventeen years in honour and power. He
"possessed the foreign luxuries of an Arabian horse, velvet furniture,
and 1 urkish armour." Wyntown tells us that Alexander
"Wes rycht manly;
Alysandyr the Fcrs for-thi [therefore]
He was cald be this resowne."
His palace was at Gray,
not far off from Invergowrie.
"In Incvcrgowry d
Sesovvne Wyth an honest Curt he Mde, For thare a Maner plds he hade, And
all the land lyand by Wes hys Deniayne than hdlyly. Swd, suddanly a-pon
hym then A multitude of Scottis men [Come] in entent to sla the King."
Perceiving that he had
knowledge of their purpose, they turned quickly and fled over the Mount.
The king with his court pursued them "owre the Stockfurd into Ros."
There they gathered again, intending to slay him. Undaunted by the heavy
flood at the Stock-furd, he rode across, gave chase, and overtook them,
and slew them, and "or he past
"Owt of that land, that
fewe he left
To tak on hand swylk purpose eft.
Frd that day hys Legys all Oysid hym
Alysandyr the Fers to call."
Wyntown then goes on to
tell of his return to Invergowrie. -
"Syne he sped hym wytht
Hdme agayne til Inewrgowry.
And in devotyowne movyd, swne
De Abbay he fowndyd than of Scwne.
Fra Saynt Oswaldis in Ingland
Chanownys he browcht to be serwand
God, and Saynt Mychael, regulare
In-til Saynt Austynys ordyr thare."
In the Chartulary of
Scone there are frequent references to the church of Invergowrie. The
name appears in a good many different forms, e.g. Invergowry,
Inuergourin, Inuer-gouren, Invergorin, Innergoueryn, Inuer-goueryn,
Inuergouerin, Invergoveryn, Inner-gowrie, Inuergoueren, Inuergowrin,
The first charter of the
"Liber Ecclesie de Scon" is entitled Carta Alexandri Regis de Fundatione
Abbatie. This dedicates to the church of Scone certain possessions, "cum
tribus carucatis Liff cum sex carucatis Grudin cum decern carucatis
Inuergourin," etc., with three ploughgates at Liff, six ploughgates at
Gourdie, ten ploughgates at Invergowrie. (The two great land measures
were Carucates or ploughgates, and Bovates or oxgangs.) " The oxgang
contained thirteen acres, two oxgangs made a husband-land, and eight
oxgangs a ploughgate, which thus consisted of 104 acres of arable land"
(Skene, Ccltic Scotland, iii. 224).
The fifth charter is a
charter of King Malcolm, confirmatory of the gift.
The sixteenth charter is
entitled Carta Malcomi Regis de ecclesia de Inuergouerin. This charter
is a gift to God, to the church of the Holy Trinity of Scone, and to the
abbot and canons serving God there of the church of Inuergoueren, "cum
dimidia carucata terre que jacet in occidentali parte ecclesie
prenominate nomine Dargoch et cum omnibus pertmentiis ad eandem
ecclesiam vel terram pertinentibus in liberam elimosinam"—"with the half
plough-gate of land which lies in the west part of the church named
Dargoch, together with everything pertaining to the said church or land
in free gift."
The thirty-second charter
is a charter of King William, granting and confirming the same. And it
is named in several episcopal charters, and in a papal bull of Benedict.
Dargoch, now Dargie, appears also in the "forms Dargon and Dargo; and in
the Chartulary, and in the Feus of Scone, are to be found a good many of
the local names of the surrounding district—the "landis and toun of
Wester Innergowry," the land of Lyf, Ochtirlyf, Estergurdy, Vestergurdy,
Myddilgurdy, Petelpy, Driburgh, Logy, Blak-nes, Balgally, Balgartynnay,
Denemill, Kirk-toun of Liff, Netherliff, Brewlandis, Kirkcroft,
We may give here an
example or two from the Feus of Scone :—
XXXII. To umquhile David
Ogilvy of Tempilhall & Christiane Gelletlie his spous half of the
cornemyln of Denmyln, &c.; 1 March 1585.
XLI. To Johnne Watsoun
the serd pairt with the auchteen pairt of the landis & toun of Wester
Innergowry, etc.; 3 March 1585.
