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Mini Bios of People of Scots Descent
The Grahams in Virginia


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Submitted by Glen Gallagher - 71056.1055@Compuserve.Com  Jan. 4, 1998
By David Graham, Clayton, West Virginia

The writer being in his 79th year, and one of the few living great grandchildren of JOHN GRAHAM, SR., the founder of his this branch of the Graham family in this country, and having been at great pain and considerable expense in obtaining the information in the following pages concerning his ancestors, he desires to hand down to future generations the facts as he has collected them.

Many of the facts herein related, were not handed down by the line of tradition, but have been obtained by the writer through special effort, such as examining the county records of various counties, and while there are doubtless many lost links he believes it to be as full an account of his ancestors as is now obtainable, and should this brief sketch be the means of gratification to the present generation or future generations, the writer will feel amply repaid.

David Graham, October, 1899

The Grahams, like many of the early settlers of the Valley of Virginia, were of Scotch-Irish descent and came from the counties of Donegal and Londonderry, in the northern part of Ireland. The term Scotch-Irish, does not necessarily mean a blending of blood between the Scotch and Irish nations, but implies the Scotch who emigrated from Scotland and settled in Ireland. During the years beginning shortly after the middle of the Seventeenth Century, there was a large emigration from Scotland and Ireland, having been brought about on account of religious persecution of the Scotch received at home.

The treatment and torture dealt out to these pious religious people, who held tenaciously to the principles of the Presbyterian faith, by the Church of England, under the false cloak of religion, would of itself fill a volume much larger than that contemplated in these pages, of a people who were driven from post to pillar, and suffered almost unendurable hardship and degradations, rather than depart from a principle which they believed to be the teachings of the Bible, as well as having the approval of their conscience. Thus, more than two centuries ago our ancestral parents left their beautiful homes in their native land, and looking for the last time on the green sloping swards of the Grampian Hills and bid farewell forever to the graves of their fathers and mothers, and left behind all that was near and dear to them, even the vain hope that the persecutions and trial which had hitherto made life hideous, would cease and they would be free to exercise that faith which had so long been the desire of their conscience. But alas, for human expectations. Their sojourn is but for awhile, until the broad and inviting land across the Atlantic bade them once more take up their line of march and plant their home in the New World, where they would be free to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience, unhindered by church or state.

Among the many families who thus emigrated from Scotland to Ireland and later from Ireland to America we might mention the following:

Forbesses, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Montgomerys, Alexanders, Grahams,( ? ), ( ? ), ( ? ), Browns, Wallaces, Wilsons, Caruthers, Campbells, McCambells, McClungs, McCues, McKees, McCowns, Lockridges, Boyds, Barclays, McDonalds, and Baileys, described as "Knights and Gentlemen of Scotland, whose posterity holds good to this day." They were Irish Presbyterians, who, being Scotch extraction, were called Scotch-Irish.

These names are today familiar household words of the names of our own land and are but a repetition, and of the same lineal descent of their noble ancestors, who more than two centuries ago stood ever firm to the Magna Charta of Scottish rights, and rallied under their brave banners emblazoned with the faith of their own creed, in the famous golden letters "For Christ's Crown and Covenant," they waited undaunted, the tyranny of their foes.

As we have said, their sojourn in Ireland was but temporary, as to a large portion of those who emigrated there. Of course, many hindered by poverty and other causes, no doubt, made that their permanent home.

The relief which they sought, they found but temporary in their new found homes in Ireland. Under the rule of tyrant Kings, their suffering and punishment was endurable only for its contrasts with their former sufferings. Titles and taxes demanded from their wrecked estates to support a church, not of their own choice; restrained from speaking their own opinions; living in a strange land; dwelling among enemies of their faith, all combined to make them an unhappy and restless people. Longing for new homes, the silent whispers came across the ocean that the Mayflower, years before had landed others, persecuted like themselves, safely on the other side of the blue waters. This gave them hope. "For thou, O God, hast proved us, and thou hast tried us as silver is tried; thou broughtest us to ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water; but thou broughtest us out into a wealthy place."  Gathering together what little worldly goods they possessed, which was very meager, and often nothing but their Bible, they embarked for the New World, landing upon the banks of the Delaware and many rested for a season in the land of Pennsylvania.

