Charles Edward Stewart's standard unfurled at Glenfinnan to start
the most famous Jacobite Rising which ended tragically on the field of
Culloden on 16 April 1746.
20 August 1745
Hanoverian forces under the command of Sir John
Cope marched north from Stirling to counter the south-ward march of the
The AppinRegiment commanded by Charles Stewart of Ardshiel,
Tearlach Mòr, and the MacDonalds of Glencoe under Alexander MacDonald of
Glencoe joined the Jacobite army at Aberchalder, a township at the North
end of Loch Oich, bringing the total Jacobite strength up to some two
29 August 1745
A Jacobite force failed in an attempt to capture the Hanovarian-held
Ruthven Barracks, Kingussie.
3 September 1745
James Francis Stewart
proclaimed as King James VIII of Scotland by his son, Prince Charles
Edward at Perth.
The Jacobite army left Perth and advanced towards a defenceless
Edinburgh with Sir John Copes Hanoverian force still in the north.
16 September 1745
Canter of Coltbrig where
Jacobite forces routed Hanovarian dragoons on the outskirts of
17 September 1745
Jacobite army captured Edinburgh but failed to take the Castle. Prince
Charles Edward Stewart took up residence in Holyroodhouse. Sir John Cope
and Hanoverian army arrived by ship off Dunbar.
21 September 1745
army under the command of John Cope were surprised and overwhelmingly
defeated, in ten minutes, by the Jacobite forces of Prince Charles
Edward Stewart in the Battle of
Prestonpans. The victory left most of Scotland open to the Jacobites
and Cope to ridicule:
'Hey Johnnie Cope, are ye
Or are your drums a-beatin yet?
If ye were auken I would wait
To gang to the coals in the mornin.'
Hanoverian casualty Colonel James Gardiner, who was killed at the Battle of
Prestonpans, was interred in the kirkyard at Tranent Parish Church. He died
near his house at Brankton, Prestonpans, and worshipped, when home, at
28 September 1745
Audiences at the Drury Lane and Covent Garden theatres in London,
England, sang "God Save the King" for the first time as news came of the Jacobite army
victory at Prestonpans.
God grant that Marshal Wade
May by Thy mighty aid
May he sedition crush
And like a torrent rush
Rebellious Scots to crush
God save the King.
- ' God Save the King '
Pitsligos Horse, with an estimated strength of 100 to 200, commanded by
Alexander, 4th Lord Forbes of Pitsligo, joined the Jacobite army
in Edinburgh. Lord Pitsligo was a member of the Princes Council and
following the Jacobite defeat at Culloden was hidden by his tenants in
Aberdeenshire until his death in 1762.
Ewan MacPherson of Cluny marched from Badenoch with his Regiment to join the
Jacobite Cause. He spent several days forcing men out in Rannoch and
Glenlyon before joining the Princes army in Edinburgh.
William Boyd, 4th Earl of Kilmarnock, who belonged to a family of
Whig and Hanoverian supporters, joined Prince Charles Edward Stewart in
Edinburgh. He was commissioned to raise a troop of horse, which took part in
the advance into England. Taken prisoner at Culloden he was executed in
London on 18 April 1746.
A force of Jacobite Frasers were thwarted in their aim of seizing the
home and person of the Lord President, Duncan Forbes of Culloden. He
forced their retreat by firing a swivel gun from his bedroom window but
could not prevent his cattle being lifted.
Clunys Regiment, 350 strong, under Ewan MacPherson of Cluny, joined the
Jacobite army in Edinburgh.
The Jacobite Grand Council meeting in Edinburgh decided by a single vote
to invade England but only after Lord George Murray insisted that the
entry into England should be the western route.
30 October 1745
Hanoverian supporters besieged Oliphant of Gask, Jacobite depute governor of
Perth and chased the Jacobite governor of Dundee, David Fotheringham, out of
the city. Subsequently both Perth and Dundee were heavily garrisoned
by the Jacobites.
The main body of the Jacobite army marched from Edinburgh to Dalkeith,
where the men bivouacked between Newbattle Water and Melville Burn,
prior to invading England.
Hanoverian forces based at Edinburgh Castle re-took the City of Edinburgh
as the Jacobite army commenced its march from Dalkeith to invade
8 November 1745
The Jacobite army crossed the Scottish Border and spent the
first night on English soil.
The Jacobite army, having entered England, made a formal demand for the
surrender of Carlisle 'within 2 hours'. When all hope ended that
Marshal Wade, commander of Hanoverian forces at Newcastle, would march to
relieve the town, Carlisle surrendered 5 days later.
12 November 1745
Prince Charles Edward Stewart established his headquarters in
Brampton during the Jacobite siege of Carlisle.
Edward Stewart, accompanied by pipers, entered Carlisle following the
surrender of the city to the Jacobite Army.
20 November 1745
Lord George Murray and approximately half the Jacobite army marched
south from Carlisle. Prince Charles Edward Stewart followed the
next day with the remainder. Dividing the army in two was an
attempt to ensure that all man could find adequate nightly quarters.
23 November 1745
In response to the advance of the Jacobite army, William
Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, was appointed to the supreme
command of the Hanoverian army in England.
28 November 1745
A Jacobite sergeant named Dickson accompanied by a drummer
and a whore entered Manchester and, with the aid of local
Jacobite sympethisors, took the town in advance of the arrival
of the Jacobite army.
Charles Edward Stewart declared his father King of England, Scotland and
Wales at Ashbourne, a few miles north of Derby.
4 December 1745
Jacobite army entered Derby, England, having failed to rally major support
for the Stewart cause during its march south from Scotland.
6 December 1745
Charles Edward Stewart and the Jacobite Army retreated from Derby, England.
Regiment, under Ewan MacPherson of Cluny, were the last Jacobites to leave
Derby and join the retreat back to Scotland. The regiment played a major
role in the successful rear-guard action fought at Clifton.
10 December 1745
An assassination attempt was made on Prince Charles Edward
Stewart in Wigan by a staunch Hanovarian, but his aim was poor
and his shot went wide of the mark.
18 December 1745
Skirmish at Clifton where
retreating Jacobite forces under Lord George Murray, defeated General
Bland's Hanoverian troops. The last battle to be fought on English soil.
20 December 1745
Retreating Jacobite army re-entered Scotland, fording the spate-filled
River Esk in the Borders.
21 December 1745
Hanovarian army under the Duke of Cumberland appeared before the
walls of Carlisle and laid siege to the town's Jacobite
garrison. Four hundred Jacobites remained to hold Carlisle
following the retreat back to Scotland, comprising the
Manchester Regiment, who did not want to leave England, the
wounded from Clifton and a few men from the Highland Regiments.
23 December 1745
At the Battle of Inverurie Jacobite forces under Lord Lewis Gordon
completely overwhelmed Hanoverian troops led by MacLeod of MacLeod and
Munro of Culcairn.
30 December 1745
The Jacobite garrison left to hold Carlisle surrendered to Hanoverian forces
under the Duke of Cumberland. The Jacobite prisoners were kept chained
in various locations under extreme conditions until the summer of 1745, when
they were hung, drawn and disemboweled for High Treason.
2 January 1746
Prince Charles Edward Stewart reviewed the Jacobite army at Glasgow Green.
The city of Glasgow was coerced into supplying the Jacobites with goods
including twelve thousand shirts, six thousand coats and six thousand pairs
Alexander Maclean, a pedlar and straggler from the Jacobite army, was
sentenced to death at York Castle, England. The sentence was subsequently
commuted to transportation. He had been captured in the Ship Inn, Winkle, by
the landlord Joseph Cunliffe who seized his musket and held him at gunpoint
until the arrival of the local magistrate Sir Peter Davenport. Maclean was
imprisoned under harsh conditions, firstly at Chester and then York Castle.
Confesseth and Sayeth that he was Born in the Highlands of Scotland and
was in with the Rebells at Athol in Scotland aforesaid and marched with
until he was apprehended.
deposition signed with his mark
3 January 1746
Jacobite army left Glasgow in two columns by Kilsyth and Cumbernauld
taking with them a bailie and merchant as hostages for the supplies that
the city had been ordered to provide.
8 January 1746
The Burgh of Stirling
surrendered to Jacobite Army but the Castle remained in Hanoverian
MacPherson of Clunys Regiment took part in an expedition, under Lord George
Murray, to Linlithgow to seize provisions for the Hanoverians collected by
the townspeople under the order of General Hawley.
17 January 1746
The Jacobite Army, led by Lord
George Murray, defeated Government forces under General Hawley. The last
31 January 1746
Hanovarian army under the Duke of Cumberland advanced from
Edinburgh to Linlithgow. He took up quarters with many of
his men in Linlithgow Palace, a favourite residence of the
Stuart Kings and birth place of Mary Queen of Scots. The
Jacobites made arrangements for their withdrawal from Stirling.
1 February 1746
Jacobite army evacuated Stirling and retreated northwards.
Council held in the Drummond Arms Inn, Crieff, decided to retreat north in
three columns and to rendezvous in the neighbourhood of Inverness. The
Council saw a widening of the gulf between Prince Charles Edward Stewart and
Jacobite commander Lord George Murray.
11 February 1746
Ruthven Barracks surrendered to Jacobite forces.
