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History Of The Scottish Nation
By Rev. J. A. Wylie LL.D.
Published in 1886.


Vol 1 Chapter 1 First Peopling of Britain
The Phoenicians the first Discoverers of Britain, —They trade with it in Tin, —Greatness of Sidon and Tyre partly Owing to British Trade, Triumphal Gates of Shalmanezer, —Tyrian Harbours, and probable size of Tyrian Ships, When and whence came the first Inhabitants of Britain?—The resting place of the Ark the starting-point of the enquiry, —Mount Ararat, —The Four great Rivers, —Their courses regulate the Emigration of the Human Family, —The Mountain girdle of the Globe, —Divided by it into a Southern and Northern World, —For what purpose? —The Three Fountainheads of the World's Population, —Ham peoples Egypt, —Shem, Arabia and Persia, —Migration of Japhet's Descendants, —Two great Pathways, —The basin of the Mediterranean, —The slopes of the Caucasus running betwixt the Caspian and the Euxine, —The Sons of Japhet travel by both routes, —The one arrives in Britain through the Pillars of Hercules, —The other by the Baltic, —The Journey stamps its imprint on each, —Their foot-prints, —The Sons of Gomer, or Cymri, the first Inhabitants of Britain.
Vol 1 Chapter 2 Journey of the Kymri to Britain
Three guides to the Cradle of the Race, —Etymology, Mythology, Folk-lore, —All three conduct to Iran, —The Welsh Triads, —Division of the Earth among the Sons of Noah, —Nimrod's Tower, —An attempt to establish a Universal Monarchy, —Migration of the bands of Gomer, —Their journey to Britain, —Nomads, —The pasture-grounds of Europe the nursing-place of Warriors, —Character of the first Settlers.
Vol 1 Chapter 3 Habits, Habitations, and Arts of the First Settlers
First Settlers bring the essentials of Revelation with them, —The first Ages the Purest, —Log huts of first Dwellers, —Aboriginal Dwellings on banks of Loch Etive, —Picture of the Inmates, —Food, Arts, Garments of the Aborigines, —Weems, description of, —Progress of the Arts, —Beauty of later Home Art, Growth of Government and early Kings.
Vol 1 Chapter 4 The Stone Age
The Stone Age coeval with Man, —The only record of the first Races, —The Cairn on the Floor, —The Sleeper within, —Glimpse into his Coffin, —Weapons interred with the Warrior, —Uses of the Stone Axe, —Flint Arrow-heads, —Battle in the Stone Age, —Mental horizon of the Men of the Stone Age, —The Landscape of the Stone Age.
Vol 1 Chapter 5 The Bronze Age
The Celts brings Bronze with him into Britain, —Quickening in all the Arts, —Irruption of the Celts into Europe, —Threaten Athens and Rome, Europe known to Herodotus as the land of the Celts, —Nomads but fierce Warriors, Their Tastes and Character, —Changes consequent to the introduction of Bronze, —In Ship building, —In House building, —In articles of Ornament, —In Domestic Utensils, —Cinery Vases —Burning of the Dead, —Advance in Dress, In Spinning and Weaving, In Agriculture, —Invention of Bronze of unknown antiquity.
Vol 1 Chapter 6 The Iron Age
Uses of Iron, —Power it confers on Man, —First historic traces of Iron in Asia, —Noric Swords, —Iron known to Caledonians in Caesar's day, —Comes slowly into Use, —Revolutionises the Art of War, —Employed for Personal Adornment, —Iron Ring Money, —Interred with the Dead, —Changes with Iron, —Advance in Art, in War, in the Industries, —The Weaver and Potter, —Grain-stones, —Female Cosmetics, —Banquets and Cuisine of the Iron Age, —Brochs, —Their great number, —What knowledge of a Future State—Divine Traditions transmitted from Noah, —No Idol or Graven Image dug up in Scottish soil, —No idol or Graven Image dug up on Scottish soil, —Worship of Caledonians less gross than that of Greece and Romans, —Inference with modes of burial, —Valhalla and its Delights, — Departed Heroes permitted to revisit their Barrow, —A trysting place with earthly Friends, —Lesson of history, or Earth the picture of Heaven.
Vol 1 Chapter 7 The Druids: The Sun Worship of Asia and Caledonia
Unwritten History of Testimony of Barrows and Cairns, —Authenticity and Truth of these records, —How did the Caledonians Worship?—Had he any knowledge of a Supreme Being? Testimony of the Stone Circles, —In what age were they Erected?—Various Theories, These Theories considered, —Did the Vikings erect them? Are they Graveyards? Monuments of Early Nations reared to their Gods, —Stone Pillars, —Biblical Examples, —The First Altars, —The Idols and Idol Groves of Early Canaan, —Rise and Progress of Stone and Sun Worship, —Travels westward and reaches Caledonia, Stone Circles and Cromlechs of Ancient Moab, —Light thrown by them on the Early Caledonia.
Vol 1 Chapter 8 The Druids: Their Religion, Deities, Hierarchy, Doctrines
Religion the most Potential of all Forces, —The Druidic Age as plainly written on the Face of Scotland as the Stone and Iron Ages, —Scottish Druidism imported from the East, —Its Comparative Purity in Early Times, —Testimonies of M. Reynaud, and others, —Druidism, a Branch of Sun Worship, —The Root Ideas of Revelation in all the Idolatries, —Explanation, —Identity of the Druidic and Greek Deities, —The Hierarchy of the Druids, —Their Studies in Science and Magic, —The Arch-Druid, —Their Political Power, —Their Annual Convention, —Their Emoluments and Privileges, —Their Doctrines, —Testimonies of Caesar, Pliny, Tacitus, and Pomponius Mela, —A Supreme Being and a Life to come taught by them, —A Long Initiation demanded of their Disciples, —Their Tenets wrapt up in Mystery.
Vol 1 Chapter 9 The Druids: Egg; The Mistletoe; The Druid's Sacrifice
The Druid's Egg known to the Ancients, —Marvellous Process of Production, —Wonderful Virtues, —The Mistletoe, —Ceremony of gathering it, —Was it to Druid a Symbol of the Saviour, —No ground to think so, —Sacrifice of the Druid, —Was it Evangelical or Pagan? — Sacrificial Rites, —The High Priest, the Procession, the Victim, — The Three Acts and the Three Lessons in the Sacrifice of the Druid, — Universality of the Rite of Sacrifice, —Explanation, —Philosophy of Sacrifice as a Mode of Worship.