LI 11. To Johnne Moreis
in Wester Innergowry and Elizebeth Blak his spous of the half of the
corne myln and myllandis of Wester Innergowrie; 5 March 1585.
LXXII. To Jonet Bell
relict of umquhile
Robert Blak and Johnne
Blak her sone the landis of Wester Innergowry; 16 March 1585.
LXXXII. To umquhile
William Charteris the landis of Dargo ; 16 April 1586.
Next to nothing can be
said of Invergowne Kirk from the days of Alexander to days subsequent to
the Reformation. A charter exists of Hugo, Bishop of St. Andrews,
confirming certain donations made by his predecessors, amongst others,
27 of the churches of Scone, with the chapel of Kinfans, Craigy, Rate,
Liff, and Innergoury, etc.
It was, like Kinfauns, in
the " Baronie in Angus," and its rental, as it appears in the Rentall of
the Abbacie of Scowne , was—
The Kirk of Innergowrie .
The Kirk of Kinfauns . .
. xxxiijli. vjs. viijd.
At the same time its
minister seems to have been paid in kind—
Tua ch. beir.
Tua ch. meill.
In the sixteenth century
the benefices of Liff, Logie, and I nvei gowrie were held by one
incumbent. In 1551, "Dan Andro Gornar, ane of the brether of the Abbay
of Scone," was "vicar of Loge, Lif, and Inergowry."
One little thing links
the Almshouse of the Red or the Trinity Friars in Dundee both with
Longforgan and Invergowrie. King Robert III. gave the church of Kettins,
with all its fruits and revenues, perpetually to the Hospital. In time,
"the oversight of the Hospital and its endowments came into the hands of
the Town Council; and it is probable that they, to meet pressing
necessities, sold the Kettins' revenues in great part, as they did the
teinds of Longforgan at a later time, leaving only a portion unalienated.
. . . We do not know when the Trinity Friars ceased to be associated
with the Hospital, but for a considerable time before the Reformation
the Town Council regularly appointed Almshouse masters to take charge of
the house, and to collect and disburse its revenues; as also chaplains
to minister to the spiritual wants of its inmates. . . . The Almshouse
Chapel was honourably furnished, and the resident chaplain was suitably
accommodated. Before the occupation of the town by the English in
1547-48, the altar ornaments and the other valuables in the house were
carried away for safety, and hid in Invergowrie. After the spoilers had
gone, and the Council were beginning to restore such order as they
could, they ' decernit John Watson to deliver to the maister of the
Almshouse ane silver chalice, and ane wardour bed with the curtains
given to the merchants, with all other gear whilk he lies perteining
thereto; and shortly after, John Watson of Ennergowry deliverit ane
silver chalice, weighing auchteen unce spune and all, and confessit that
he had ane wTardour bed with twa curtains of serge perteining to the
Almshouse'" (Maxwell's Old Dundee prior to the Reformation, p. 66). This
John Watson was " a man of good credit." He was Knox's authority for the
story of George Wishart's prayer at the house of [ames Watson at
Invergowrie. John Watson was a relative of James.
Beyond this, a reference
in some charter and the mention of a few names in the Feus of Scone, we
know little of the church of Invergowrie during this time, and can only
realise its life as sharing the life of Scone, and as kindred to the
life of other churches in the country. - After the Reformation,
Invergowrie Church was served by a Ninian Hall, who was translated
toitini57i. He had a stipend of ^5, us. ifd., "payit be the Collectour
of Angus." Pie was removed to Biggar before 1574.
In the Register of
Ministers and Readers in the Kirk of Scotland, from the book of the
Assignation of Stipends in 1574, we find that Logy, Dundee, Lyff,
Invergowrie, Abirnyte, Lundie, were grouped together, and served by
William Haitlie, minister, with Andro Hany, reidare at Logie and Lyff,
Alexander Forbes, reidare at Invergowrie, Michael Greig, reidare at
Abirnytt, George Cochrane, reidare at Lundy. Haitlie was succeeded in
the charge of Invergowrie by John Christesoun. Before September 1613,
the parish of Invergowrie was united to Liff, and it was also the
practice at this time to present to Liff, Logie, and Invergowrie. The
king was the patron. (The grass in the churchyard belongs to the
minister of Liff, and there is also a portion of land known as the
Glebe.) The present church, which stands on the foundation of an earlier
one, has no claim to great antiquity. It is in ruins, which are,
however, well preserved, and seen through the screen of trees that guard
it, its ivy-covered walls make a pleasing picture. Architecturally, it
has nothing special to mark it. But it is not all of the same age.