William Penn, having been formerly a subject of the King of England, and witnessed the persecution of his own church (though he himself was a favorite of King James) it was but natural that these people should seek out in the New World those that had been persecuted for conscience sake in the old world.

Among those who thus sought fresh relief and new homes amid the untrodden forests of America, few stood higher or occupied positions more exalted than the Grahams. During that bloody, treacherous, and ever memorable struggle in England, Ireland and Scotland, in which King James was dethroned, and William, Prince of Orange, a Presbyterian, became his successor, a time when no man could remain neutral, but all must declare either for the time honored established church of England; the papistry of King James or, for that faith which they believed to be taught in Holy Writ. According to the dictates of their own consciences, the Grahams occupied prominent positions on either side.

One Richard Graham, known as Viscount Preston, held the position of State of Scotland, under King James about the year 1685; and history tells us that he was one of the privy council, and most trusty adviser of the King; that his plans and recommendations were often adhered to, rather than those of the king himself. As a leader of the House of Commons, he counselled King James to reassemble the House of Parliament, in order to secure a peaceful settlement of differences between church and state. He was also made Lord Lieutenant for both the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, a position very rare and remarkable for one man to occupy.

During the absence of King James from the throne, who on account of fears of his opposers, had fled to Salisbury, Richard Graham and four associates were appointed a committee, known as the Council of Five, to transact the business of the Throne until such time as might be deemed expedient for the King to return. 

The positions of high honor and trust, held and occupied by this one man were many, and to rehearse them all in detail, would require more space than it is our purpose here to consume in this brief sketch; suffice it to say that he seems to have been a leader of his party in both civic and military affairs; a minister at the courts of foreign countries; honored, trusted and adhered to and we might add obeyed by kings; feared and esteemed by the House of Commons and held in Highest respect by the common people. While he was true and devoted to King James, in the sense of patriotism, it does not appear that he was a persecutor of those who differed from the King's religious views.

James Graham, of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee, was also a noted character in that eventful struggle, and which his persecution of those who differed from the religious persuasions of King James, must ever be deplored, we take consolation in the fact that he but carried out the dictates and decrees of his Master. That his fidelity to the King was ever true through life and even in the hour of death, is fully established in his last utterance, after having spent and eventful life in the king's house.

After King James had vacated the throne, and William and Mary had been triumphantly crowned, and the armies of James abandoned and scattered, General Graham, with his indomitable will and ever-to-be admired energy, hoping against hope, collected together such as he could of the remaining fragmentary army of his escaped Master and repaired to the highlands of Scotland, where he succeeded in interesting the Scottish Chiefs of the Highland Clans in behalf of the cause of the late King. The remoteness of these semi-barbarians from the active scene of war, coupled with their disinclination to inform themselves of the nature of the conflict, soon led them through the fluency of Graham's speech to espouse his cause. Having bought and obtained the sympathy of all the principal chiefs of the various clans, he assembled them together and a council was held to decide the mode of warfare. The detached fragment of the army whom Graham hitherto commanded, chagrined with further defeats, protested against a battle with those who espoused the cause of King William. While the leaders of the Highland Clans urged immediate assault, saying their men were ready and eager for the fray.