Vol 1 Chapter 10 The Temples or Stone Circles of the Druid
The Stone Circle the earliest of Temples, No Architectural Grace, —In Construction Simple, Rugged, Strong, —Stennes in Orkney, — A Temple to the Sun-god, —Its Antiquity, —Stonehenge, —Its Site and Size, —Supposed Description of Stonehenge by Hecataeus, B.C. 30O, —Its Hippodrome, —Weird Appearance and Outline of its History, —Its Dimensions, —Footnote, Avebury, —Its Genera Arrangements, —Its Central Mount, —Its Grand Approaches, — Its surrounding Sepulchral Tumuli, —Beauty the Characteristic of the Greek Temple, Strength and Size that of the Druid, —Mount Nebo a great Dolmen Centre, —Ruins of Dolmens and Stone Circles around Mount Nebo, —Universality of Stone Worship, —Human Victims offered by the Druid, —Human Sacrifice practiced by Greeks and Romans, —"Stones of Remembrance."
Vol 1 Chapter 11 The "Alteins" or Stones of Fire; Beltine or May-Day and Midsummer Festivals
Rise of Pagan Mythology, —footnote, Indelibility of Aboriginal Names, —Key to early History of Locality, —Clackan, —Its Meaning, —Altein, —Stone of Fire, —The Altein of Old Aberdeen, —Tragedies enacted at, —Stone of Liston, —Druidic Ceremonies of 30th October, —Extinction of Fire on Hearths, —Rekindled from "Stone of Fire-brands," —Link betwixt Phoenicia and Caledonia, — "Stones of Fire" of Tyre, —Beltane, or 1st May, —Beltane Rites at Crieff, —At Callander, —Midsummer Fires, —St John's Fires in Ireland, In France, —Identity of these with the Fires of Moloch, —The Clocks of the Druid.
Vol 1 Chapter 12 Vitrified Forts; Rocking Stones; Druid's Circle; No Man's Land; Divination
Vitrified Forts, —Probable Relics of Druidism, —Rocking-Stones, — Common to many Countries, Known to the Egyptians, Described by Pliny, &c., —Judgment Stones, —Stone at Boddam, How Placed, —The Druid's Circle, —Its Virtue, —Surviving Druidic Usages, —The teine eigin, —Days on which the Plough was not to be Yoked, —Plots that must not be Cultivated, —Divination practiced by the Druids, Laws or "Gallovv Hills," —Mounts of Divination, —Enslavement of the People by the Druid, His yoke broken.
Vol 1 Chapter 13 Scotland as seen by Agricola and described by Tacitus and Herodian
History with her Torch, —Invasion of England by Caesar, —Startling Reverse, —Agricola crosses the Tweed, —Penetrates to Firth of Forth, —Agricola probably accompanied by Tacitus, —The Time comes for Scotland to be Born, —A Marvelous Transformation, — Picture of Scotland as seen by Tacitus, —Its Moors and Forests, — Its Rivers and Pathways, Its Seas,The Land and the Natives as Painted by Herodian, 170—Their Armour, 170— Their Bodies Painted or Tattooed, 171—Process of Tattooing, 172—Their flair, 172—A Contrast, the Scotland of the First Century and the Scotland of the Nineteenth.
Vol 1 Chapter 14 The Caledonians as painted by Herodian
The Land and the Natives as Painted by Herodian, —Their Armour, — Their Bodies Painted or Tattooed, —Process of Tattooing, —Their flair, —A Contrast, the Scotland of the First Century and the Scotland of the Nineteenth.
Vol 1 Chapter 15 Caledonian Houses; Lake Dwellings
Picture of the Scotland of To-day, —The Architecture of Italy and the Architecture of Scotland in the First Century, —Not a Stone Edifice in Scotland in Agricola's Day, —First Dwellings in Caledonia an Underground Cave, —A Hut of Wattles, —Lacustrine or Lake Dwellings, —Method of Construction, —Utensils found in them, —Relics of their Feasts, —Second Class of Lake Dwellings, —Placed in the Lake, —Manner of Building, —Venice a Superb Specimen of a Lake Dwelling, —Crannog of Lochea, Tarbolton, Ayrshire, —Description, —Lochar Moss and its Buried Treasures, —The Site of Glasgow and its Embedded Canoes, —Changes in the Estuaries of the Forth and Tay, —The Modern Scotland bigger than the Ancients.
Vol 1 Chapter 16 Roman period of Britain; England invaded by Caesar, and Scotland by Agricola
An Unpromising Land, —A yet more Unpromising People, —Roman Invasion, B.C. 55, —Fight off Deal, —Devastations of the Roman Sword in Britain, —Opinion of Tacitus, —Caesar withdraws from Britain, —Aulus Plutius enters in A.D. 43, —The British Chief Caractacus before the Emperor Claudius, —Agricola arrives in A.D. 80, —Character of Agricola, —Crosses the Tweed and hews his way to the Forth, —The Caledonians and the Legions Face to Face, —Line of Forts and Skirmishes, —In Third Summer Agricola Traverses Fife to the Tay, —In the Fourth, constructs his Line of Forts, —In the Firth, makes an Expedition to the West Coast, Next turns towards the North, —His Fleet, —Tragic Fate of German Contingent, —Agricola's Hesitations, —Night Attack on the Roman Camp near Lochleven, —The Caledonian Tribes hold a Convention, —They Prepare for war, —Soldiers Enrolled and Weapons Forged, —If Agricola will not come to the Grampians, the Grampians will go to Agricola.
Vol 1 Chapter 17 The Battle of Mons Grampius
The Cloud on the North Hills, —March of the Roman Army Northward, —First Sight of the Tay, or Ecce Tiberim, —Strathmore or Ecce Campanium, —Where was Mons Grampius?—At Ardock? At Meigle? At Fettercairn?, The Fleet and Discovery of the Oarkneys, The Romans approach the Grampians, —The Muster of the Caledonians, Numbers, of the Caledonians and of the Romans, —The War Chariots of the Caledonians, —Speech of Galgacus to his Soldiers, — Speech of Agricola to his Army, —Order of Battle, —Battle Joined, —Disadvantageous Armour of the Caledonians, —Fierceness and Carnage of the Fight, —Tacitus' Description of the Field, —The Caledonians Defeated, —Their Bravery, —Flight to their Mountains, —The Numbers of Fallen on both sides, —Night Rejoicings in the Roman Camp, —Sights which Morning Discloses, —The Wail among the Grampinns, —The First of Scotland's Historic Battles, —Its Fruit, —It begins the long struggle for Scottish Independence, —Agricola retreats southwards.
Vol 1 Chapter 18 Expedition of Severus, and withdrawal of Romans from Britain
Northern Boundary of the Empire a moving line, —Antoniae's Wall betwixt Forth and Clyde, —Hadrian's Wall betwixt Tyne and Solway, — Boundary again advanced to the Forth, —Pushed back to the Solway, —Severus' Expedition, AD. 204-224—The Caledonians shun battle, —Traps set for the Legions, —Hardships of the March, —Severus reaches the Cromarty Firth, —Retreats and dies at York, —Rich and magnificent Realms subject to Rome, —Yet not content without the little Britain, —Changes effected by the Roman occupation, — Roads, —Husbandry, —Trade and Commerce, —Villas and Towns, South England a favourite Residence of the Romans, Law and Literature introduced, —Roman Civilisation swept away.