The most interesting
thing in Invergowrie Church is the sculptured work. Not very far from
the end of the inner south wall may be observed, built into it, a
beautiful Celtic stone. Dr. Joseph Anderson, in his Scotland in Early
Christian Times (Second Series), refers to it. The Invergowrie stone is
a cross-bearing slab, and is one of the few of the erect slabs which,
"like the free-standing crosses, are characterised by the absence of the
symbols (p. 81). It is two and a half feet high. I he entire surface of
the stone is divided into panels, "without any apparent prominence being
given to one more than another (p. 100). 1 he interlaced work of the
monument is fine. Generally it is "associated with fretwork, as in Fig.
66, at Invergowrie. ... In the general term fretwork I include almost
all the varieties of pattern produced by straight instead of curved
h'nes. The lines may intersect or approach each other vertically or
horizontally, or deflect at various angles ; but they do not interlace,
and they do not curve." Built also into the outside wall is another
stone, on which is carved the figures of three men. Their look and dress
pronounce them ecclesiastics. There is some scroll-work beneath. Tab© of
the figures have shoulder brooches. In his Prehistoric Annals of
Scotland (vol. ii. p. 266), Wilson says of these brooches: "The oval
brooches are most frequently found in pairs, and may be presumed to have
been worn on the front of the shoulders or breast, as shown in a curious
piece of sculpture built into the church wall of Inver-gowrie. It
represents, probably, priests, as two of them hold books in their hands.
The two outer figures are adorned with large brooches on their
shoulders; while the central, and perhaps more important figure is
without them, but wears instead a circular ornament on the lower front
of his garment. Along with the pairs of oval brooches, a third is
frequently found, flat and sometimes trefoiled." He thinks that the
brooches belong to the Scoto-Norwegian period (870 a.d.-1064).
Immediately over this stone is a bit of another stone with a horse and
rider, above which is to be seen a part of the bodies of two or three
figures. (For Illustration, see p. 63.)
We may mention that there
are several sculptured monuments in the Carse district. There is a stone
at Benvie, a valuable monument at St Madoes, and fine slabs at Rossie
Priory. Illustrations of the Invergowrie stones may be seen in the work
issued by the Spalding Club, on the Sculptured Monuments of Scotland, by
Dr. John Stuart. (Cf. also Proceedings, Soc. Antiquaries, vol. ii. 443;
vi. 394-95 ; xvi. 95 ; xvil 211 ; Jervise and Warden.)
The aisle of the church
is the burial-place of the Clayhills of Invergowrie, the nave that of
the Mylnes of Mylnefield. There are few stones of public note in the
little churchyard which surrounds it. One of the more interesting is a
stone to a son of the famous Bishop Horsley of St. Asaph.
The monolith just outside
the churchyard has no special value. It served as a bridge across the
stream before the present one was built.
A quaint prophecy,
attributed to '1 homas the Rhymer (circa 12801, may bring to a close our
notes on this venerable ruin. A little way from the churchyard are "two
unembellished, boulders, each about two tons weight," known as the;
Goors, the Gows, the Ewes or the Yowes of Gowrie. Of these, Thomas
"When the Yowes o' Gowrie
come to land, The Day o' Judgment's near at hand."
At the beginning of the
century the " Yowes " were within high-water mark. Wnting in 1826,
Robert Chambers says that the prophecy obtained " universal credit among
the country people. In consequence of the natural retreat of the waters
from that shore of the firth, the stones are gradually approaching the
land, and there is no doubt will ultimately be beyond flood-mark. It is
the popular belief that they move an inch nearer to the shore every
year. The expected fulfilment of the prophecy has deprived many an old
woman of her sleep, and it is a common practice among the weavers and
bonnet - makers of Dundee to walk out to Invergowrie on Sunday
afternoons, simply to see what progress 'the Yowes' are making" 1
Popular Rhymes, p. 97).
