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Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland
IX. The Gaels


way of alliance, married the daughter of a leading Fitzgerald, their influence was nonetheless reduced as a result of the encroachments of the Fitzgeralds.

The Cirieal mBeice or O’Mahonys descend from Mathghamhain (slain at Clontarf in 1014) whose father Cian (son of Maolmuadh, King of Munster in 978) commanded the forces of Desmond at the battle of Clontarf in 1014 jointly with the ancestor of the O’Donoghues, and whose mother was a daughter of Brian Boru (see under O’Brien). They gave their clan-name to their territory, now known under the phonetically Anglicized form Kinelmeaky, an extensive district along the River Bandon in the south of County Cork. As a reaction to the pressure caused by the Anglo-Norman invasion of the late twelfth century, they expanded westward into the territory of their collateral kinsmen, the Cineal Laoghaire. Afterwards their power extended from Kinelmeaky southwards to the sea, where their fortified stronghold of Rosbrian lay off the coast of southwest Cork.

The Eoghanacht Mag Geirginn inhabited the district in northeast Scotland between the Tay and the Dee, and were especially associated with Angus and what is now known as Kincardineshire (formerly "The Mearns"). They traditionally descend from Conal Corc, grandfather of Oengus, King of Munster (490), who is said to have sojourned in Albany, or Scotland, where he married the daughter of Feradach, King of Cruthentuath (Pictland), thus establishing the Eoghanacht of the district of Mag Geirginn. His descendants by her included his son Cairbre (or Coirpre) Cruithnechan ("Cairbre Pictling"), ancestor of the Mag Geirginn branch, also known as Cairpre "mac na Cruithnige" (the son of the Pictish woman), and also his son or grandson Maine Lemna, ancestor of the Lemnaig, later the ruling family of the Levenax (later Lennox). Thus established, the Eoghanacht maintained their individuality at least until the reign of Oengus mac Forggusso, King of the Picts (died 761), who was one of them, and may have been the "Oengus" after whom "Angus" is named.

The district of Atholl (New Ireland) appears about the beginning of the eighth century, with a king of its own, and this may represent a later patrimony for the male-line representatives of the Eoghanacht in Scotland, in as much as they maintained their individual patrilineal traditions within still-matrilineal Pictland. That they did so is indicated by the traditional male-line descent of the medieval ruling family of the Lennox from Maine Lemna, son or grandson of Conall Corc. The nearby district of the Lennox apparently followed Atholl as this group’s patrimony as they emerge as its ruling dynasty in the early twelfth century, having been for some time its Mormaers and afterwards its earls (it is interesting to note the continuation of distinctively South-Irish royal names, such as Corc among the House of Lennox even as late as the fourteenth century). The family, known simply as "de Lennox," held the earldom until it passed to the Stewarts of Darnley through an heiress in


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