Vol 1 Chapter 19 Christianity enters Britain
Entrance of two new POWERS, —Why is the Scotland of to-day not a Land of Painted men?—The Civilisation of Scotland other than that of the nations around it, —Its special Type or Charaereristic, —A new Life descends on Scotland, —The two necessities, —Conscience or the Moral Sense the measure of a Nation's Liberty, —The Model of the. Nations, —The second century and its facilities for the communication of Thought, —Wide diffusion of Christianity by the end of second century, — Picture of the first British Convert to Christianity, —The Pudens and Claudia of Paul's Epistle, —The Pudens and Claudia of Martial's Epigram, —Chain of proof that they are the same couple, —Claudia most probably a British Lady, —Proof from Tacitus of the early entrance of Christianity into Britain, —Did Paul preach the Gospel in Britain, —Contention of Usher and Stillingfleet that he did, —Ontline of their argument, Rapidity of Christianity’s spread in the first age, —Tertullian's Testimony, —Earliest Congregations in Britain, —Converts beyond the Roman Wall, —Prosperity of British Church after Dioclesian's Persection, —British Pastors at Councils of Aries and Sardica, —Routes by which Christianity entered Britain, —Britain Christianised by Missionaries from the East, —Testimony of Neander.
Vol 1 Chapter 20 The Cradle of the Scots
The Caledonian and Scot to form one Race, —The two branches of the Cymric Family, the Scythians and the Gauls, —The early Inhabitants of Britain Cymric, —Additional varieties, Caesar on the Britons of his day, —Scythia a fountain-head of Nations, —Picture of the Scythians, —Ancient testimonies to the Virtue and Valour of the Scythians, —They overthrow Rome, —Scythia the original cradle of the Scottish Race, —Scythae and Scott, two Names for one People, journey south over Germany and France, They arrive in Spain, —Cross to Ireland, —Division of the Scythic Stream, —The Picts, —Their physical Prowess, —Their Mode of Fighting, —Burials, Dress, Food, Feasts, —Their War Songs and Music, The one extant Pictish Word.
Vol 1 Chapter 21 The Coming of the Scots to Ireland
The Scots first mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus in end of Fourth Century, —Arrive in Ireland probably in the First Century, —The Scots formed the van in the descent of the Gothic Nations, —Marked Individuality, —The Inhabitants of Ireland in Patrick's time, —Scots give Kings to Ireland, —Their Fighting qualities.
Vol 1 Chapter 22 The Planting of the Scottish Nation
First Appearance of the Scott in Scotland, —Join the Picts in Ravaging the Territory betwixt the Two Walls, —Penetrate to the South of England, —Forced back by Theodosius, —Second Irruption of Pict and Scot, —Again Repulsed, —A Third Raid, —A Third Repulse, Fall of Rome, —Miseries of Britain on Departure of the Romans, —Groans of the Britons, —Four Nations in Britain, —The Anglo-Saxons, —Their Territory extends from Portsmouth to the Forth, —The BRITONS, —Their Kingdom Stretches from Cornwall to the Clyde, 294—The Picts or Caledonians, —Their Kingdom extends from the Forth to the Pentland Frith, —The Scots, —Boundaries of their Kingdom, —Identical nearly with Argyleshire, —The Scotia of the Early Centuries, —Fergus Mor leads the Scots from Antrim to Caledonia, —The Scottish Settlers Christian, —Angus and Loarne, —First Capital of Scots, —Early System of Government, —Peace between the Scots and Picts.
Vol 1 Chapter 23 Kindling of the Lamp of Iona
A Coracle crosses the sea from Ireland, —Columba and his Twelve Companions, —They step ashore on Iona, —First Survey of the Island, —One of the Great Voyages of History, —Columba obtains a Grant of the Island, —Conversion of King Bruidi, —A Century's Peace in Caledonia, Anglo-Saxon Conquest of England, —English Christianity swept away, —A Partition Wall of Heathenism betwixt Scottish and Latin Christianity, —Iona and Rome, or the Two Principles at the two opposite extremities of Europe, —Work of the Men of Iona, — Their Mission Field Christendom, —Brief Sketch of their Mission Tours, —Their Dress, Dangers, Bravery.
Vol 1 Chapter 24 Battles, Political and Ecclesiastical
Early Light Bearers, —Ninian and Kentigern, —Servanus, —Patrick, —Columban Institution, —Its Work, Training of Missionaries, and Evangelisation of Scotland, —The School and the Plough, —A Spirit of Peace Breathes over the Land, —King Aidan anointed by Columba, —Summary of his Reign, —Ethelfrith of Northumbria. Slaughters the Monks of Bangor, —Arrival of Augustine and his Monks in England, —What comes out of it, —Oswald of Northumbria finds asylum in Scotland, —Sits at the Feet of the Elders of Iona, —King Edwin Converted to the Roman Rite, —His Death in Battle, —Oswald Ascends the Throne of Northumbria, —Sends to Iona for Evangelists to Instruct his People, —Aidan sent, —Aidan and the King Evangelise together, —Oswald dies and Oswy ascends the Throne, Perversion of King Oswy, —He drives the Columban Missionaries out of Northumbria, —War breaks out, —Bloody Battle at Nectan's Mere, —It saves Iona, —Lindisfarne, or "Holy Island," —Cuthbert of Melrose, —His beautiful Life, —Goes to Lindisfarne, —His touching Death scene.
Vol 1 Chapter 25 Iona and Rome; or The Second Roman Invasion
Calm after Tempest, —Two Learned and Wise Princes, —Venerable Bede, —Outline of his Life and Labours, —What he Lacks, —Eugene VI. of Scotland, —His Learning, —The Eighth Century of Scotland Rises in Haze, —Romish Missionaries at the Court of Nectan, King of the Southern Picts, —Questions of Easter and the Tonsure, —Nectan Listens and Submits, —The Clergy who refuse to have their Heads Shorn are driven out, —They find Refuge among the Scots, —War follows, —Nectan Retires to a Monastery, —Confusions and Battles.