It is said that the
building of the Dundee and Perth railway outside the Goors has
discredited Thomas. But we must leave to his commentators to say whether
they have quite "come to land," and also to interpret the line—
"The Day o' Judgment's
near at ha/id."
Not far off is the
residence of Mr. James Henderson, which bears the historic name of The
(2) Dron Chapel stands on
a platform, above a del) in the high grounds of Longforgan, a Mile and a
half north of the village. The name Dron (Gaelic, Droigheann, Droighionn)
Black-thorn. The chapel
belonged to the Abbey of Coupar-Angus. That abbey was founded in 1164 by
King Malcolm IV., grandson of David I., who is known as "ane soir sanct
for the crown." The Coupar monks belonged to the Cistercian Order, or,
as they came to be called, the White Monks, their whole dress having
been white except the cowl and scapular. The Cistercian Order was
founded in 1090 by Robert de Molesme, at Citeaux, in Burgundy, hence
their name Citercians or Cistercians. The most famous of the Cistercians
is the great St. Bernard, author 'of the hymn, " Jesu! dulcis memoria"
("Jesus! the very thought of Thee"), and others; but the order reckoned
in its ranks able and earnest men, who gave it such an impulse that
there were at one time between three and four thousand Cistercian
houses. Coupar was one of these, and during four centuries, from its
foundation in 1164, it continued to be a famous centre of religious life
in Scotland. The abbey had many benefactors, amongst the most prominent
being the Hays of Errol.
The peeps which the
register of Cupar Abbey gives of its life, with its abbots and brothers,
their friends and other religious men, with its baker and brewer, its
gardener and warreners, its land-steward and foresters, its
bullock-herds and storemasters, its cellarer and bursar, with its rules
as to food, " to the proportion for each brother for daily bread sixteen
ounces of good wheat, sixteen ounces of oaten bread, two quarts of beer
(ceruisie), and for the said strangers yearly one boll of wheat,"—if
they tell us little directly of Dron, yet help us to understand the life
it shared. Each brother got "in the year ^13, 6s. 8d. for flesh, fish,
butter, salt, and other spices, and figs, soap (smigmate), and candles
for the refectory, etc.. . . . and for clothing, 53s. 4d. each friar
The chapel at Dron was
built in 1164. It is now almost entirely in ruins. But the gables
remain, in one of which, the west, there is a considerable window. A
churchyard surrounded it, and there seems to have been, from the
earliest t;mes, an almost direct road from the chapel at Dron to the
abbey at Coupar. There is a fine view from the platform towards Lochee,
and the Tay at Dundee. The latter town was the port for Coupar Abbey.
Once a year the principal tenantry were bound to send a couple of horse
and four oxen to bring up to the abbey such things as coal, lime,
timber, slates, and perhaps a little of the Burgundian wine for which
the Abbey of Citeaux was so famous. Dron, we may be sure, got its share
from the passing caravans.
About a mile to the south
of Longforgan, and not far from the Tay, lie the grounds and orchard of
Templehall. A little way from it there used to be seen the remains of a
burying-ground. It is probable that there was a chapel beside it at one
time. 'I here is, so far as we know, no documentary evidence on the
matter ; but in view of the fact that the Knight Templars had lands in
so many parishes, it is not at all unlikely that' I emplehall is a
memorial of their zeal. A stone, evidently a part of a tombstone, may be
seen .in the grounds, bearing the date 1664. Another, built into a wall,
has 1677 on it.
About 17S0, when trenches
were being dug at the east end of Longforgan village, some large stones
were found "lying in such an arrangement as gave the appearance of a
large building, which is supposed to have been some religious
establishment" (Old Stat. Acc., xix. 561). These are not now to be seen.
Farther west, on the bank of Longforgan, some ecclesiastical stones have
also been turned up.