16 February 1746
Government forces under Lord Louden attempted to capture Prince Charles Edward
Stewart at Moy Hall but were surprised and routed by a handful of
Jacobites. The only death in the Rout of Moy was Duncan Bam MacCrimmon, Hereditory Piper to the MacLeods of
Dunvegan, who took the Hanoverian side in the 45.
18 February 1746
Jacobite army captured Inverness.
27 February 1746
Hanoverian army under the Duke of Cumberland arrived in Aberdeen
from Perth, having left garrisons at Blair Castle and Castle
Menzies in order to prevent the Jacobites advancing into the
15 March 1746
The Atholl Brigade, commanded by Lord George Murray, left Jacobite held
Inverness to rendezvous in Badenoch with 300 MacPhersons, led by Cluny
MacPherson, in order to attack Hanoverian Government military posts in
17 March 1746
Before daybreak Jacobite forces, commanded by Lord George Murray,
captured over 30 Hanoverian military posts between Dalwhinnie and
Blair Castle. The Jacobites took over 300 prisoners and suffered
no casualties. Lord George Murray then commenced a siege of his
ancestral home, Blair Castle. The siege was abandoned two weeks
later, just before a relieving Hanoverian force arrived under the
Earl of Crawford.
successful military engagement near Dornoch Jacobite forces, pursuing
Hanoverians under Lord Louden, captured Captain Aeneas Mackintosh of
Mackintosh, 22nd Clan Chief. Prince Charles Edward Stewart
paroled him into the hands of his wife and Jacobite supporter, Lady Ann
Mackintosh of Invercauld, who was known as Colonel Ann. In spite of her
husband being a serving Hanoverian officer she raised Clan Chattan for the
Jacobite cause., and it was led in the field by Alexander MacGillivray of
Dunmaglas, who died valiantly at Culloden.
21 March 1746
A Jacobite force under Major Glasgow, comprising fifty picked
men of Stuart's Regiment, led by Captain Robert Stewart, Younger
of Glenlivet, and some French troops surprised a Hanoverian
detachment of seventy Campbell militia and thirty of Kingston's
dragoons in Keith at 1am. With the loss of one Frenchman
and only a few wounded, they secured the whole party, except for
five or six who escaped. On the Hanoverian side there were
nine killed and a considerable number wounded. By daybreak
Major Glasgow had returned to Jacobite headquarters on the Spey
with eighty prisoners.
25 March 1746
The sloop of war Hazard, which had been captured by the
Jacobites at Montrose and renamed Prince Charles, ran ashore on
the Melness Sands, on the west side of Tongue Bay, to escape the
guns of the Hanovarian man-of-war Sheerness. The Prince
Charles was returning from France to Scotland with about £13,000
and other valuable supplies for the Jacobite army.
Thirty-six men of the Prince Charles were killed during the
26 March 1746
Hanovarian forces comprising fifty Mackays, under Lord Reay's
steward, and a similar number of Lord Louden's troops captured
the French money and supplies landed from the Prince Charles as
they were being carried to Inverness, under the conduct of
Mackay, Younger of Melness. The Hanovarians killed a
number of the French before the force surrendered; the prisoners
consisted of twenty officers and one hundred and twenty soldiers
Lord George Murray raised the siege of his ancestral home, Blair Castle, and
returned north with the Atholl Regiment, swelled with new recruits, leaving
the MacPhersons to guard the Badenoch approaches to Inverness from the
3 April 1746
An abortive two-week Jacobite siege, under the command of Cameron of
Lochiel, of Hanoverian-held Fort William was lifted. The Royal Eccossaise
immediately marched to join Prince Charles Edward Stewart in Inverness
and Lochiel's Camerons rejoined the main Jacobite army on 14 April.
8 April 1746
Hanoverian army under the Duke of Cumberland left Aberdeen and
advanced along the coast road towards the lower reaches of the
9 April 1746
force attacked and plundered Cullen House, the home of staunch Hanoverian
supporter Lord Findlater, the Sheriff of Banffshire.
12 April 1746
The Hanoverian army under the Duke of Cumberland crossed the Spey between
Fochabers and the mouth of the Spey. The water came up to the
'middles' of the infantry, but the sole losses were one dragoon and four
women drowned. The 2000 Jacobites deployed under Lord John Drummond on
the opposite bank retreated without fighting.
15 April 1746
An abortive night attempt by the Jacobite army to attack the Hanoverian
forces approaching Inverness from Nairn left the Highlanders sleepless as
well as foodless when the next day the two armies confronted each other at
16 April 1746
Jacobite army routed by
Hanoverian Government forces in the Battle of Culloden. The defeat
marked the end of the last Stewart attempt to regain, by force, the
throne forfeited by James VII.
armailt nam breacan
sgaoileadh s air sgapadh s gach àit,
ghnathaich bonn ceartais nan dàil;
bhuannaich iad baiteal
Cha b ann
dan cruadal no n tapadh a bhà,
aniar agus frasan
nios oirnn bhàrr machair nan Gall.
(Woe is me for
the plaided troops scattered and routed everywhere at the hands of these
foxes of England who observed no fairness at all in the conflict; though
they won the battle, it was not from courage or the skill of them but the
westward wind and the rain coming down on us from the flat lands of the
Chul-Lodair. Culloden Day)
Stuart, Gaelic Poet and Jacobite Soldier in the battle
A Hanoverian force of 200 commanded by Colonel Cockayne looted Moy House and
took Lady Anne Macintosh, Colonel Anne, prisoner. A noted Jacobite she had
raised Clan Chatton for the Stewart cause, in spite of her husband being a
Hanoverian officer, and the regiment, led by Alexander MacGillvray of
Dunmaglas, fought at Falkirk and Culloden where MacGillvray died heroically.
Lady Anne was imprisoned in Inverness for six weeks and then released.
20 April 1746
Jacobites, including Lord George Murray, fugitives from Culloden
and whole parties who had missed the battle and rendezvoused at
Ruthven Barracks, dispersed on receiving a note from Prince
Charles Edward Stewart "Let every man seek his safety in the
best way he can."
21 April 1746
Jacobite defeat at Culloden, Ogilvies Regiment (Forfarshire) arrived as a
body at Clova and dispersed in their native Strathmore. The regiment was
first raised in Forfarshire by David, Lord Ogilvie, the heir to the house of
Airlie, and took part in the invasion of England. A second battalion was
raised by Lieutenant Colonel Sir James Kinloch which fought at Inverurie.
The reunited regiment fought at Falkirk and Culloden. The regiment was
regarded as the best drilled and disciplined unit raised by the Jacobites
and it retreated intact from the field of Culloden and proceeded to the
rendezvous at Ruthven Barracks.
4 May 1746
On the advice of their clan chief, Ludovic Grant, 16 Grants of Glenmoriston
and 68 of Glen Urquhart surrendered themselves and their weapons in
Inverness. He had promised them a safe return to their homes, instead the
Hanoverians marched the Jacobite down to Citadel Quay and loaded them aboard
the prison transport ship Dolphin. They were conveyed to Tilbury, London,
and subsequently transported to Barbados. Cumberland and Grant each blamed
the other for the violation of the safe-passage offer. By 1750 only 18 of
the 84 men survived and only 7 returned to Scotland.
8 May 1746
In the wake of Culloden Jacobite chiefs met at Achnacary and entered into a
bond of mutual defence.
11 May 1746
Death of leading Jacobite Lord James Drummond, third titular Duke of
Perth, en route to France after escaping from Culloden.
Prince Charles Edward Stewart and a group of companions reached Coradale, in
South Uist, and stayed there for three weeks, until news arrived that
Hanoverians troops were closing in on the fugitives.
28 May 1746
residence of leading Jacobite Donald Cameron of Lochiel, The Gentle Lochiel,
at Achnacarry was destroyed by Hanoverian troops under the command of
Colonel Edward Cornwallis.
30 May 1746
Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, visited Fort William to thank Hanoverian
officers for their successful defence against an abortive Jacobite siege
prior to Culloden.
18 June 1746
Flora MacDonald met Prince Charles Edward Stewart in Skye and persuaded
him to don women's clothes as part of an escape plan.
19 June 1746
Hanoverian troops searched St Kilda, in vain, after rumours that Prince
Charles Edward Stewart was hiding there. The remote islanders knew
nothing about the '45 Jacobite Rising apart from the Laird of MacLeod had
recently been at war.
25 June 1746
The banner of the Keppoch Macdonalds was burned at Glasgow Mercat Cross.
Fifteen Jacobite colours had previously been burnt in Edinburgh. Macdonald
of Keppoch led 200 men at Culloden and fell mortally wounded.
Flora MacDonald was arrested for her part in aiding Prince Charles
Edward Stewart to escape capture and sail from Benbecula to Skye
disguised as her Irish maid Betty Burke.
William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, left Fort Augustus, after setting in
motion the pacification of the Highlands, and returned to London, England.
There he was met by cheering crowds, bonfires and fireworks, prior to being
honoured at a series of formal balls and receptions in celebration of his
success in Scotland in defeating his cousin, Prince Charles Edward Stewart,
and ending the 1745 Jacobite Rising.
30 July 1746
Francis Townley, 38-year-old commander of the Manchester Regiment, was
executed on Kennington Common, London. His 300-dash strong regiment
along with 200 Highlanders under Colonel John Hamilton were left to defend
Carlisle Castle following the retreat from England by the Jacobite army.