Vol 1 Chapter 26 Union of the Scots and Picts; The Scottish Nation
Invasion of the Vikings, —Form of their Ships, —Prodigies in the Sky, —Their Terrible Ravages as described by Simeon, —Lindisfarne Destroyed, —Iona Ravaged, —Slaughterings in the Western Isles, —Iona Finally Destroyed, —Removed to Kells in Ireland, and Dunkeld in Scotland, —Changes, —Picture of Scotland at Opening of Eighth Century, —Pre-eminent among the European Countries, —War between the Northern and Southern Picts, —The Scots Join the Northern Picts, —These Wars Traced to the Romanizing Monks, —The Various Indications and Proofs of this, —Learned Scotsmen in France, —Gradual weakening of the Picts, —The Religious Divisions and Wars of the Picts pave the Way for the Ascendancy of the Scots, —Extinction of Royal Line of the Picts, —Throne Claimed by Alpin the Scot, —Death of Alpin on the Battle-field, —His Son Kenneth resumes the War, —Extraordinary Stratagem, —The Final Battle near Perth, —The Scots Victorious, —Kenneth MacAlpin Ascends the Throne, —The One Scottish Nation.

Vol 2 Chapter 1 A New Age from the North
The Revolution of the Fifth Century, —The World in a Dead-lock, —The World's one Work and its Three Workers, The Jew, the Greek, the Roman unable to advance, —The Jew could not have discovered Christianity, —Nor the Greek, the Baconian Philosophy, —Nor the Roman, Constitutional Government, —A fresh Race needed to give the World a Second Start, —A New Race arrives from the North.
Vol 2 Chapter 2 The Services of the Scots to Chrisianity in the Middle Ages
The Scoti the first of the Northern Nations to appear in Southern Europe—Their name missing from the Roll of Scythian Invaders, Why have Historians overlooked them?—They were earliest on the Scene, —A considerable Interval elapsed betwixt their Appearance and that of Tribes that followed, —They were comparatively few, —Portents which Rome's Statesmen could not read, —The Work of the Huns, Vandals, etc., to destroy, —The Mission of the Scoti to rebuild, —Bird's-eye view of the Scottish Missions in the early centuries, —Rome's Claim to have preserved Letters, Arts, and Christianity examined and rejected.
Vol 2 Chapter 3 A Second Morning in Scotland
Destruction of the Ancient World by the Gothic Nations, —The share each had in rebuilding, —The Frank, the Lombard, the Ostrogoth give a little help, —The Saracens give more, —Chief burden of restoring the World assigned to the Scots, —Located outside the Roman Empire, — Shut out from Rome and shut in with the Bible, —Other Causes of Isolation, —The Head-quarters of the Scottish Church at Iona, —The Bible the Fountain of its Theology and of its Government, —The Scottish Church Free-born.
Vol 2 Chapter 4 Ninian: Scene of his Youth; Conversion; First Evalgelistic Labours
Breath of a new Life, —Three great Individualities, —Ninian, —Parentage and Education, —His Native Landscape, —Calamities of his Times and Country, —His Conversion, —Ebb of Christianity and revival of Paganism in Galloway, —He resolves to Evangelise in Galloway, Numerous Miracles attributed to him, —The real Ninian simply a Home Missionary, —Ninian converts not by Miracle but by the Truth.
Vol 2 Chapter 5 Ninian visits Rome; His Journey thither; Rome in Ninian's Day
Motives assigned for his Journey by Ailred, —His true Motives, His Road tracked through England, —Through France, —Lyons and Irenaeus, —Ninian crosses the Alps, —Ninian enters Rome, —Pagan Rome changing into Christian Rome, —Rome in Ninian's day, —Election of Damasus as Pope, —Splendour and Avariciousness of the Clergy, —Jerome lashes Greed of Clergy, —Imperial Edicts restraining it, —Citizens of Rome, —A Black Cloud in the North.
Vol 2 Chapter 6 Ninian returns to Britain; Visits Martin of Tours; Builds a Church at Whithorn
Visits Martin of Tours on his way back, —Martin a great Patron of Monachism, —He transplants it into the West, —Ninian resolves to work on these lines, —Martin's Masons follow him into Galloway, —Build him a Church at Whithorn, —CANDIDA CASA, —Basis of his Missionary labours, and adaptedness of Site, —Landscape as seen from Candida Casa, —Has Rome given Ninian clearer Views of the Gospel?
Vol 2 Chapter 7 Eastern Monachism; Scotch Monachism; Ninian's Last Labours and Death
Description of Eastern Monachism, —It becomes Fashionable at Rome, —Monachism a selfish and self-righteous thing, —The Monachism introduced into Galloway by Ninian active and aggressive, —His Monastery a College for training Missionaries, —Picture of Ninian's School and Pupils, —Arrangements of Daily Work, —Plan and Subjects of Study, —Theology of Candida Case, —"Pillars of Salt" on the Highroad of Ecclesiastical History, —Ninian not the first Planter of Christianity among the Southern Picts, —He Reforms the already Christianised Picts, —Ninian's Posthumous Individuality, —His Death and Burial, —Three Mighties.
Vol 2 Chapter 8 Palladius sent to the Scots in Ireland. Dies and is buried at Fordun
A shadowy Personage, —Conflict of Old Systems with Christianity, —Rise of Pelagianism, —A Denial of the Fall, and by consequence, of the Atonement, —Its authors, Morgan and Kelly, —Its supposed real Author, Rufinius, —Jerome Opposes it, —Coelestius (Kelly) Opposed and Defeated by Augustine, —Pelagius (Morgan) Condemned and Acquitted by turns at Rome, —Pelagianism enters Britain, —Palladius sent to check it, —Appointed "First Bishop of the Scots,"—Palliadius sent to the Scots in Ireland, —Historic Proofs, —Rejected by the Scots, —Leaves Ireland, Appears among the Picts, —Dies at Fordum in the Mearns, —Memorials of him at Fordun.
Vol 2 Chapter 9 Patrick: Birth, Boyhood, and Youth; Carried off by Pirates
With Patrick comes a second commencement of Scotland's History, —The Patrick of the Monkish Chroniclers, —The real Patrick, —His Birthplace, —His Parentage, —His Boyhood and its Pleasures, —His Conscience asleep, —A terrible Calamity befalls him, —Carried captive to Ireland, Sold for a Slave.
Vol 2 Chapter 10 Patrick's Captivity in Ireland; His Conscience Awakens; Prolonged Anguish
A veiled Actor, —Unpitied Anguish, —The timing of Patrick's Calamity, —Patrick in Adversity's School, —The son of Calpurnius a Swine-herd, —He sees himself, —His past Life as seen by him a thing of Guilt and Horror, —An Ulcer in the Soul, —The Tempest within makes him insensible to the Tempest without, —Terror of God, —His Cry for Pardon, —End gained by his prolonged Distress.
Vol 2 Chapter 11 Patrick finds peace; Preparation for future work; Escapes from Ireland
A Hand put forth to Heal, —An old Truth with a new Meaning, —Patrick enters into a new Life, —His Joy, —His preparation for his lifework thorough, —He begins to have Dreams of Deliverance from Captivity, —He flees, —Finds a Ship and is taken on Board, —Returns Home.