General Graham was influenced by the council of the Highlanders assuring them that he would lead them to victory; that he himself would march in front of his army; to this his subordinate officers objected saying he was too valuable a leader to expose his person in front of the battle and urged him to remain in the rear and dictate the movements of his army in the oncoming conflict. To this Graham replied, "Your people are accustomed to see their leader in the fan of battle, and there I shall be seen this day, but after the decision of this day, I shall be more careful of my person and not expose myself in action as heretofore has been my [MISSING LINE PAGE 4] 

Soon the foe was met and the battle of Killikrankle was fought. Early in the engagement Graham was shot, having raised his hand above his head and standing erect in his stirrups, giving command, his shield of armor raised above his waistband, exposing his person, when the ball took effect, he fell from his horse and one of his subordinate officers coming to enquired if his injuries were fatal. Graham answered by saying, "How goes the cause of the King." The attendant answered, "The cause of the King is well, How is your lordship?" Graham replied, "It matters not for me, so the cause of the King is safe." These were his last words. Though dying on the field, his army won a great victory and the battle of Killikrankie has passed into history as one of the most memorable events of that time. History hands down to us other names of the Grahams who were more or less noted in their day and time, or which we might mention. Malcolm Graham, who is last but by no means least, stood high in society and was bound with a golden chain by King James the 11th to Ellen Douglass, the girl he loved so well, dishonoring thus the loyal name.

Fetters and warden for the Greams (Graham)
His chain of gold the king unstrung;
The links o'er Malcolm's neck he flung,
Then gently drew the glittering hand,
And laid the clasp on Ellen's hand.

Scott's "Lady of the Lake"

From the above selection it will be noticed that the name is spelled "Greame." Whether the author drew upon his poetical license for this misnomer or whether the name was sometimes so spelled by the Scots, we are unable to determine.

In the early settlement of this country when people paid but little attention to the orthography of names -- the name was often called Grimes. There seems to have been no authority whatever, for this contortion of the name, is, that the names of the early settlers were scarcely, if ever, seen in print, and but seldom in writing, but were handed orally from one to another, thus giving plenty of opportunity for misunderstandings. We can recall many names, which, in our youth were pronounced differently from what they are now. To illustrate, the name Stevenson was called "Stinson" and the name Withrow was called "Watherow," Stodgill was called "Sturgeon," and so on. We even find in this day a few of the old styled fathers and mothers who do not like to discontinue the old fashioned way of expressing these names.

The Graham name in all English history and in the history of our Country, as well as in all the legal writings pertaining to the family, from the earliest settlement in America down to the present time, is spelled as we now have it, G-r-a-h-a-m.

The people of Scotland, of the same family tree were known as clans; and these clans seem to have been bound together by very strong and endearing ties. Such was the adhesion of these family clans that they kept themselves almost entirely aloof from other clans. Marriage and intermarriage by members of one clan to another was scarcely admissible. If a member of one clan provoked or insulted a member of another clan, the insult was resented by the clan whose member had been insulted, thus, we 


Each clan had its official chief or leader whose duty it was to dictate to his people such a course as seemed to him most wise and discreet, or that happened to please the whims of his own fancies. In military affairs this leader or chief was expected to occupy the most dangerous positions in the heart of battle. He must either win a victory in which he himself performed some noble part, or die in defeat.

The Graham clan was a very large and influential one and perhaps at the time of its greatest power, had for its official head James Graham, the Earl of Montrose, who laid down his life for the love of his king. It is claimed in Scotland history that the Graham family dates back for a thousand years, and has been conspicuous in the annals of their country, "from hovel to the palace, in arts, in eloquence, and in song." "It was a daring man by the name of Graham that first broke through the walls of Agricola which the Roman general had built between the firths of the Clyde and the Forth to keep off the incursions of the Northern Britons, and the ruins of which still are visible, are called to this day the ruins of Graham's Dyke."

The first immigration of the Grahams to this country, of which we have any account, occurred about the year 1720 to 1730. The exact date of which cannot now be known.

It is, however, a matter of history, that one, Michael Graham, settled in Paxton Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, about the date referred to and that he was a direct descendant of the Earl of Montrose who was beheaded. The descendants of Michael Graham, afterwards settled in the Valley of Virginia and became noted for their scholarly attainments, as well as their religious zeal. Of these, however, we may speak further on. It is known that the same period of the coming of Michael to this country, that other members of the same family, kith and kin, also settled in this country, among them were John Graham, (the writer's great-grandfather) who settled for a time, it is believed, in Pennsylvania and later moved to the Great Calf Pasture River, in Augusta County, Virginia. It is regretted that we cannot give the exact date of the settlement on the Calf Pasture River but conclude that not earlier than the year 1740, not later than 1745.