Carlisle fell to the Duke of Cumberland on 30 December 1745 and many of the
garrison were executed.
Hanoverian officers of Flemings 36th insulted the people of
Aberdeen and encouraged their troops to riot. They smashed the windows of
more than two hundred homes that had failed to display candles in honour of
the birthday of King George II.
18 August 1746
For their part in the 1745 Rising Jacobite Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino
were executed for treason on Tower Hill, London, England.
Death of 24-year-old Elizabeth Campbell of Clunas, betrothed of Alexander
MacGillivray of Dunmaglas who fell leading Clan Chattan at Culloden, of a
broken heart. It was claimed that she secretly re-interred Dunmaglas under
the door-step of Petty Church. She was buried at the Chapel of Barevan.
Death of Sir James Stewart of Burray, Orkney, of fever at Southwark, London.
He had been arrested three months previously on suspicion of Jacobitism
although he had taken no part in the 1745 Jacobite Rising.
Prince Charles Edward Stewart joined Cluny of MacPherson in his hide-out
Clunys Cage on Ben Alder. He remained there until word came of the
arrival of the French frigate LHeureux in Loch nan Uambh in which the
Prince escaped to France.
13 September 1746
Prince Charles Edward Stewart, accompanied by leading Jacobites,
left Cluny's Cage on Ben Alder en route to Borrodale and escape
Charles Edward Stewart arrived from Clunys Cave on Ben Alder at Loch nan
Uambh and embarked on the French frigate LHeureax accompanied by Donald
Cameron of Lochiel, John Roy Stewart and other leading Jacobites. LHeureax
sailed for France next day before daybreak.
20 September 1746
To escape capture in Scotland,
Prince Charles Edward Stewart sailed from Loch nan Uamh to safety in
France aboard the French ship L'Heureux. It eluded Government ships
under the cover of fog.
The Presbytery of Brechin applied for protection from marauding
Jacobites who were active in the Edzell area.
21 October 1746
Patrick Lindsey, who proclaimed for Prince Charles Edward Stewart at St
Andrews and became a captain in the Jacobite army, was executed at
James Reid of Angus, a piper in the Jacobite Forfarshire Regiment, was
executed at York. He had been captured when the Jacobite garrison
surrendered Carlisle Castle to the Hanoverians on 30 December 1745.
Gordon of Glenbucket, a member of the Princes Council, whose regiment
fought on the second line of the Jacobite army at Culloden, sailed to safety
on a Swedish sloop. He died in great poverty at Boulogne, France, on 16 June
Execution of Andrew Wood, a Glasgow shoemaker, who served a captain in the
Jacobite Edinburgh Regiment under Colonel John Roy Stuart, at Kennington
Common, London. He fought in the front line at Culloden and was taken
prisoner by the victorious Hanoverians.
Farqharson of Monaltrie, on the day of his proposed execution after his part
in the 1745 Jacobite Rising, was reprieved. He was forced to spend the next
18 years in England before he was allowed to return to his native Deeside
where he carried out agricultural improvements.
Flora MacDonald arrived in London. She was not brought to trial for her part
in helping Prince Charles Edward Stewart to escape and was released under
the general amnesty of July 1747.
9 April 1747
Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, was executed for his part in the 1745 Jacobite
Rising, the last beheading held in England on Tower Hill, London. The 'Scots
Magazine' reported that as he mounted the scaffold, assisted by two warders,
he looked round and, seeing so many people, declared "God save us, why
should there be such a bustle about taking off an old grey head that can't
get up three steps without two men to support it?"
8 May 1747
sailed from Liverpool, England, bound for Antigue, St Kitts and Jamaica,
with 149 Jacobite prisoners, including 15 women, on board. They were to be
settle as indentured slaves. En route a French privateer The Diamant, under
Captain Paul Marshal, captured The Veteran and released the prisoners.
The Vesting Act authorised the Scottish Court of Exchequer, the guardian of
crown revenues in Scotland, to make full inquiry into the extent and value
of estates forfeited by Jacobites following the 1745 Rising. Fifty-three
estates were surveyed and only 12 of these were declared not forfeit.
A French privateer The Diamant, under captain Paul Marshal, captured The
Veteran from Liverpool near Antique and rescued 149 Jacobite prisoners,
including 15 women, who were being transported. The freed Jacobites were
taken to France.
18 July 1747
Birth of John Paul Jones, the son of a gardener at Arbigland near Kirkbean
(Kirkcudbrightshire), the future 'Founder of the American Navy'. Admiral
Jones died in Paris in 1792. There is a national monument to Jones in
Washington DC and in Kirkbean Church there is a memorial font donated by
the US Navy in 1945.
1 August 1747
The wearing of tartan was prohibited in the wake of the 1745 Jacobite
Rising. The penalty for a first offence was six months imprisonment and
for a second, seven months transportation.
10 December 1747
Death of Duncan Forbes of Culloden, Lord President of the Court of
Session, who was largely responsible for the failure of the Jacobite
Rising 1745-6 and tried to mitigate the subsequent repressive measures.
14 March 1748
Death of Irish-born General George Wade, soldier and roadbuilder (including
250 miles and 40 bridges in Scotland). He was appointed Commander-in-Chief
in Scotland after his 1724 report on the need for military roads was
If youd seen these roads before they were made,
Youd have lifted up your hands and blessed General Wade.
James Davidson, who had deserted from the Hanoverian army to support the
Jacobites, was executed at the Ruthrieston Cross, near the Bridge of
Dee, Aberdeen, after being found guilty of several robberies in Angus
and the Mearns.
The British Linen Bank, founded on an initiative from the Board of
Trustees for Manufactures to develop the Scottish linen industry, was
26 October 1748
of Jacobite leader Donald Cameron of Lochiel, The Gentle Lochiel, in
exile in France. He
died, aged 53, in the MilitaryHospital at
Bergues, a northern French town near Dunkirk,
of an 'inflammation of the brain' (probably meningitis). His support was
essential to the commencement of the 1745 Jacobite Rising which ended in
failure at Culloden in 1746.
Birth of William Marshall, renowned fiddler and composer of Strathspeys,
some 250 tunes, at Fochabers. He was butler to the Duke of Gordon for
nearly 30 years and subsequently factor of his extensive estates in
Banffshire and Aberdeenshire.
18 April 1749
Death of Alexander Robertson of Strowan, in his 81st year,
celebrated clan chief and poet, who brought out his clan in 1688 and 1715
for the Jacobite Cause, at his home at Carie in Rannoch. He marshalled his
clan for Prince Charles Edward Stewart in 1745 but owing to his age did not
lead them and thus escaped proscription following the failure of the 45
5 September 1750
Birth of Robert
Fergusson, poet, in the Canongate, Edinburgh. His poetry in Scots
was to inspire Robert Burns who wrote in praise of Fergusson - "my
elder brother in misfortune, by far my elder brother in the muse".
Fergusson died tragically in the Edinburgh Bedlam in 1774.
Alexander Geddes from Kinnermony, Banffshire
was executed for the crime of bestiality
at Aberdeen. He was half-strangled, cut down and burnt to ashes. He was
the last felon in Scotland to be burnt following execution.
William Roxburgh, botanist and doctor, at Craigie in Ayrshire. From 1793 to
1813 he was Superintendent of the Culcutta Botanic Garden where he greatly
increased the collection and became known as the Father of Indian Botany.
14 May 1752
Colin Campbell of Glenure, on his way to evict
tenants of Jacobite chiefs was shot in the Wood of Lettermore between
Ballachulish Ferry and Kentallen. Campbell had been a notorious
persecutor of the Jacobites after Culloden and his death became known as
The Appin Murder. James Stewart of the Glens was wrongly
hanged for the crime.
James Stewart, Seumas a Ghlinne (James of the Glen), was executed at
Cnap a Chaolais, Argyll, for his supposed part in the murder of Colin
Campbell of Glenure.
7 June 1753
Execution, by hanging, of leading Jacobite Dr Archie Cameron, brother to
Lochiel the exiled Chief of Clan Cameron, at Tyburn, London. He
was denied a trial as the Hanoverian authorities feared that the
identity of their spies might be revealed.
14 May 1754
Twenty-two noblemen and gentlemen of Fife, having devised a competition
to be played out over the links of St Andrews, presented a Siver Club to
the winner, who would become Captain for the year. From this annual
competition evolved The Society of St Andrews Golfers which became (in
1834) The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, which remains at
the helm of Scottish and world golf.
'The Noblemen and Gentlemen above named, being Admirers of the
Anticient and Healthfull Exercise of the Golf, and at the same time
having the Interest and prosperity of the Anticient City of St Andrews
at heart, being the Alma Mater of the Golf did .... constitute for a
Silver Club.... having a St Andrew engraved on the head thereof, to be
played for on the Links of St Andrews.'
[From the Club Minutes.]
David Allan, destined to be one Scotlands greatest painters, began studies
at the Foulis Painting academy, aged 11. He went on to study in Rome under
the influence of the leading neo-classicist and fellow Scot Gavin Hamilton.
of Dr James Currie, physician and first biographer of Robert Burns, at
21 September 1756
Birth of John McAdam, Ayr born
surveyor who introduced the 'macadam' system of road surfacing.