Vol 2 Chapter 12 Patrick again at Home; Dreams; Resolves to devote himself to its Conversion
Spiritual Greatness through Agony, —Illustrative examples, —Luther etc., —Patrick at his Father's Door, —Again amid the Scenes of his Youth, —His old Companions around him, —Ireland the land of his second and better Birth, —His Heart still in it, —Hears Voices in his Sleep calling him to return to it, —Resolves to give himself to the Conversion of Ireland, —His purpose opposed by Parents and Presbyters, —Patrick's Preparations and Equipments as a Missionary, —His Anointing not of Man.
Vol 2 Chapter 13 Patrick; Greatness of his Mission; Passadius sent from Rome to Counteract Him
Sets out for Ireland, —Opportuneness of his Mission, —Arrives in Ireland A.D. 405, —Was Palladius or Patrick the first to arrive in Ireland, —Medieval chroniclers make Palladius the first to arrive, —Proofs that the Mission of Patrick did not follow but preceded the Mission of Palladius, —Palladius sent by the Pope to counteract Patrick, —Hence rejection of Palladius by the Scots.
Vol 2 Chapter 14 Patrick crosses the sea; Begins his Ministry; Effect on the Irish
Patrick's following, —Disembarks at mouth of Slany, Ulster, —His first Sermon, —Simplicity of his Preaching, —Effect upon his Hearers, —The first Seal of his Commission.
Vol 2 Chapter 15 Patrick's Barn; His Tours; Conversations; Sermons; Was he ever at Rome?
Patrick's Barn, —Monkish Caricatures of Patrick, —The Confessio the one true Portrait, —Tours in rural Villages, —His Sermons, — Visits the Towns, —A better Sacrifice than that of the Druid, —Change of his converts, —His Labours and Perils, —Patrick's real Miracles, —Efforts on behalf of Slaves, —Was Patrick ever at Rome, —His Anointing by the Pope a Fable.
Vol 2 Chapter 16 Patrick's Day of Tara; Conversion of Ireland, etc
Patrick and Luther, Columba and Calvin, Patrick's first Congregation, —Extension of His Mission, —Rumours of a Great Advent, —Festival of Tara, —Patrick goes thither, —His Fire on Hill of Slane, —Brought into Presence of King, —His Address to King Logaire, —Converts of High Rank, —Patrick enters Meath, —The Games interrupted, —Goes Westward, —Arrives at Wood of Focloid, —Evangelises in Leinster and Munster, —Ireland Christianised.
Vol 2 Chapter 17 The three hundred and sixty-five Churches
Sum of Patrick's Labours in Ireland, —Three hundred and sixty-five Bishops, —Were these Diocesan or Congregational Bishops?—Picture of Roman Church in Third Century, as drawn by Hippolytus, —In Third Century a Congregation, a Pastor, and Elders formed a complete Church, —Elders a Teaching and Ruling Body, —How the Cardinalate arose, —After Council of Nice great Changes, —Picture of Cyprianic Church in Africa, —Down to Middle of Third Century Bishop and Pastor were the designation of the same Church-Officer, —Patrick's Bishops not Diocesan but Village Bishops, —His Monasteries and first Churches, —His Death.
Vol 2 Chapter 18 The Schools of early Ireland
Glory of Times succeeding Patrick, —Ireland a Land of Scholars and Pastors, —Historic Testimonies of this Fact, —Its Schools richly Endowed, —Malachy the first to introduce Monks and Monkery into Ireland, —Number of Students in Irish Schools, —Resorted to by Foreign Youth, —Church and School in every Tribe, —Send Forth Band after Band of Pastors and Missionaries, —Vast Physical and Moral Change in Ireland, —Seven Centuries of Peace.
Vol 2 Chapter 19 Abernethy; Link between Iona and Whithorn; Churches of early Scotland
Ninian's Lamp dying, —England plunged into a Second Night, —Abernethy kindled: a Link betwixt Candida Casa and Iona, —Grandeur of its Site, —Is meanwhile the Centre of Scotland's Christianisation, —Its Foundation by King Nectan, —Style of Edifice, —Early Stone Churches of Scotland, —Picture of the Abernethy Establishment, —Abernethy a Brotherhood, —Planted at the Centre of the Kingdom, —Methods of Evangelising, —Wayside Addresses, —Conscience the Foundation Stone of the World, —Round Towers, —Age of Round Tower of Abernethy, —Uses of Round Towers, —Branch Institutions of Abernethy, —Interest still attaching to it.
Vol 2 Chapter 20 Columba; Birth; Education; Founds numerous colleges
Light carried back to Scotland, —Arrival of thirteen Strangers, —Birth and Parentage of Columba, —Endowments of Mind and Body, —His Education, —His Schoolmasters, —Irish Monasteries, —Monasteries Founded by Columba, —Transcription of a Psalter, —Quarrels consequent thereon, —Battle of Cooldrevny, —Christianity Stationary, Christian Character Progressive.
Vol 2 Chapter 21 Columba; Departs from Ireland; Arrives in Iona; Iona and Rome
Columba's Complications, —Leaves Ireland, —Voyage across Channel, —Touch at Oronsay, —Arrive at Iona, —Iona, —Physical Properties, —Mission Adaptabities, —Zion and Iona, —Grant of the Island, —First Habitations, —A Critical Hour in the World's History, —The "Church" falls and Christianity rises, —Christianity finds a new Foothold, —Rome in the South, Iona in the North.
Vol 2 Chapter 22 Organisation of Iona; Ecclesiastical Government
Neutral position of Iona, —First Columban Hamlet, —Dress and Diet of Fathers, —The form of their Tonsure, —A supposed Traveller, —Iona and Rome, a Contrast, —Spiritual Mechanism of Iona, —At the Centre the Bible, —Columban Transcribers, —Iona a Protest for Independence, —A Fight for Freedom of Conscience, —Government of Iona by an Abbot, —Obedience of the Brethren, —Points of Difference betwixt the Monks of Iona and the Monks of Asia and of Mediaeval Europe, —No Vow of Celibacy, or of Poverty, or Passive Obedience taken by Iona Presbyters, —Iona a Missionary Institute, —No Bishop at Iona, —Ordination performed by Presbyters, —Knox and Presbyterian Polity.
Vol 2 Chapter 23 Columbun Agriculture; Science and Literature; The Healing Arts
Seedtime and Harvest restored to Caledonia, —Iona a Model Farm, —First Book on Holy Land issues from Iona, —The Healing Art Studied, —Astronomy and Theology, —Holy Scripture the only Rule in Iona, —Testimony of Bede, —Testimony of Columbanus, —The Reformation in Iona before it was in Wittenberg, —Gallus and Sedulius on Election, —Sedulius and Claudius Scotus on Free Will, —On the Function of the Law, —On the New Birth, —Sedulius etc., on Faith as the Instrument of Justification, —Sedulius on Faith and Good Works, —Unchangeableness of Christianity, —Meteors and Stars.