We find that he purchased a tract of six hundred and ninety-six acres of land in the year 1746, from John Lewis and James Patton. It will be remembered that John Lewis was the first settler in Augusta County, or rather in the territory which afterwards became Augusta, having then platted his home in the then remote wilderness in the year 1732, at Bells Fontaine Springs near Staunton. He was the father of General Andrew Lewis who commanded in the famous battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. John Graham, (whom we will call senior) reared a family of four sons and five daughters on the banks of the Calf Pasture and died there about the year 1771, born about the year 1700. His oldest son's name was Lanty (Lancelot). The name of the other three were John, James, and Robert. His daughter's names were Jane, Elizabeth, Anne, Rebecca, and Florence, who was the writer's grandmother on his mother's side; she having married James Graham, his (sic) cousin. 

The following is a copy of JOHN GRAHAM, SR'S WILL 

In the name of God, Amen; The 29th day of July, A.D. 1771, I John Graham,  being sick of body but sound in mind and memory, thanks 


transitory life and that all flesh must yield to death when it pleaseth God to call, I do make, constitute and ordain and declare this to be my last will and testament in name and form following, revoking and annulling (??????) these presents all former wills and testaments, either written or by word of mouth; this to be my last and none other.

I first recommend my soul to God, my Savior and Redeemer, and my body to the dust, to be decently buried at the discretion of my executors hereafter named and appointed, and as to my worldly goods which God has granted to me, I leave and bequeath in the following manner, viz: to my oldest son, Lanty, I devise and leave my plantation whereon I dwell, to him and his heirs forever, upon his allowing my beloved wife her living ????f it, with what stock she pleases to keep; also the said Lanty is to give six pounds to to JAMES GRAHAM'S son John, and six pounds to his brother John's [son] John; also to my daughter, Anne, I leave thirty pounds, besides my roan horse and chest of drawers; to my beloved wife, Elizabeth Graham, I leave twenty pounds, my bay mare, two cows, her choice of the flock and all the household plenishings; to Jane Lockridge I leave fifteen pounds; to Rebecca, (????) buckles and to her son John, one cow; also to Robert Graham half the [ ll] that belongs to me; to my two daughters, Florence and Betty, ten pounds each; to my sons Robert and John Graham, ten pounds each; to Rebecca, [Lanty's] daughter, I leave ten pounds; all the rest of the estate remaining [ ] be enjoyed by my wife whilest unmarried, but if married, to be divided [equally] between my daughters Flora, Jane, Betty, and Anne, and if she ever marries, to be left by my said wife to her four daughters here named, at her death. I also appoint my beloved wife and my son Lanty Graham, to be my executors. I hereby revoke all other wills and testaments, appointing and making this my last, in the eleventh year of our Sovereign Lord, George, King of Great Britain, & C. and in the year of our Lord, God. 1771

"Signed, sealed and published and pronounced in the presence of Signed, "John Graham (Seal)"




At the court in Augusta County, November the 19th, 1771, this last will and testament of John Graham, Dec., was proved by the oath of [John] Kinkead and John Armstrong, two of the witnesses thereto, and ordered to be recorded. And on motion of Lanty Graham and Elizabeth Graham, the executors therein named, who made oath according to law, certificate is granted them for obtaining a probate thereof in due form they having with security entered into and acknowledged their bond according to law.

[ este:] Wm. A. Burnette, Clerk


The writer's great-grandmother lived until after the year 1779, for in that year he has an account of her and her son, Lanty's settlement of the executorship with the court which shows that they paid out 240 , 3d. -- $1200.00. This was the personal property besides legacies.