19 January 1757
Death of Thomas Ruddiman, born in Banff in 1674, grammarian, schoolmaster,
reviewer, historian, printer and publisher, Jacobit, librarian of Advocates' Library.
9 August 1757
Birth of Thomas Telford at Westerkirk, Dumfriesshire, engineer of roads,
canals, bridges and harbours. He was the first President of the Institute
of Civil Engineers.
7 January 1758
Death of Allan Ramsay, poet, anthologist and author of 'The
"At Edinburgh, in an advanced age, Mr Allan Ramsay, formerly a
bookseller in that city. He was well-known for his 'Gentle
Shepherd'; and many other poetical pieces in the Scottish
dialect, which he wrote and collected."
Scots Magazine XIX.670
James Francis Edward Keith, Marshal Keith, Prussian Field Marshal, was
killed in battle at Hochkinch, Germany. He entered foreign military
service after taking the Jacobite side in both the 1715 and 1719
Risings. He is judged to be one of the most successful Scots who fought
under foreign colours.
25 January 1759
Birth of Robert Burns, Scotland's National Bard, in a clay bigan at
"There was a lad was born in Kyle,
But whatna day o whatna style,
I doubt it's hardly worth my while
To be sae nice wi Robin.
Robin was a rovin boy,
Rantin rovin, rantin rovin,
Robin was a rovin boy,
Rantin rovin Robin."
Burns "There Was a Lad"
5 March 1759
Birth of Rev Dr John Jamieson D.D., minister of the secession church and
compiler of The Dictionary of the Scottish Language, in Glasgow.
1 January 1760
Carron Ironworks near
Falkirk was started by Roebuck and Garbett of Birmingham and
Caddell of Cockenzie. The small naval guns known as
carronades were among the company's products.
If the Works prove prosperous as we expect, some places in the
Neighbourhood of the Firth of Forth will become one of the
principal Seats of Iron works in Britain, not only for making Iron from
the Ore into Barrs and Slit Iron, but into Nails and many other
from a letter by Garbett
8 July 1760
Death of Lord George Murray, outstanding exiled Jacobite commander, in
Scottish School of Design was founded. It became the Royal Institution,
now the Royal Scottish Academy in Edinburgh.
James Wilson, weaver and inventor of the stocking frame on which the pearl
stitch could be worked, in the parish of Avondale. He was executed in
Glasgow for his part in leading the Strathavon Radicals in the 1820 Radical
28 September 1760
Gilbert Burns, brother of Robert Burns, Scotland's National Bard, was born
at Alloway, Ayrshire.
leading Jacobite commander Lord George Murray, son of the 1st
Duke of Atholl, in exile in Holland.
Macquarie, an army officer who became Governor of New South Wales (1809) and
was known as the Father of Australia, was born on the Isle of Ulva, off
7 June 1761
John Rennie, civil engineer, builder of Waterloo, London and Southwark
Bridges, at Phantassie, East Lothian.
Alexander, 4th Lord Forbes of Pitsligo, aged 84, in
Aberdeenshire. A fervent Jacobite, as Colonel of Pitsligos Horse he joined
the Jacobite army at Edinburgh in October 1745, was a member of the Princes
Council, and served for the remainder of the campaign. After Culloden he
successfully remained in hiding in his Aberdeenshire estates, safeguarded by
his friends and tenants.
Dr Samuel Johnson and his Edinburgh-born biographer James Boswell, met
for the first time at Tom Davies bookshop in Russell Street, London.
Stagecoach service was introduced between Glasgow and Greenock.
9 August 1763
Birth of Lieutenant-General Sir James Leith,
the Leeward Islands, at Leith-hall, Kennethmont, Aberdeenshire.
4 August 1765
Thomas Muir, advocate and Radical reformer, in a flat above his parents
shop in Glasgows High Street.
1 January 1766
Death of James Francis Stewart, The Old Pretender, the Jacobite 'James
VIII', and father of Prince Charles Edward Stewart, in Rome.
16 April 1766
Birth of James Leslie, noted mathematician, in Largo, Fife. He went to
university at 13, and his work on the properties of heat resulted in the
award of the Rumford medal in 1804. In 1810 he became the first to achieve
artificial congelation the process of cooling water by means of reducing
air pressure and extracting water vapour which was the basis of modern
17 April 1766
James Craigs winning entry for development of Edinburghs New Town was
13 June 1766
and a civilian who had been found guilty at the Circuit Court in Aberdeen of
carrying off meal from a shop during a riot in Banff and sentenced to be
whipped and banished to the plantations for life were rescued by a mob. They
attacked the Aberdeen Hangman and guard with clubs and stones. Walter
Annesley and John Blair, of the Sixth Regiment of Foot, and Alexander Robb
of Banff were spirited away. The magistrates offered a reward for
information leading to the arrest of one or more of the escapees but to no
Birth of Charles Macintosh, chemist who patented waterproof cloth, at
Glasgow. He devised a waterproof material by combining wool fibre with
indiarubber, creating the garment which still bears his name.
3 June 1767
James Craig was presented with the Freedom of Edinburgh for his planned
layout of the New Town.
of three volumes of Encyclopedia Britannica appeared, edited by William
Smellie and published in Edinburgh.
24 October 1769
Alexander, the Third Earl of Eglington and an Ayrshire agricultural
improver, was shot and killed in a scuffle with a poacher who later
9 November 1769
The first Co-operative Society in Britain was founded by weavers of Fenwick,
Death of Aberdeen-born Alexander Cruden, author of A Complete Concordance
to the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament (first published 1737), at
Islington, London. In his will he left £100 for a bursary of five pounds per
annum to assist educating a student at Marischal College, Aberdeen.
14 November 1770
Stirling-born explorer James Bruce, known as 'The Abyssinian', discovered
the source of the Blue Nile - Lake Tana in north-west Ethiopa.
9 December 1770
Birth of James Hogg,
The Ettrick Shepherd, poet and author, at Ettrickhall Farm in the Ettrick Valley.
15 August 1771
Birth in Edinburgh of Sir
Walter Scott, poet and novelist.
'Breathes there the man,
with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,
This is my own, my native land!'
The Lay of the Last
10 September 1771
Birth of Mungo Park at
Foulshiels in the Yarrow Valley, surgeon and explorer in West Africa.
of Robert Stevenson, engineer and lighthouse builder, in Glasgow. He
designed or constructed at least 25 lighthouses in Scotland, including
his first, the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1811. His three sons Alan
(1807-65), David (1815-86) and Thomas (1818-87) followed in his
footsteps. The author Robert Louis Stevenson (Thomas son) was his
22 June 1772
Slavery was outlawed in Britain.
Birth of John Mackay, eminent botanist and superintendent of the Royal
Botanic Gardens in Edinburgh, in Kirkcaldy, Fife.
14 August 1773
Dr Samuel Johnson arrived in Scotland to join James Boswell at the start
of their famous journey to the Western Isles.
12 September 1773
Dr Samuel Johnson and his biographer James Boswell were entertained at
Kingsburgh by Flora MacDonald and her husband Allan.
Birth of Francis Jeffrey, Lord Jeffrey, eminent judge and man of letters,
founder and editor of the Edinburgh Review (1802), in Edinburgh.
3 June 1774
Birth of Robert Tannahill, poet and
songwriter, in Castle Street, Paisley, Son of a handloom weaver, he was
regarded as chief of the many Paisley poets, and became widely popular for
songs such as ' Braes o' Gleniffer' and ' Jessie the Flower of Dunblane'.
16 October 1774
Robert Fergusson, poet, in the Edinburgh Bedlam. Twelve years later
Robert Burns arranged for the erection of a headstone at Fergusson's
unmarked grave in the Canongate Kirkyard, Edinburgh.
'No Sculptured Marble
here, nor pompous Lay,
'No storied Urn nor animated Bust';
This simple Stone directs pale Scotia's Way
To pour her Sorrows o'er her Poet's Dust.'
- Burns' inscription for
30 April 1775
Birth of George Kinloch who became known as 'The Radical Laird' in Dundee.
A leading Radical he was elected as Dundee's first Reformed Member of the
Westminster Parliament in 1832.
23 August 1775
King George III proclaimed existence of open
rebellion in American colonies. Scots fought on both sides.
Birth of John Leyden, surgeon, poet and linguist, at Denholm, Roxburghshire.
In 1802 he assisted his friend Sir Walter Scott in finding material for his
Ministrelsey of the Scottish Borders.
27 February 1776
The Continental Army of North Carolina defeated a Loyalist force
of Scottish Highlanders at Moores Creek Bridge, Carolina.
Amongst several hundred Highlanders taken prisoner was Allan
MacDonald of Kingsburgh, husband of Flora MacDonald. In April
1776, the North Carolina Provincial Congress encouraged by the
success at Moores Creek Bridge, became the first representative
body in all of North America to vote in favour of ending
constitutional links between the Colonies and Britain.
9 March 1776
Foundation of modern economics, with publication of 'An Inquiry into the
Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations', written in Kirkcaldy by Adam
25 March 1776
Death of Adam Dickson, minister of Dunse, Berwickshire, noted writer on
agriculture, as a result of a fall from his horse.