Vol 2 Chapter 24 Columba visits King Brude; MS Copies of the Sacred Scriptures
Columba Visits King Brude, —Journey and Interview, —Through the King Pioneers his way to the Nation, —Columban Evangelisation proceeds on the Tribal Organisation, —A Columban Mission planted in each Clan, —Iona the Model of the Branch Institutes, —These latter set down on a Strategic Principle, —Spread of Columban Institutes over Scotland, —The Caledonian a new man, —All Institutes ruled from Iona, —Columba's watchful Oversight, —A Presbyter ruling Bishops, —Culdee Transcribers, —Culdee Preachers.
Vol 2 Chapter 25 Genealogy of Scottish Kings; The Stone of Destiny; His Death
Critical Position of the Scots, —Columba Negotiates the INDEPENDENCE of the Scottish Throne, —Crowns the First really Independent Scottish King, —Parliament of Drumceat, Changes in Caledonia, —Columba's Last Days, —His Last Visits and Sayings, —He Dies, —A Tomb of the Whitest Marble.
Vol 2 Chapter 26 The Celtic Evangelization; France; The Rhine; Switzerlad; Italy
No Pause, —Flight of "Doves of Iona" to Northumbria, —Bede's Testimony to the Men and their Labours, —They Christianise England, —The Culdees enter France, —Fridolt, —He Evangelises at Poitier and in the Rhine Valley, —Succeeded by Disibod, —A Half-Century's Culdee Evangelisation, —Columbanus, —Appears as Columba dies, —Prophet to the Nations, —Crosses to France, —Evangelises in the Vosges, —Plants Churches and Schools, —Missionaries from Iona join the Evangelisation, —Columbanus driven from the Vosges, —Goes to Switzerland, —Evangelises at Constance and Zurich, —Again driven out, —Goes to Italy, —Gentleness of the Culdees.
Vol 2 Chapter 27 Columbanus in Italy; His great protest against the Papacy; Founds Bobbio
Columbanus in Italy, —His Mission in Italy, —Phocas and Boniface, —Controversy of the Three Chapters, —Independence of Culdee Church, —Testimony of Baronius, —Letter of Columbanus to Pope Boniface IV., —Pope bidden "Cleanse his Chair,"—Told he is Fallen, —Significance of Letter as a Protest against the Supremacy of Rome, —Columbanus dies.
Vol 2 Chapter 28 The Culdean Church; Overthrow of the Culdean Church
The Culdees in France, —France strewed with Culdee Institutions, —Culdees in Rhineland, —They Christianise Gerrmany, —Willibrod in Germany, —Killean, —Culdees in Iceland, —Bird's-eye view of Culdee Church in Europe, —History of its Overthrow, —Winfrid, alias Boniface, sent as a Spy from Rome, —Creeps into the Confidence of the Culdee Leader, —After Three Years, goes back to Rome, —Returns to Germany as Papal Legate, —Obtains the Help of the Carlovingian Kings, —Puts down the Culdean Institutes, and replaces them with Benedictine Monasteries—Papal Sees planted, —The Culdee Evangelisation trodden out, —The Dark Ages follow.

Vol 3 Chapter 1 Union of the Picts and Scots; Reign of Kenneth Macalpine
Importance, of the Union, —Its Way prepared by great Battles, —The historic Career of the Picts closed, —Legends of their Massacre false, —Causes of permanence of Union, —Two Peoples, but one Faith, —After War comes Legislation, —The "Code Macalpin,"—Early Laws relating to Land, —Specimens of the Code Macalpin, —The Code the Compilation of several Ages, —Chair of Columba and Stone of Destiny placed at the Centre of the Kingdom, —Death of Kenneth Macalpin, —His Burial.
Vol 3 Chapter 2 Donald; Constaintin; First Battle with the Danes
With Kenneth Macalpin the Light departs, —Clearness of the Columban Age compared with following Centuries, —Scotland retrograding, —The Scots must be placed on the Anvil, —King Donald, —Two Portraits of him, —King Constantin, —Quells a Disturbance in Lochaber, —The Danes land on the Coast of Fife, —Battle and Defeat of the Danes on the Leven, —Danish Fleet in Balcombie Bay, —Bloody Battle at Crail, —Defeat of Scots and Death of King Constantin, —Burial of Constantin, —Contrasted Modes of Emigration in Ancient and Modern Times, —Shall Scotland be blotted out and Daneland substituted?
Vol 3 Chapter 3 Eth; Grig; Pictish persecution of Columban Church; Toleration
Outlook after the Battle of Crail, —Accession of "Swiftfoot,"—A Shoal of "Sea Monks,"—Accession of Grig, or Gregory, —Gives Freedom to the Scottish Church, —First Use of the Term "Scottish Church,"—The "Pictish Bondage" of Scottish Church, —King Nectan and a new Easter Calendar, —Nectan's Clergy shorn in the Roman Fashion, —The Recalcitrants expelled, —Nectan's Edict revoked by Gregory, —Evils of Nectan's Policy, —Columbites recalled by Kenneth Macalpin—Nectan dies in a Monk's Cowl.
Vol 3 Chapter 4 Gregory of Scotland and Alfred of England; Norsemen
A strong Hand at the Helm, —Treason among the Picts, —Gregory chastises them, —Gregory's Exploits on the Border, —His Conflicts with the Danes and the Britons, —Crosses to Ireland, —Ravages of Hardnute in North of England, —Expelled by Gregory, —Friendship betwixt Gregory and Alfred of England, —Beauty of Alfred's Character, —Adversities of his Youth, —Illustrious Labours of his riper Years, —Heads Army of Bible Translators, —A dying Lamp.
Vol 3 Chapter 5 Donald; Constantin; Lost Battles and their Lessons
Accession of Donald, —Return of the Danes, —The Scottish Alliance with Alfred renewed, —The Danes repulsed, —A Danish Colony settled in Northumbria, —Donald fights two Battles in Moray, —His Death, —Accession of Constantin, —Under Constantin Scotland retrogrades, —A National Assembly at Scone for the Reformation of the Church, —Its Significance, —Civil Divisions of Scotland, —The Country known as Alban, —Boundaries of the Kingdom of Alban, —Out-lying Regions north and south of Alban, —Saxonia on the south and Norwegia on the north, —Divisions of the Kingdom of Alban, —Names and Boundaries of its five Provinces, —Subdivisions of the Province, —Constantin joins the Danes against England, —Is defeated in Battle, —Invades England a second time, —Stratagem of Anlaf, —Battle of Brouny, —Lesson of Defeat, —Retreat of Constantin pursued by Athelstan, —Scottish Boundary recedes to, the Forth, —Corivention at Abernethy, —Constantin abdicates and enters the Monastery of St. Andrews.
