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The Making of Scotland
Lectures on the war of independence delivered in the University of Glasgow by the Right Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell


IN the following pages I have endeavoured to arrange in a concise form the facts, so far as they can be ascertained, leading to the evolution of the realm of Scotland by the consolidation of the petty kingdoms which existed in the eighth century, the events which subsequently infringed and threatened permanently to destroy its independence, and the means by which that independence was regained and established. The narrative has been told and retold very often, varying in accordance with the prepossession, prejudice and historical insight of different writers; yet it remains a fact that, while many Scotsmen desire to have a definite understanding of the cause for which their forefathers made such heavy sacrifice, few can give the time necessary for the examination and collation of conflicting authorities. I have attempted, therefore, to put the essence of the matter into these lectures, and, at the same time, to convey some impression of the kind of warfare whereby our independence was secured.

Every question has at least two sides; that which arose in the thirteenth century between England and Scotland has too often been treated as if it had only one. We are now far enough removed from the field of strife to take a just view of the English, as well as the Scottish, aspect of the controversy.

As I have dealt with the War of Independence in greater detail in a volume on Robert the Bruce contributed to the ďHeroes of the NationĒ series in 1897, I have to acknowledge the courtesy with which the publishers, Messrs. G. P. Putnamís Sons, have consented to waive any objection they might entertain to such repetition as has been found inevitable. I have not in most cases supplied references to the various authorities upon which the statements in the text are based, because the lectures are printed almost literatim as delivered, and such references would have unnecessarily confused an oral narrative. The chief authorities relied on have been Bainís Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, Lord Hailesís Annals of Scotland, Rymerís Foedera Antiqua, Barbourís BruS) Chronicon de Lanercost) the Scalacronica of Sir Thomas Gray, Stevensonís Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Raineís Fetters from the Northern Registers, Palgraveís Documents, etc., illustrating the History of Scotland.

Monreith, February 1911.

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