4 July 1776
The American Declaration of Independence was adopted in Philadelphia. It
was not fully written or signed until August. The Declaration was signed
by two native-born Scots - James Wilson from Fife and the Rev John
Witherspoon from East Lothian. In reply to a claim that the colonists were
'not yet ripe for independence' Witherspoon famously stated 'In my opinion
sir, we are not only ripe for independence, we are rotting for it.'
Death of David Hume, philosopher and historian, in Edinburgh. He is widely
regarded as one of the greatest of all philosophers.
12 January 1777
Hugh Mercer, an Aberdeen-born brigadier in the American army who was a
surgeon for the Jacobite army at Culloden, was fatally wounded by a musket
blow at Princeton during the American War of Independence.
8 June 1778
The Earl of Seaforth raised a
regiment for the American War from the MacKenzies and MacRaes of
Ross-shire and Sutherland. In 1961 the Seaforth Highlanders amalgamated
with the Camerons to form the Queen's Own Highlanders.
Death of John MacCodrum, Gaelic satirical poet of North Uist.
Birth of John Galt, novelist, Secretary to the Canada Company and
founder of the town of Guelph,Ontario, at Irvine, Ayrshire.
20 July 1779
Graham, storyteller and packman, who followed the Jacobite army throughout
its campaign to Culloden and was later the official Glasgow bell-ringer,
died aged 65.
7 October 1780
Patrick Ferguson, Aberdeenshire-born inventor of the breech-loading rifle,
was killed with other Loyalists at King's Mountain, South Carolina, during
the American War of Independence.
18 December 1780
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland was founded
Mary Somerville, mathematician and author after whom the Oxford College was
named, at Jedburgh.
Robert Burns joined the Free Masons. The minute book of the combined St
Davids Lodge in Tarbolton (on 25 June 1781, the St James Tarbolton
Lodge No. 178 united with the St Davids Tarbolton Lodge No. 174)
records that Robert Burns of Lochly was entered an Apprentice. In
October he was passsed and raised, travelling back from Irvine where
he was learning the flax trade.
Birth of James Chalmers, bookseller, printer, newspaper publisher and
deviser of the adhesive postage stamp (1834), at Arbroath.
Death of Alexander Spiers, one of the enterprising team of merchants who
established Glasgow as a great commercial centre and the largest tobacco
port in Europe.
1 January 1783
Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, the first in Britain, was
Advertiser, forerunner of The Glasgow Herald, was first published.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh was incorporated by charter.
the end of the year 1782 in a meeting of the Professors of the
University of Edinburgh, many of whom were likewise members of the
Philosophical Society, and warmly attached to its interests, a
scheme was proposed by the Reverend Dr Robertson, Principal of the
University, for the Establishment of a New Society on a more
restricted plan, and after the model of some foreign Academies,
which have for their object the cultivation of every branch of
science, erudition, and taste.
From the Societys petition for a royal
Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland was formed in Fortunes
Tontine Tavern, Edinburgh. The objects were defined on 11 January 1785:
An enquiry into the present state of the Highlands and
Islands of Scotland, and the condition of their inhabitants.
2. An enquiry into the means of improvement of the
Highlands by establishing towns and villages; by facilitating
communication through different parts of the Highlands of Scotland; by
roads and bridges, advancing agriculture and extending fisheries,
introducing useful trades and manufactures; and by an exertion to unite
the efforts of the proprietors, and call the attention of the Government
towards the encouragement and production of these beneficial purposes.
shall also pay a proper attention to the preservation of the language,
poetry, and music of the Highlands.
Burness, father of Robert Burns, died at Lochlea. His son wrote his epitaph:
pitying Heart that felt for human Woe;
The dauntless heart that feard no human Pride;
The Friend of Man. To vice alone a foe;
For evn his failings leand to Virtues side.
his tombstone in Alloway Churchyard.
20 February 1784
Birth of Adam Black, publisher of the 'Encylopaedia Britannica', in
22 May 1784
leading English actress Sarah Siddons made her Scottish debut in Edinburgh.
Allan Cunningham, poet, editor and biographer, at Blackwood, near Dalswinton,
Dumfriesshire. As a child he knew Robert Burns, a friend and neighbour of
his father, and followed in his funeral procession in 1796.
aerial voyage made in Scotland by
Vincentius Lumari, a Florentine, who ascended in a gas balloon
from Edinburgh at 3pm and descended a mile eastwards of Ceres,
Fife, at 4.30pm. The voyage passed over 20 miles of sea and
about 12 of land.
Death of the noted painter Alexander Runiciman in Edinburgh as he was about
to enter his lodgings. He trained at the academy of the brothers Foulis in
Glasgow and having attracted the notice of Sir James Clerk of Penicuik, a
patron of Scottish Art, studied in Italy from 1766 until 1771.
2 June 1786
Dugald Buchanan, Gaelic religious poet, translator of the Gaelic New
Testament, at Kinloch Rannoch. Much of his poetry was influenced by English
poets such as William Shakespeare and John Milton, and includes The
Greatness of God, The Day of Judgement, The Suffering of Christ, The
Skull, and Winter.
Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect by Robert Burns went to John
Wilsons press in Kilmarnock. The success of the Kilmarnock Edition
changed the poets intention to emigrate to the West Indies.
31 July 1786
The first edition of Robert
Burns' poems was published by John Wilson, Kilmarnock, "The
Kilmarnock Edition", under the title of "POEMS, chiefly in the
Professor Dugald Stewart of Edinburgh University met Robert Burns for
the first time at his summer residence Catrine House, a few miles from
Mossgiel. They were joined for dinner by Basil, Lord Daer, eldest son of
the Earl of Selkirk. Dugald Stewart kept the lines written by Burns to
mark the occasion On Dining with Lord Daer which he subsequently
sent to Dr Currie along with an account of the meeting.
This, wot all ye whom it concerns,
I, Rhymer Rab, alias Burns,
A neer to be forgotten day!
Sae far I sprachld up the brae!
I dinnerd wi a Lord.
27 November 1786
Robert Burns, on a hired horse, left Mossgiel for his first
visit to Edinburgh.
28 November 1786
Robert Burns entered Edinburgh on his first visit to the Scottish capital.
Burns poem To A Haggis was printed in the pages of the Caledonian
Mercury. It was produced, apparently extempore, by the poet at a dinner
held at the Castlehill home of merchant Andrew Bruce two weeks after his
arrival in Edinburgh.
Robert Burns was inaugurated as Poet Laureate of Lodge Canongate
Edinburgh edition of Robert Burns poems Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish
Dialect was published by William Creech (3250 copies).
5 May 1787
Robert Burns set off from Edinburgh on a tour of the Borders on his own mare
Jenny Geddes (bought for £4 in the Grassmarket) accompanied by his friend,
law student and fellow-Mason Robert Ainslie.
29 June 1787
Robert Burns was granted the Freedom of
Robert Burns, accompanied by his friend William Nicol, classical master
in the High School of Edinburgh, set out from Edinburgh on His Highland
Tour, visiting histories sites and battlefields.
3 September 1787
Weavers rioted against wage cutting in Glasgow.
After bricks were thrown, injuring magistrates and military, the soldiers
were ordered to fire on the rioters, killing three and fatally wounding
three others before the crowd was dispersed.
1 December 1787
The first lighthouse, built at Kinnaird Head,
Fraserburgh, by Thomas Smith and Robert Stevenson, lit.
4 December 1787
Robert Burns met Agnes McLehose Clarinda for the first time at a tea
party in the house of Miss E Nimmo in Edinburgh.
31 January 1788
Prince Charles Edward Stewart, "The Young Pretender", died in Rome.
9 April 1788
Andrew Meikle from East Lothian patented his design for the first
practical threshing machine, which greatly improved the efficiency and
lowered the costs of corn milling.
5 August 1788
The Mauchline Kirk Session recorded minute recognising Robert Burns and
Jean Armour as man and wife, following their previous marriage by
declaration. Robert Burns made his peace with the church giving 'a guinea
note for behoof of the poor.' Marriage by declaration remained valid in
Scotland until 1939.
14 October 1788
First steam boat experiment held on Dalswinton Loch,
Dumfriesshire, by Patrick Miller and William Symington.
vessels worked by wheels and cranks... The steam engine
could be applied to work the wheels so to give them a
quicker motion, and consequently to increase that of the
From a pamphlet by Miller
Admiral Sir Samuel Geirg, Inverkeithing-born Father of the Russian Navy,
on board his own ship The Rotislaw at Tallinn in his 53rd year.
By order of the Empress of Russia his funeral was conducted with great pomp
9 October 1789
The first recorded cricket century to be scored in Scotland was made by the
Hon Charles Lennox. He scored 136 not out.
Birth of William Collins, founder of Collins publishing house, in Glasgow.
In 1819 he opened a small bookshop and printing works in Glasgow.
Burns joined St Andrews Lodge 179, Dumfries, following his move to
steamboat service was introduced on the Forth between Newhaven and
3 December 1789
Steam boat experiment on the Forth and Clyde Canal, organised by pioneer
Patrick Miller, failed when the paddle-boards broke off.
5 March 1790
Death of Flora MacDonald at
Kilmuir in Skye.
"She effected the escape of Prince
Charles Edward form South Uist after the battle of Culloden in 1746, and in
1779, when returning from America on board a ship attacked by a French
privateer, encouraged the sailors to make a spirited and successful
resistance, thus risking her life for both the Houses Stuart and Hanover."