Vol 3 Chapter 6 Special Mission of Scotland; Synod of Scone; A Tenth century Reformation
The Silent Forces the Mightier, —Power of Christianity is in the ratio of its simplicity, —Shown in the Power of Columba's Mission, —Sources of Scottish History, —Adamnan's Life of Columba; Book of Deer, &c., —Dr. Johnson's eulogy, —General Assembly of the Scottish Church at Scone, —Independence of Scottish Church, —Reformation on the lines of the Bible, —Proceedings closed with an Oath to go forward in Reformation, —Delays the Triumph of Rome, —Revival, —Columban Church in Existence and Action in the Twelfth Century.
Vol 3 Chapter 7 Destruction of early Scottish Literature; The Columbites Metamorphosed
Causes of the Destruction of Early Scottish Literature, —The Columbites claimed in our day by Romanists, —This a Hallucination, —Iona and Rome contrasted in their Foundation-stone, —Bede's testimony to the Columbites, —Testimony of Columbanus, —Iona and Rome contrasted in their Top-stone, —The Columban Eucharist and the Romish Mass, —Extraordinary Statement of Father Innes, —Testimony of Claudius Scotus, —The use of the terms body and blood of Christ, Altar, Sacrifice, etc., no proof that the Church of Columba believed in Transubstantiation and the Mass, —Cave on the Communion Tables of the Early Church, —Or Lindsay Alexander on the Columbite Supper, — Footnote—Wooden Communion Tables in Early Irish Church, —The Mass of the Primitive Church, —What the phrase means and how it came into use, —Still used in Eastern Church, —No witness from the dead needed.
Vol 3 Chapter 8 Reigns of Malcolm I; Indulf; Duff; Culleen; Scotland's One Talent
Disorders repressed, —Malcolm assassinated, —Tndulf ascends the Throne, —The Danes in Firth of Forth, —Battle at Cullen in which Indulf falls, —Edinburgh, —Duff the Black, —Change in Office of Abbot, —Vigour of Duff, —He is assassinated, —Cullen King, —His Profligacy and Death, —Scotland's one Talent, Bible Christianity, —Scotland trading with its one Talent, —The rich harvest it Yields it, —The Scots burying their Talent in the Earth.
Vol 3 Chapter 9 Reign of Kenneth; Battle of Luncarty; Alteration of Law of succession
Mission of the Norsemen, —Kenneth III., —State of the Hebrides, —A Norse Flotilla on the East Coast, —Battle of Luncarty, —The Scots flee, —Arrested by Hay and his two Sons, —Defeat turned into Victory, —Historic Proofs of the Incident, —Revival of Arts and Agriculture, —Succession to the Crown: the Fittest chosen, —Law of Succession changed, —Death of Prince Malcolm, —Story of King's Death.
Vol 3 Chapter 10 Malcolm II; Cession of Lothian to Scots; Battles; Kingdom of Scotia
Evil Years, —Claimants to the Throne, —Malcolm II. mounts it, —His Character, by Fordun, —Battle of Carham, —Lothian ceded to Scotland, —Danish Fleet off the Spey, —Devastations, —Spread of the Danish Power in Scotland, —Battle of Murtlach, —Growth of the Danish Power, —The Danes aim at Subjugation of all Scotland, —A Danish Fleet at the Red Head, —Danish Ravages, —The Scots Muster at Barry, —Battle of Barry, —Death of Camus, —"Kingdom of Alban" dropped, and "Kingdom of Scotia" substituted, —Last of Male Line of Fergus, —Malcolm II. dies by the Dagger, —The Laurel entwined with Cypress.
Vol 3 Chapter 11 Duncan and Macbeth
This Era in itself trivial, —Lighted up by a great Genius, —Who was Macbeth?—His Genealogy and History, according to Scottish Chroniclers, —According to the Orkneyinga Saga, —Grandeur of Shakespeare's Drama, —We accept the Fiction of the Poet in place of the real History of the Time, —Macbeth a good Ruler, —His Gifts to the Culdees, —Nevertheless Nemesis follows, —Return of Malcolm, Son of Duncan, —War for the Throne—Macbeth is slain, —Malcolm ascends the Throne.
Vol 3 Chapter 12 Malcolm Canmore and William the Conqueror
With Malcolm Canmore a new Age, —Invaders in Frock and Cowl, —Battle of Hastings, —William of Normandy, —England receives a New Master, —War betwixt Malcolm Canmore and William the Conqueror, —William invades Scotland, —William at Abernethy, —Terrible Devastations, —Williain fails to conquer Scotland, —His Failure a Blessing to both Countries.
Vol 3 Chapter 13 Queen Margaret; Conference with Culdee Pastors
A Royal Closet, —Malcolm Tower at Dunfermline, —Arrival of Edgar Aetheling and his Sister Margaret at Queensferry, —Character of Margaret's piety, —Her Fastings, Charities, and Religious Acts, —Her Church Reforms, —Conference with Culdee Pastors, —Bishop Turgot—Scottish Church of Eleventh Century, Anti-Papal, —Points debated in the Conference: Ist, Uniformity of Rite, —2nd, The Lenten Fast, —3rd, The Lord's Day, —4th, The Question of Marriage, —5th, The Question of the Eucharist, —Culdee "Lord's Supper,"—Irish Culdees and the Supper,"—The "Hour of Temptation to Scotland."
Vol 3 Chapter 14 Glimpses of the Columban Church; Fall of Iona
Continuity of Columban Church, —Glimpses of it in Middle Ages, —Its Golden Age, —Its first Ebb, —Marked Decadence in Eighth Century, —Expulsion of Columbite Clergy from Pictish Territory, —An Eighth Century Exodus, —Persecutions and Sufferings of the Exiles, —War follows betwixt Pict and Scot, —The Easter Controversy, —Difference betwixt the Eastern and Western Observance of Easter, —Council of Nicea, —The Moons do not revolve in accordance with the Council's Decree, —The Nineteen Years' Cycle, —The "Elders" rebel against the Easter Decree, —In 717 Iona submits, —The Material Iona falls, the Spiritual Iona flourishes, —Monastery burned and Monks slain.
Vol 3 Chapter 15 Translations of the Chair of Columba; The one Bishop of Alban
Service rendered by Sword of Dane, —Continued Organisation and Vigour of Columban Church, —Proofs furnished by Rome herself, —Roman Synods at Chalons-sur-Soane and Celcyth, —Translations of Columba's Chair to Dunkeld, Abernethy, St Andrews, —Boundaries of Alban in Tenth Century, —Wreck of Kingdoms and Peoples, —Scotland escapes.