In addition to the bequests mentioned in the foregoing will, the records of Augusta County show that John Graham, in the year 1763, deeded land, on the Calf Pasture River, and it is to be presumed that he shared like portion of his estate to each of his daughters, prior to and in addition to that named in his will.

John Graham (No. 2) was the son of John Graham, Sr., who lived and [died] on a portion of his father's farm on the Calf Pasture, had five sons and three daughters. He was born in the year 1726 and died in 1815. The names of his sons were John(3), James, Robert, William, and Lanty. The names of  the daughters were Margaret, Elizabeth, and Martha, who in 1856 married Robert Dunlap. There were born to her nine children; the Rev. [Mitchell] D. and Charles A. Dunlap were the boys. The Rev. Mitchell Dunlap [was] a prominent minister in the Presbyterian Church, and served with distinction in many churches of his faith in Greenbrier, Monroe, Pocahontas and other counties of West Virginia and his native state. He died but a few years ago and was buried at Union, Monroe County. He had no children; his wife was Mary J. Dunlap, of Monroe County.

Charles A. Dunlap lived on his father's farm on the Calf Pasture and had born to him five sons and two daughters. The names of his sons are Mitchell A. and Charles Preston, who lived in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and Robert A. and John W. who lived in Augusta. One son, James Lyle and one daughter, Nancy T. are dead. The remaining daughter, Lora, together with her mother and brothers John W. lived on their father's farm, it being part of the same farm owned by their great-great-grandfather, John Graham, [ ]., who  purchased it from Lewis and Patton as before mentioned. Thus it will be seen that this land now in possession of the fifth generation was originally purchased more than one hundred and fifty years ago.

It was the privilege of the writer to visit this old homestead for the first time in May, 1898, and "view the landscape o'er," where were [reared] his grandmother, his great-uncles and aunts more than one and one half centuries ago. The original farm of six hundred and ninety-six acres lies on both sides of the Calf Pasture River, is mostly bottom land, and is located about four miles below Deerfield and twenty-five miles [north st] of Staunton at Marble Valley P.O. extending a distance of two miles along the river. Portions of it are now owned by William Clayton. On another adjoining tract of land owned by John Graham, Sr., there was a grist mill built by him about 1755. Mr. Clayton, in removing the old stone foundation during the summer of 1898 and after the writer's visit, found one of the corner stones imbedded in the old wall, the date 1755 cut in the stone. [At] the time of the writer's visit the wall was intact and well preserved, though the mill itself had long since been torn down. The water power of this mill was furnished by two large fountain springs which had their source near each other, on an elevation over-looking the mill. There is little doubt that this was the first mill built in that section of the country. There now stands a good flouring mill a short distance below the old foundation wall that is turn(?) the year around by the two springs as named, and does good paying business.

JANE GRAHAM, daughter of JOHN GRAHAM, Sr., married a Mr. Lockridge of Augusta County, and raised a large family. The names of those we have been able to ascertain are as follows: John, Andrew Lanty (Lancelot), [James], Robert and one or two other sons who moved to Kentucky in the early settlement of that state and whose names have not been given me.

Dr. J.B. Lockridge of Driscol, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, was a grandson of Lanty Lockridge and consequently a great-grandson of JANE LOCKRIDGE, Nee Graham.


, of Indianapolis, Indiana is a grandson of John Lockridge and likewise a great-grandson of Jane Graham Lockridge. Mrs. L.N. Dysard, of Green Bank, Pocahontas County, is a granddaughter of Andrew Lockridge. The late Col. James T. Lockridge, of Pocahontas County, son of Lanty, was a grandson of Jane Lockridge. There are many other descendants of Jane Lockridge in Pocahontas County as well as others as scattered over many Western States. 