From her memorial window in St Columba's Church, Portree
28 June 1790
Forth and Clyde Canal opened.
The 35 mile course from Bowling to Grangemouth was the longest of the
Lowland canals. It was formally abandoned in 1962.
of Adam Smith, Kirkcaldy-born economist and philosopher, in Edinburgh.
He was the author of The Wealth of Nations.
Birth of surgeon Robert Knox, who gained a reputation as an outstanding
anatomist, in Edinburgh. His career was tarnished by his association with
the infamous Irishmen Burke and Hare from whom he obtained cadavers. After
Burke was hanged in 1828 a committee investigated Knoxs role in the affair
he was found innocent of any involvement in the murders, but that he
should have found out where the cadavers came from.
Sir Roderick Murchison, 1st Baronet, influencial geologist, at
Tarradale, Ross-shire. Both as a soldier, he took part in the retreat to
Corunna, and geologist, he travelled widely in Europe. He was a founder of
the Royal Geographical Society in London and served as President 1843-1845,
1851-1853, 1856-1859 and 1862-1871.
Death of Robert Adam, architect, interior and furniture designer, in
London. Born at Kirkcaldy in 1728, with his brothers James, John and
William,he was responsible for many public and private buildings in the
neo-classical style, with decorations and furnishings to match eg
Dumfries House, the Register House, the Old College, Charlotte Square,
Edinburgh, and in England at Harewood, Syon, Osterly, Fitzroy Square and
the Adelphi, London. He was appointed Architect of the Kings Works in
1761 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
26 July 1792
Associated Friends of the People for
Parliamentary Reform was constituated in Edinburgh. A retired army captain
William Johnston was elected as President. He started a newspaper
Edinburgh Gazeteer to promote its aims.
Irving, the founder of the Catholic Apostolic Church, was born in Dumfries.
The Theatre Royal, Dumfries, was opened Robert Burns was a regular
patron and frequently wrote addresses for the actors.
Birth of Sir Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, distinguished
soldier who was commander of the Highland Brigade in the Crimea and
British forces during the Indian Mutiny, in Glasgow.
13 November 1792
The French Revolutionary army's attack on Brussels was celebrated with
bonfires and bell-ringing in Dundee and Perth. The Dundee Magistrates
feared insurrection and the 42nd Regiment was despatched north and quartered
in both towns.
11 December 1792
First National Convention of the Scottish Friends of the People,
formed to demand parliamentary reform, met in Edinburgh.
2 January 1793
Thomas Muir of Huntershill,
Glasgow-born Advocate, arrested for sedition. He was released after a
few days and went to France, on his return to Scotland, he was tried and
sentenced to 14 years transportation.
22 July 1793
Alexander MacKenzie, Stornoway-born
explorer, reached Pacific from Canada by land in the first crossing of
27 July 1793
Robert Burns set off on
his first Galloway tour in the company of John Syme, a solicitor who
held the sinecure post of Distributor of Stamps for Dumfries.
The Cameron Highlanders were commissioned by Letter of Service to Alan
Cameron of Erracht.
Having been favoured with the honour of embodying a Highland
Regiment for His Majestys service where could I go but to my native
Lochaber? And with that desire I have decided on appealing to their
forgiveness of bygone events and their loyalty to the Sovereign in
his present exigencies.
From a letter of Alan Cameron to his brother Ewen
30 August 1793
Advocate Thomas Muir stood trial for sedition and chose to defend
himself. His 'sedition' consisted of advocating a wider franchise,
frequent Parliamentary elections and municipal reform. He was found
guilty and sentenced to transportation for 14 years.
" I have devoted myself to the cause of the people. It is a good
cause - it shall ultimately succeed.
- Thomas Muir in speech from
Duke of Gordon was authorised to raise the Gordon Highlanders.
Death of James Bruce of Kinnaird, The Abyssinian, British Consul at
Algiers, who travelled in Abyssinia following the course of the Nile and
found the source of the Blue Nile in 1770.
Robert Burns set off on his second Galloway Tour.
14 July 1794
John Gibson Lockhart, son-in-law and biographer of Sir Walter Scott, in
19 May 1795
Death of James Bothwell,
diarist and biographer of Dr Samuel Johnson.
River Clyde, in spate, flooded the centre of Glasgow and brought down a
recently erected bridge at the foot of the Saltmarket.
of Thomas Carlyle, historian, writer and sage, at Ecclefechan,
Dumfriesshire. He rose to colossal literary and moral eminence from very
humble beginnings. He was elected as Lord Rector of Edinburgh University
21 December 1795
Birth of Dr Robert Moffat, Ormiston-born, missionary who worked as a
gardener before being accepted by the London Missionary Society and sent
to Southern Africa. He worked there, almost continually for 54 years,
mainly at Kuruman, Bechuanaland ( Bophuthatswana ). In 1841 he was joined
by David Livingstone, who had come to Africa on Moffat's advice and who
subsequently married Moffat's daughter, Mary. His grand-son, H U Moffat,
became Premier of Southern Rhodesia and unveiled the statue to
Livingstone, his uncle, at Victoria Falls.
Death of John Anderson, aged 69, Professor of Natural philosophy and
founder of the Glasgow Institute which bears his name.
James MacPherson, author of Fragments of Ancient Poetry, collected in the
Highlands of Scotland and translated from the Gaelic or Erse Language the
Ossianic poems at Kingussie.
dark on the mountains; grey mist rests on the hills. The whirlwind is
heard on the heath. Dark rolls the river through the narrow plain. A
tree stands alone on the hill and marks the grave of Connal. The leaves
whirl round with the wind, and strew the grave of the dead,
From Fragment V, Connal and Crimora
21 July 1796
Death in Dumfries of Robert
Burns, Scotland's National Bard. Composer of some 400 songs
including the Scottish National Anthem 'Scots
25 July 1796
Funeral of Robert Burns in St Michael's Churchyard, Dumfries, while his
wife, Jean, was in labour with their ninth child, a son whom she named
Maxwell, after the poet's friend Dr William Maxwell.
7 October 1796
Death of Thomas Reid, professor of moral philosophy at Aberdeen
and Glasgow, at Glasgow. Born at Strachan, 1710, he countered
the scepticism of David Hume with the contention that much of
knowledge is intuitive and a priori, the philosophy of
The Reays, largely composed of Mackays, defeated a large body of Irish
insurgents at Tara Hall. They drove them from a strong position with the
loss of some 400 Irish killed and wounded, the Reays had only 26 men killed
29 August 1797
Battle of Tranent arose from a demonstration against conscription under
the Militia Act being broken up by the Cinque Ports Dragoons and the East
Lothian Yeomanry with the death of twelve participants.
"We declare that we unanimously disapprove of the late Act of the
Parliament for raising Six Thousand Militiamen in Scotland.
We will assist each other in endeavouring to repeal the said Act.
We are peaceably disposed and should you in endeavouring to
execute the said Act urge us to adopt coercive measures we must look upon
you to be the aggressors and as responsible to the nation for all the
consequences that may follow."
- from the
Dundee-born Admiral Adam Duncan (1731-1804) led the British fleet to victory
over the Dutch at the Battle of Campersown, thereby preventing the Dutch
fleet from joining with the French in an invasion of Ireland. He was created
1st Viscount Camperdown and his exploits were commemorated in a
series of paintings and engravings of the battle and of Admiral Duncan
Death of James Wilson, Fife-born lawyer and signatory of the
American Declaration of Independence (1776).
Peter Williamson, Indian Peter, tavern keeper, publisher, printer,
postmaster and inventor, at Edinburgh. He was kidnapped in his native
Aberdeen, aged 13, and sold into slavery in America. On returning to
Scotland he owned a coffee house in the Parliament Hall, Edinburgh, which
was frequented by Court of Session lawyers and immortalised by the poet
Robert Fergusson. He was buried in the Old Calton graveyard.
vacance is a heavy doom
On India Peters coffee-room,
For a his china pigs are toom;
Nor do we see
In wise the sucker biskets soom
As lights a flee.
Rising of the Session Robert Fergusson
13 June 1799
Act was passed freeing colliers from servitude to coalmasters, the last
vestige of serfdom in Scotland.
Death of Andrew Lumsden, aged 81, private secretary to Prince Charles Edward
Stewart (in Rome) and a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in
Death of John Mackay, eminent botanist and superintendent of the Royal
Botanic Garden of Edinburgh.
10 October 1802
Birth of Hugh Miller of Cromarty on the Black Isle, self-taught geologist,
essayist, journalist and author. His pamphlets arguing against the
'intrusion' of ministers through lay patronage won him the support of the
Evangelical party within the Church of Scotland and the editorship of 'The
Witness' (1835-56), a twice-weekly newspaper representing what became,
after the 1843 Disruption, the Free Church.
The Edinburgh Review was published with Sydney Smith as
its first editor. Its aim was to erect a higher standard of
merit, and secure a bolder and a purer taste of literature, and
to apply philosophical principles and the maxims of truth and
humanity to politics.
One day we happened to meet
in the eighth or ninth storey or flat in Buccleuch Place,
the elevated residence of the then Mr Jeffray. I proposed
that we should get up a Review, and this was acceded to with
acclamation. I was appointed editor, and remained long
enough in Edinburgh to edit the first number of the
Edinburgh Review. The motto I proposed was : Tenui musam
meditamur avena, we cultivate literature upon a little
oatmeal, but this was too near the truth to be admitted.