Longforgan is associated
with the name of another saint besides Doniface—St. Modwenna, or, as the
name is sometimes given, Moninna, Monenna, Monyma, Monynne, Medana. The
story of Modwenna, like that of Boniface, is wrapt in confusion. Some
think that there was more than one Modwenna. Forbes, however, holds that
there was but one, and looks on her as "a connecting link between the
three great wonder-workers of Ireland, as receiving the monastic habit
from St. Patrick, as ever continuing the friend of St. Brigida, and as
yielding up her spirit in the same year that the great Apostle of Hy
entered into the world."
Her name was Darerca, her
cognomen Monynne. She was born in Ireland, in the region of Conaille,
and had her chief abode at Killevy. At an early age she took a vow of
chastity, and, according to the story, got the virgin habit from St.
Patrick. Leaving Ireland, she laboured in England and Scotland. Con-chubranus
says that she founded seven churches in Scotland. The first was at
Chilnecase in Galluveic (Galloway); the second on the summit of the hill
Dundevenel (Dundonald); the third on the hill of Dunbreten (Dumbarton);
the fourth on the castle of Strivelin;, the fifth
in Duneden, which in the
English language is called Eden-burg; the sixth on the hill of Dunpelder
; and the seventh at Lanfortin, near Aleethe, supposed to be Dundee.
Hector Boyce (born at Dundee about 1465) is the first to give as a name
Modwenna had a special
liking for Lanfortin, which is, of course, Longforgan. Here she is said
to have sung " the Psalter immersed in water to the breast, and received
the consolation of angels, once only interrupted by a sin of one of the
sisters." The sin of the sister consisted of a trifling theft. The story
is, that one day, when Modwenna was out on a pilgrimage with the
sisters, they came to a river which, being shallow, they meant to ford.
To their surprise, however, it rose in flood as they reached it, and
fording was impossible. Alarmed at this, Modwenna sought to discover the
sinful deed which she was sure must have caused this unexpected
difficulty. One of the sisters confessed that she had stolen a handful
of leeks. No sooner was it confessed and repented of, than the flood
fell, and the pilgrims were able to cross the stream.
From Longforgan, Modwenna
went to Rome, journeying there "with naked feet and hair shirt." On her
return from Rome she founded a monastery at Burton-on-Trent, and then
revisited Longforgan, where she died, about one hundred and thirty years
old. Conchubranus says: "Post haec vero exiit ad Aleethe, ubi modo est
optima ecclesia, quam Longfortin aedeficavit, cum quodam fonte
sanctissimo . . . et multum dilexit ilium locum in quo in finem vitae
suae ut affirmant, Domino volente, emisit spiritum." ("After these
things then she went to Aleethe, where there is a very fine church,
which she built at Longfortin, with a most sacred spring, . . . and she
loved that place much in which, at the close of her life, as they
affirm, God willing it, she gave up her spirit.")
Her sisters were sent
for, and they stayed some days at Longforgan. The following epitaph,
quoted by Ussher, gives her story shortly—
"Ortum Modwennae dat
Hibernia, Scotia finem, Anglia dat tumulum, dat Deus alta poli. Prima
dedit vitam, sed mortem terra secunda, Et terram terrae tertia terra
dedit. Aufert Lanfortin quam terra Conallea profert; Felix Burtonium
virginis ossa tenet."
"Ireland gives Modwenna
birth, Scotland her end, England a grave, God the height of heaven. The
first gave her life, but the second land death, The third land gave her
a home of earth. Lanfortin carries off what the land of Conaille brings
forth; Happy Burton keeps the bones of the virgin."
Ussher gives 660 as the
date of her death in the Index Chrouologicus to his British Antiquities.
DCLX. " Monenna virgo Lan-fort'ir in Albania mortua est."
'I here is a holy well
dedicated to her in Kirkmaiden parish, Wigtownshire. Her relics are said
to have been divided between the Scots, English, and Irish, the first
portion of them being at Lanfortin. Cf. Skene, Celtic Scotland,, ii. 37.
The Aberdeen Breviary
states that St. Palladius died " at Longforgund in the Mearnis." "
Annorum plenus apud Longforgund in Mernis, in pace requiescit beata."
This is, however, evidently an error on the part of the scribe, who
wrote Longforgund instead of Fordoun, the scene of some of Palladius'
labours, and the reputed place of his death.