Vol 3 Chapter 16 Epochs of Revival in Columban Church
Alban's one Bishop, —Who consecrated Cellach?—Rome includes Bishop and Presbyter in the same Order of Clergy —Re-establishment of Columban Clergy in East of Scotland, —Enlargement of Liberties of Scottish Church, —Synod of Mote Hill, —The Columban Church comes again into view in Queen Margaret's Days, —Her success with the Scots small, —They are still outside the Pope's Church.
Vol 3 Chapter 17 The Culdees; Their Origin; Their Functions; Their Diffusion
Dissolution of Columban Brotherhoods, —Rise of the Ascetic or Anchorite System, —The Culdees or Keledei, —Name signifies "the Servants of God, —Two Theories of their Origin, —First, that they are sprung from the Roman Church, —Proofs: Legend of St. Serf, —First Pope, next Abbot of Lochleven, —Another form of this Legend, —Legend of St Andrew, Patron Saint of Scotland, —Legend of founding of St Andrews, —The first Ceile De, —This Theory inconsistent with the Fact that the Culdees were persecuted by Romanists, —Inconsistent with the Fact that they were the Evangelisers of the Continent, —The Culdees a Continuation of the Columban Church, —Great historic Proofs of this, —Culdees Pioneers of the Reformation.
Vol 3 Chapter 18 Orkney; Death of Malcolm and Margaret; Character and Services
Bye Drama in Orkney and Shetland, —Their early Religion Druidism, —Christianised by Missionaries from Iona, —Norwegian Kingdom in Orkney, —Heathenism returns, —Christianised a second time under Olave Tryggvosson, —From A.D. 1014 the Norwegian Power in Scotland begins to decline, —Crinan, Abbot of Dunkeld, —Margaret changes her Tactics, —Builds a magnificent Church at Dunfermline, —Pomps and Ceremonials, —Margaret's Ideal of Worship, —Tendency of dying Churches to effloresce into Rites and Ceremonies, —Last Days of Malcolm and Margaret, —Death of Malcolm Canmore, —Margaret's Illness, —Her Death, —Estimate of her Character and Services to Scotland.
Vol 3 Chapter 19 Donald Bane; King Eadgar; Alexander's Vow and Monastery of Inchcolm
A double vacancy, —Unpopularity of the Reigning House, —Donald Bane, —Eadgar Ascends the Throne, —Introduction of Lowland Scotch, —Alexander the "Fierce, his zeal for the "Church,"—His religious benefactions, —Turgot becomes Bishop of St Andrews, Quarrel over his Consecration, —Another vacancy in See of St. Andrews, —Eadmer elected, —Battle of Jurisdiction betwixt the Bishop and the King, —Eadmer leaves the Kingdom, —The "Fatal" Chair of St. Andrews, —Alexander makes more Bishops, —Scotland changing its appearance, —The Storm, —Alexander's Vow, —Founding of Inchcolm, —Career of the Monastery, —Walter Bower and Thomas Forret.
Vol 3 Chapter 20 David I and new age Europe; The Anglo-Saxon Line in England
Battle betwixt the Spiritual and the Temporal Powers, —The Spiritual conquers, —Scotland brought within the sphere of this Conflict, —Personal qualities of David, —Painstaking in Administration of Justice, —A lover of the Chase, —His peregrinations,: Stirling, Perth, Jedburgh, Edinburgh, —His efforts to raise his Niece to the English Throne, —Treaty at Durham, —Second Invasion of England, —The two Armies at Cutton Moor, —Battle of the Standard, —Subsequent negotiations, —The Norman keeps the English Throne.
Vol 3 Chapter 21 King David's Ecclesiastical Policy; Suppression of the Culdees
David's two projects: Restoration of Saxon Line in England and substitution of the Roman for the Columban Church in Scotland, —Alexander I. leaves four Bishoprics, —David's new Bishoprics, — Rossemarkie, —Aberdeen, —Caithness, —Suppression of the Culdees, —At Dornoch, —At Lochleven, —Continuity of Culdees in Lochleven Monastery, —Legend of Servanus, —Culdees of Monimusk, —Culdees of St. Andrews, —Their Firmness and Fidelity, —Their Battle of Two Hundred Years, —Their Existence traced till the Reformation.
Vol 3 Chapter 22 Founding and Endowing of Holyrood
Abbey of Holyrood, —Edinburgh in King David's Days, —David and the Wild Boar, —The King's Vow, —Building of Abbey, —Its Monks Augustinian, —Its Endowments, —Numerous Benefactors, —Its Chapels, and Altars, —The Monks at Breakfast, Dinner, Supper, —Evening Recreations.
Vol 3 Chapter 23 Interior of Abbey-Routine of daily services; Benefit to Society?
Divisions of the Monastic Day, —Monastic Discipline, —Tierce, —Sext, Nones, Prime, Compline, —Officers of Abbey: Abbot, Prior, etc., —Cellarer, Treasurer, Refectioner, etc., —Question of Benefits flowing from the Abbey.
Vol 3 Chapter 24 Founding of Abbey's continued; Various orders of Friars; Outlook of Scotland
Scotland's Aspect changing, —Incheolm, Buildings, —Rich Endowments, —Drowning and Miracle, —Turned into a Lazaretto, etc., —Fertile and picturesque spots selected by Monks, —Build on Columban Foundations, —Monimusk, etc., —Abbey of Melrose, —Jedburgh, —Kelso, —Its Regalities, —Right of Sanctuary, —More Friars, —Houses for Women, —Rural Deaneries, —Worship of New Church, —Sermons of the Friars, —Examples, —Outlook of the Scots, —Coming purification.
Vol 3 Chapter 25 Death of David; His Character
His latter Days darkened, —Death of his only Son, Prince Henry, —Arrangements for the Succession, —His Death, —His Character, —Difficult to estimate accurately, —His Character as a Ruler tested by Time, —His great Error his Ecclesiastical Policy, —Its Influence most Disastrous, —Scottish Patriotism benumbed.
Vol 3 Chapter 26 Reigns of Malcolm IV; William the Lion; Alexander; Battle of Largs
Malcolm IV., —Gathering Clouds, —Why called the "Maiden," Malcolm's Softness with Henry of England, —Moro Religious Houses, —Accession of William the Lion, —Why styled "The Lion," —Taken Captive by the English Barons, —Buys his Liberty with the Surrender of the Independence of his Kingdom, —A great Price for one Man, —Abbey of Arbroath, —Scotland under Interdict, —Richard Coeur de Lion gives Scotland back its Independence, —More Priests, —Independence of Scottish Papal Church, —Alexander II., —His Troubled Reign, —More Friars, —Alexander III., His Coronation, —The Comyns, —Alexander's Marriage, —Founding of Abbey of Sweetheart, —Translation of Queen Margaret's Relics, —Last Appearance of the Vikings, —Haco's Armada, —Destructive Storm, —Battle of Largs, —an Epoch in Scottish History, —Death of Alexander III.

 

 


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