Sydney Smith Preface to his Works (1854) 3.
Clemintine Walkingshaw, mistress of Prince Charles Edward Stewart, in
Switzerland. The couple had one daughter, Charlotte, during their
4 August 1804
Death of Admiral Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Camperdown, hero of
the decisive victory over the Dutch fleet under Admiral de Winter at
Camperdown off the coast of The Netherlands in 1797, at the Inn,
29 March 1805
Death of Jean Elliot, poet, third daughter of Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto,
Lord Justice Clerk for Scotland. Author of the ballad The Flowers of the
Forest, which was published in 1776.
5 June 1805
engraver David Scott and Hugh Adamson, a potter, were executed at Glasgow
Cross for forging banknotes.
31 August 1805
Kirkpatrick-Fleming born Dr James Currie, physician and first editor and
major biographer of Robert Burns (1st edition 1800), of heart
failure at Sidmouth, Devon, England.
28 October 1805
Birth of John Thomson, composer, at Sprouston, two miles from Kelso,
Roxburghshire, where his father Andrew was minister. He was the
inaugural Reid Professor of Music (1838) at Edinburgh University, the first
chair of music in Scotland. His output included piano pieces, three
operas, leider and choral works, which drew admiration from Mendelssohn.
He edited the Vocal Melodies of Scotland which was a favourite of
Death of David Dale, industrialist and philanthropist, founder of the mills
at New Lanark, at Rosebank Estate, Cambuslang.
Birth of Alexander Duff, missionary, near Pitlochry. He was the first
missionary sent by the Church of Scotland to India.
Neil Gow, born at Inver near Dunkeld, 1727, Scotlands most famous fiddler
and composer of the National dance music.
surely heard o famous Niel, The man that played the fiddle weel,
I wat he was a canty chiel, And dearly loved the whisky, O,
And aye sin he wore tartan hose, He dearly loved the Athole brose,
And wae was he, ye may suppose, To bid farewell to whisky, O.
song by Miss Agnes Lyon of Glamis to Gows tune Fareweel to Whisky.
25 March 1807
The slave trade in Britain was abolished. Scots were involved on both sides
of the heated argument.
16 June 1807
Death of Rev. John Skinner,
poet, theologion, Episcopalian minister of Longside in Buchan. His song
'Tullochgorum' was regarded by Robert Burns as "the best Scotch
song ever Scotland saw". (letter from Burns to Skinner October
13 July 1807
Death of Henry Benedict Stewart, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, brother of
Charles Edward Stewart and last of the Royal House of Stewart.
Lighthouse engineer Robert Stevenson and his workmen sailed in the
Smeaton from Arbroath to commence construction of theBell Rock
9 May 1808
Death of Robert Robertson, The Blind Fiddler, aged 87, who had fought on
the Jacobite side at Culloden, in Dundee. He was buried in The Howff,
Dundees city cemetery.
9 June 1808
Rev Robert Scott was ordained minister of Glenbuchat, Aberdeenshire. A
ballad collector, his manuscript of 68 ballads completed in 1818 was finally
published in 2007 under the title The Glenbuchat Ballads. He was the
author in 1840 of the brief survey of Glenbuchat Parish which later appeared
in The New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845).
19 August 1808
Birth of James Nasmyth, engineer and inventor of the
steam hammer and steam pile-driver, in Edinburgh.
John Home, former minister at Athelstaneford, historian and playwright. He
was noted as the author of the historical drama Douglas, first produced in
Edinburgh in 1756 to the denunciations of the Edinburgh Presbytery, which
led to Homes resignation from the ministry. He later became secretary to
Lord Bute, the Prime Minister, and tutor to the Prince of Wales, and was the
last Conservator or Consul for Scottish trade with the Netherlands at Veere.
opinion which the Christian Church has always entertained of stage plays
and players as prejudicial to the interest of religion and morality is
well known, and the fatal influence which they commonly have on the far
greater part of mankind, particularly the younger sort, is too obvious
to be called in question,
the Presbyterys Admonition, 5 January 1757
William Livingston, noted Gaelic poet, in Islay. His verse had a strong
inherited houses of those who have left us are cold cairns throughout
the land. Gone are the Gaels and they shall not return. The cultivation
has ceased; there is no more sowing and reaping. The stones of the
melancholy larochs bear witness.
Fios than a Bhaird
Glasgow-born soldier Sir John Moore was killed by cannon fire during the
Battle of Corunna the final battle during his troops retreat from Spain.
Next day the British army successfully evacuated from the town by sea.
talents and firmness alone saved the British army from destruction
22 April 1809
Glasgow weavers met and condemned Westminster Government rejection of
their campaign for a scale of minimum prices.
Forty people were drowned when the passenger boat
Frith was wrecked in the Dornoch Firth.
25 March 1810
The Commercial Bank of Scotland was officially founded in Edinburgh by
John Pitcairn, Lord Cockburn and others. It was established by a deed of
partnership on a joint-stock basis; the first bank not established by
public authority to assume national designation.
20 May 1810
Bank Friendly Society of Ruthwell was founded by Rev. Henry Duncan the
beginning of Savings Banks.
2 August 1810
Wallace Monument was erected at Wallacetown overlooking Falkirk. The
10-foot memorial was Erected to the memory of that celebrated Scottish
Hero Sir William Wallace.
The Two Brothers of Inverkeithing was sunk near Wainfleet in Lincolnshire in
a storm along the east coast of England which wrecked some 400 vessels. The
boat owner brothers James and William Miller of Inverkeithing, Fife, and
James eldest son, also called James, were drowned along with all hands.
9 January 1811
first womens golf tournament took place in Scotland at Musselburgh.
The Bell Rock Lighthouse Lighthouse began operation. Construction under
lighthouse engineer Robert Stevenson had commenced in 1807.
Birth of Andrew Meikle, millwright and inventor of the threshing machine, at
18 January 1812
The Comet, the first Scottish
passenger steamboat, designed by Henry Bell, of 30 tons burden and 3 H.P.
engine, built by John Wood and Co., Port Glasgow, made her trial trip
from Glasgow to Greenock. The Comet inaugurated the Scottish steamship
Death of Edinburgh-born Jane Gordon, Duchess of Gordon, political hostess
and agricultural reformer, in London: she was buried at Kinrara. She
instigated plans, together with the minister John Anderson, to establish a
village at Kingussie and set up the Badenoch and Strathspey Farming Society
in 1803. Famous for taking an active role in the recruitment of soldiers on
her husbands estates for the Gordon Highlanders.
14 May 1812
Death of Glenorchy-born Duncan Ban MacIntyre, Donnchadch Ban Mac an t-Saoir,
gamekeeper, Edinburgh city guard and renowned Gaelic poet. Best remembered
for his praise-poem Moladh Beinn Dobhrain (Praise of Ben Doran a hill
above Bridge of Orchy), he is recognised as one of the all-time great Gaelic
Birth of Kirkpatrick MacMillan, blacksmith and inventor of the bicycle, in
the parish of Keir, Dumfriessshie.
19 March 1813
of Dr David Livingstone, missionary and legendary African explorer, at
18 January 1814
Birth of James Hedderwick, journalist and poet, who established the
Evening Citizen in Glasgow (one of the country's earliest halfpenny
15 March 1814
Highland Clearances began in Sutherland.
Sellar, now or lately residing at Culmaily in the parish of
Golspie, and under-factor for the Most Noble the Marquis and
Marchioness of Stafford, you are indicted and accused that,
albeit by the laws of this and every other well governed realm,
culpable homicide, as also oppression and real injury, the
wickedly and maliciously setting on fire and burning a great
extent of heath and pasture, on which a number of small tenants
and other poor persons maintained their cattle; the violently
turning out of their habitations a number of people, especially
aged, infirm, and impotent persons, and pregnant women, and
cruelly depriving them of all cover or shelter, the setting on
fire, burning, pulling down and demolishing the dwelling-houses,
barns, kilns, mills and other buildings, and the wantonly
setting on fire, burning and otherwise destroying growing corn,
timber, furniture, money, and other effects.."
From Sellar's indictment, 23 April 1816, at Inverness.
Sellar was acquitted.
The first authentic historical novel, Sir Walter Scotts Waverley was
The Wallace Statue was unveiled in the grounds of Bemersyde House,
Dryburgh. In honour of Sir William Wallace, Guardian of Scotland, the
statue was commissioned by David Stuart Erskine, 11th Earl of
Buchan, stands 31 feet in height with the actual figure being 21 ½ feet
in height. It was sculpted from red sandstone by John Smith of Darnick.
French Emperor Napoleon surrendered to Rankeillor-born Sir Frederick Lewis
Maitland on board the Bellerophos. Maitland had thwarted Napoleons plans to
escape by sea following his defeat at Waterloo.
19 September 1815
The remains of Robert Burns and his two sons, Maxwell and Francis, were
moved to Mausoleum in St Michael's Kirkyard, Dumfries.
4 December 1816
'Meal Riot' in Dundee, described by Sheriff Duff as "one of the greatest in modern times in the country." This followed meal riots in 1733 and 1812 when corn merchants exported grain at a higher price and refused to sell it cheaper locally.
25 January 1817
First issue of The Scotsman
newspaper was published by its founders, Charles MacLaren, William
Ritchie and John MacDiarmid.