Ann, daughter of John Graham, Sr., married John Kinkead (now written Kincade) and moved to Anthony's Creek, in Greenbrier County. At what date they located at Greenbrier we do not know, but believe it must have been in the early settlement of the county. Of their children we can recall knowledge of but three, these the writer personally knew. There are doubtless others, but we do not remember to have seen or heard of them. The three known to us were Mathew, Lanty, and Betsey (Ilizabeth (sic)). Mathew married Miss Elizabeth Scott, of Greenbrier County, and Lanty also married a Scott, sister of of Mathew's wife. Elizabeth married for her first husband a Mr. Hopkins and after his death, married a Clark. To the second husband were born other children, one of whom, Elizabeth, married Mathew Lowe, father of John and Granville Lowe who are now living and prosperous farmers in this country.

Mathew Lowe had three daughters. The writer recollects Eliza A., who married for her first husband Mr. Anderson Wheeler. They had several children, J.C. Wheeler, Robert Wheeler, and Mrs. Waddle, that we know. Eliza A. Wheeler married for her second husband Mr. Sylvester Upton, of this county, who stood prominent in his day with the people. He was elected to the Legislature of West Virginia some twenty years ago. Another daughter of Mrs. Lowe's, Agnes, married Peter Wyant and lived in the West (??and) of the Big-Bend Tunnel. Another daughter, Rebecca, married Jordan Grimmet, and two of their sons are prominent school teachers. They live at Buck P.O., this county.

When reference is made in these pages to "this County." Summers County, West Virginia, is meant.

Another daughter of Elizabeth Clark married Mr. Henry Smith, father of the late Lewis A. Smith, who lived and died near Forrest Hill, this county, several of whose children are now living; Lewis Smith, William, Mrs. Henry Shultz and Lewis Meadows.

Mathew Kincade reared a large family of nine daughters and one son. From the year 1836 to the time of his death in 1860 he lived at the mouth of Hungart's Creek, near Balcott, on what is known as the Woodson farm, it being the same farm on which the village of Talcott now stands. The names of his children are as follows: Katy, Ann Graham, Jane, Lanty Graham, Sarah, Florence Graham, Nancy, Rebecca, Elizabeth and Susan. Katy married and located on Horse Shoe Creek in Fayette County. Jane married Moses Hedrick, father of William C. Hedrick, late member of the county court and John and Mathew Hedrick of this county. They also had three daughters, Elizabeth, who died unmarried, at the age of eighteen; Mary Ann, who married Wm. Wyant and lived near Pisgah; and Susan, who married John Allen, son of Nathaniel Allen and now lives in Mercer County.

Moses Kedrick lived for a number of years on Hungart's Creek, and later near Pisgah Church where both he and his wife died within a short time of each other, some three years ago.

Florence Graham Kincade married Isaac Tincher, and after his death married Thomas Holstein, who together with his wife, live near Pisgah Church in this County. She has two living sons, Grandeur and George Holstein, both of whom occupy important positions with the C.&O. R.R. Co., the latter being one of the company's most trusted engineers. Florence is one of the two of Mathew Kincade's family who is still living.

Lanty Graham Kincade married Eliza Keller, sister of George Keller who now lives on the old Keller farm at Lowell. Lanty moved to Illinois soon after the Civil War and died there some years later. Of his family little is known by the writer, except his oldest son, William, married Emma, a daughter of the late Col. Wilson Lively, of Monroe County, whose widow and family lived since the Civil War at Lowell on the old Graham homestead of which mention will hereafter be made. William Kincade and family are, as we understand, now living in Oregon. Nancy and Susan married brothers, Richard and Griffith Meadows, both of whom have children now living.

Rebecca married Henry Karnes of Mercer County and still has children living in this county.

Sarah Kincade married Samuel Humphreys and lived for a time on the land now occupied by a portion of of the town of Talcott. Later he moved to Centerville, now Greenville, Monroe County, where his wife died some years later.

We will now notice briefly the descendants of Lanty Kincade, the brother of Mathew, as before stated. He married Miss Scott of Greenbrier County and settled on Muddy Creek on what was afterwards known as the William Anderson place, near Asbury. In the latter years of his life he moved to Lick Creek, in what is now Summer County, and died there about 1850. He had three sons and five daughters.

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