Blackwoods Magazine started publication as Edinburgh Monthly Magazine
as a Tory response to the Whig influenced Edinburgh Review. Produced by
Edinburgh publisher William Blackwood it was re-launched
as Blackwoods Magazine in October 1817. It ceased publication in
9 April 1817
of Alexander Thomson (called Greek Thomson), outstanding Glasgow
architect, at Balfron, Stirlingshire, the seventeenth of twenty children
of John Thomson, bookkeeper, and the ninth of his second wife, Elizabeth
Roman Catholic Cathedral was opened in Glasgows Clyde Street.
4 February 1818
Sir Walter Scott supervised the rediscovery of the Honours of Scotland - the Scottish
Crown Jewels - in Edinburgh Castle.
lost grave of Robert I, King of Scots, The Bruce, (1306-1329), was
uncovered by workmen at Dunfermline Abbey.
poet John Keats visited the birth-place of Scotlands National Bard, Robert
Burns, in Alloway and completed his poem Written in the Cottage Where Burns
13 June 1819
The Strathnaver Clearances began on the Sutherland Estates, in which
families were given about half-an-hour to remove their belongings before
their houses were set ablaze, to make way for sheep.
Death of Greenock-born James Watt, inventor and steam engine
pioneer. His improvement to the steam engine was a key
stage in the Industrial Revolution.
"I had gone to take
a walk on a fine Sabbath afternoon (on Glasgow Green in May 1765).
I was thinking upon the engine and had got as far as the herds'
house, when the idea came into my mind that as steam was an elastic
body, it would rush into a vacuum, and if a communication were made
between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel, it would rush into it
and might be condensed without cooling the cylinder."
From his own account to Robert Hart, 1814
Birth of Allan Pinkerton, founder of the American Pinkerton Detective
Agency, in Glasgow.
10 November 1819
George Kinloch, The Radical
Laird, organised a public meeting on the Magdalen Green, Dundee, to
protest at the brutality of the Westminster Government at the Peterloo
Massacre in England. Ten thousand Dundonians turned up to hear Kinloch
accuse the Home Secretary, Lord Sidmouth, of "treason against the
people" and advocate "one man, one vote".
6 December 1819
George Kinloch, The Radical laird, was arrested and charged with sedition.
He fled to France, and then, in disguise, lived in London, England, for
three years until he received a Royal Pardon and returned to Dundee.
14 January 1820
Death, in her 88th year, of Agnes Burness, nee Brown, mother of Scotland's
National Bard, Robert Burns. She died in the house of her second son
Gilbert at Grant's Brae, Haddington, East Lothian.
2 April 1820
The 1820 Rising Proclamation
distributed in the west of Scotland. The Radical Rising resulted in the
execution of John Baird, Andrew Hardie and James Wilson.
5 April 1820
Battle of Bonnymuir where Radicals led by John Baird and Andrew Hardie
were over-whelmed by Government troops. Nineteen Radicals were taken
prisoner and lodged in Stirling Castle. Baird and Hardie were subsequently
executed for their part in The 1820 Rising.
8 April 1820
Radical prisoners from Paisley
were taken under escort to jail in Greenock. The citizens of Greenock
fought their escort, the Port Glasgow Militia, until they reached the
jail. Still coming under attack the Militia opened fire on the stone
throwing crowd killing eight and wounding ten before retreating from
Greenock. In the evening the angry Greenockians stormed the jail and
freed the prisoners.
6 July 1820
The eighteen radicals taken prisoner at the Battle of Bonnymuir were
13 July 1820
Commencement of the trial in
Stirling for High Treason of the Radicals captured at the Battle of
Bonnymuir. Two of the accused, John Baird and Andrew Hardie, were
subsequently executed on 8 September 1820.
Wilson, Srathaven Radical, was found guilty of treason and sentenced to
death for his part in the 1820 Rising.
"I am glad to hear that
my countrymen are resolved to act like men. We are seeking nothing
but the rights of our fore fathers - liberty is not worth having, if it
is not worth fighting for."
30 August 1820
James Wilson, Strathaven
Radical, hung and beheaded at Glasgow Green for his part in the 1820
Rising. A crowd of 20,000 sympathetic to Wilson, witnessed the event.
James Wilson, on his way to the scaffold, remarked to the hangman Thomas
Moore - "Did ye evir see sic a crowd, Tammas?"
8 September 1820
John Baird and Andrew Hardie
were hung and beheaded for treason in Stirling. They led the Radicals at
the Battle of Bonnymuir in April 1820. Nineteen others were transported
to New South Wales.
countrymen! I remain under the firm conviction that I die a Martry in
the cause of Truth and Justice, and in the hope that you will soon
succeed in the cause which I took up arms to defend"
- Andrew Hardie, August
22 December 1820
The 1820 Radicals, sentenced to
transportation to Australia, set sail on the convict ship Speke. Only
one, Andrew White, returned when pardoned to Scotland.
2 April 1821
Death of James Gregory, physician and professor of medicine in
Edinburgh, whose best known prescription was for Gregory's Powder.
23 May 1821
The 1820 Radicals transported to Australia on the convict ship Speke
landed in Port Jackson.
Princes Street was lit by gas for the first time.
29 March 1822
Death of Ewan MacLachlan, Gaelic poet born in Lochaber in 1775, librarian at King's College, Aberdeen, translator of Homer into Gaelic.
Death of Sir Henry Raeburn, portrait painter and Kings Limner,
in Edinburgh. The leading Scottish artist of his generation,
Raeburn was knighted by King George IV on his Royal visit to
23 October 1822
Opening of the Caledonian Canal, Scotland's
longest canal connecting Corpach (near Fort William) with Clachnaharry
(near Inverness), about two-thirds of its 60 mile length comprises
existing lochs - Loch Lochy, Loch Oich and Loch Ness. One of Thomas
Telford's greatest engineering works.
17 June 1823
Charles Macintosh, chemist,
born in Glasgow in 1776, patented waterproof cloth.
"No.4804. Process and
manufacture for rendering the texture of hemp, flax, wool, cotton, silk,
and also leather, paper and other substances impervious to water and
Alphabetical Index of Patents
15 November 1824
Edinburgh's 'Great Fire', began, lasting to the 17th. It destroyed the
High Street, Parliament Square and the Tron Kirk. Between 300 and 400
families lost their homes.
24 April 1825
Birth of Robert M
Ballantyne, novelist who wrote 90 books including The Coral Island(1858)
and The Dog Crusoe(1860), in Edinburgh.
6 May 1825
Death of Balcarres-born Lady Anne Lindsay Barnard, poet best known for her
composition Auld Robin Gray written in 1772, in London, England.
Death of John Kay, noted caricaturist, engraver and miniature painter, in
his 84th year at 227 High Street, Edinburgh.
11 May 1826
The titles and baronetcy, forfeited following the Jacobite Risings, was
restored to Sir Peter Threipland of Fingask. The family had been avid
Jacobites and took part in both the 1715 and 1746 Risings Dr Stuart
Threipland was medical adviser to Prince Charles Edward Stewart and escaped
in 1746 to Rouen.
12 June 1826
Birth of William
novelist, social historian and journalist. He became editor of the
Aberdeen Free Press in 1870 and is best known for his 'Doric' classic
'Johnny Gibb of Guahetneuk'.
Birth of Sir Sandford Fleming, surveyor and engineer who divided the
world into time zones, in Kirkcaldy. At 17 he emigrated to Canada and
was Chief Engineer of the Canadian Pacific Railway and father of the
Standard Time System.
23 April 1827
Scottish novelist John Galt, secretary of the Canadian Company,
cut the first tree marking the founding of the city of Guelph,
9 March 1828
An English gang made off with £28,350 after holding up the Glasgow branch of
the Greenock Bank.
Twenty-eight people died when the north gallery collapsed at The Old Kirk,
Kirkcaldy, whilst the congregation listened to noted preacher Edward Irving.
31 October 1828
A beggar woman named Docherty was invited back to a house in Edinburgh by
William Burke. William Hare turned up soon after and strangled her.
She was the last victim of the infamous Irish body snatchers, for her death
was discovered and the police called.
24 December 1828
The trial of grave-robber and murderer William Burke began in Edinburgh.
His fellow body-snatcher William Hare turned kings evidence and was not
brought to trial. Burke was hanged on 28 January 1829.
28 January 1829
William Burke, Irish body-snatcher, who joined William Hare in Scotland
in selling bodies to Dr Robert Knox for research, and eventually
murdering to supplement their stock, was hanged for his crimes in front
of a huge crowd in Edinburgh. Hare escaped the gallows by turning
3 August 1829
the Moray floods when the Spey and Findhorn rivers rose 50 feet above normal
after torrential rains resulting in many deaths.
five-arch bridge over the River Don at Aberdeen was completed.
23 December 1831
Outbreak of cholera in Scotland.
Parliamentary Reformers, seeking an extension to the franchise, hissed the
Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch as they passed through Hawick.
William Clark, who remembered seeing Cumberlands Hanoverian army cross the
Spey en route for Culloden, died, aged 108, at Newton of Cabrach.
4 June 1832
The Scottish Reform Bill, increasing the number of Scottish MPs from 45 to
53, and thus widening the vote, was passed at Westminster.
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