Electric Scotland News
The Flag in the Wind
The Scottish Nation
Clan and Family Information
Poetry and Stories
New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Book of Scottish Story
Merchant and Craft Guilds (New Book)
History of Glasgow
History of Banking in Scotland
Scottish Banking Practice (New Book)
The Glengarry McDonalds of Virginia
The Highland Host of 1678
The Scottish Historical Review
Old Time Customs
Changes in Scots Arms
Centre for Scottish Studies at the University of Guelph
ELECTRIC SCOTLAND NEWS
I came across some American census data and noted in 2000 there were
4,319,232 Scots-Irish living in America and 4,890,581 Scots living
in America. This is 3.2% of the American population.
Sure is a bit of a mess out there in financial land and it's not
only America seeing problems and note that Scotland's oldest bank,
The Bank of Scotland, is now to be taken over by Lloyds TSB bank.
I'm pleased to say we've now fixed the problems with our ScotSearch
site and our Calendar program. Seems rebuilding the server meant
that permissions weren't set to allow folk to add links and events.
Now it's onto the site search program and hopefully that won't be
long now until it's up and running.
I got an email asking what dates the 16th century would have
included and I thought in the event other folk might not know
figured I'd explain. Where it quotes the 16th century it would mean
dates between 1500 - 1599. So we are currently in the 21st century
meaning in the 2000's.
I assume the idea that the 16th century would means the 1600's is
why I was asked about this so now you know the correct info... so if
someone says he died in the 18th century it means in the 1700's :-)
Subject: Reminder: Gaelic College Weekend Sept 27-28 in Nova Scotia
A message from Hector MacNeil:
I'd like to remind everyone that the next Gaelic Weekend at the
Gaelic College takes place September 27-28 with TIP Instruction
(Beginner 1, Beginner 2, Intermediate and Advanced), Song Workshops,
Story Telling Session, Milling Frolic and Ceilidh.
We have a great lineup of Instructors:
Bernard Cameron - Beginner 1
Lewis MacKinnon - Beginner 2
Angus MacLeod - Intermediate
Hector MacNeil - Advanced
We have over thirty people registered so far with LOTS OF ROOM for
have to register by end of day, Monday, Sept. 21, though, so don't
It's going to be another great weekend and you won't want to miss
I know many of you will have enjoyed the collection of material that
Donna Flood has added to the site. I just noted today that her
mother has passed away and just wanted to offer my condolences to
her. Here is what Donna had to say in the article she posted up in
our article service...
Mother died peacefully and with no pain on September 15, 2008 the
same day in September her mother died.
Velma was born in a tee-pee along the banks of the St. Fork River.
Her mother was attended by a full Ponca medicine woman. She is the
descendant of Chief Standing Bear whose history is recorded here in
Ponca City through the efforts of Carl Renfro, who worked long and
tirelessly, to see that Standing Bear's memory is kept through the
beautiful park and voice histories for the populace of the town of
Ponca City and, indeed, the whole nation to enjoy. Like Standing
Bear Velma worked with men who were dedicated to what they believed
and felt was best for the country. These were Senators and many
others with lofty titles. Her work did not stop with those. She
worked as hard for any of her Ponca people who were in immediate
straights with one or another problems they had in their personal
lives for surviving.
Our mother was a strong advocate for her husband's Christian faith,
not in a showy way, but in a personal stand with a belief that all
things could be settled in peaceful ways through the courts and our
Her children are:
Arnold Heinrich Jones
Paul Martin Jones
Lee and Velma's children
Anthony (Tony) Jones
Donna Colleen Jones, Flood
Dennis Michael Jones
Alvin Lee Jones
Esther Inez Jones, Epperson.
Daniel Clark Jones
In 1986, when Lee Otis Jones, her husband, died they had 22 great
grandchildren, too many to list here. Her children and male
grandchildren all carry the Jones name.
Velma's Pensoneau linage is listed in the French archives under the
Fleur De Lis. Her great-grandfather was Paschal Pensoneau, who had
an outfit under John Jacob Astor at Kansas City, Missouri. His
father, Louison, was one of the first merchants and city fathers of
St. Louis. There is a museum for their family of the Pensoneaus out
of St. Louis where all that genealogy is traced. Biograpy of Paschal
Pensoneau is here, written by his lawyer brother:
Velma's history was just as absorbing on the Cherokee lineage. A
great grandmother was Mary Kell, Canolis, Ross. She was the daughter
of Kell, Scot, and "Cherokee Woman" circa pre-Cherokee Trail of
Tears, date. Mary Ross was an orphan adopted by Chisholm, the man
responsible for the Chisholm Trail.
Arnold's, Glen, Hugh, Dennis, Bruce, Arnetta Stierwalt, Cindy
Pauls Martins's: Paula, Debbie, David, John Jones
Donna's: Rhonda Louise, Mark Flood, Kharis, Mrs. Baraquiel
Dennis Michael's: Denise Jones, Diane, Dana.
Alvin Lee Jones: Warren Curtis Jones, Mark Jones
Esther Inez: Leah Renee', Kemmy Colleen, Mrs. Gary Oaks
Daniel Clark's: Meka, Buck Jones
Velma will be buried next to her husband at the Ponca City Indian
Cemetery off Waverly, in the area out of Ponca City, Oklahoma
ABOUT THE STORIES
Some of the stories in here are just parts of a larger story so do
check out the site for the full versions. You can always find the
link in our "What's New" section at the link at the top of this
newsletter or on our site menu.
THE FLAG IN THE WIND
This weeks Flag is compiled by Richard Thomson is which he discusses
the takeover of the Bank of Scotland by Lloyds TSB. He is also
discussing the Lib-Dems.
In Peter's cultural section he tells us about...
Continuing on from last weeks harvesting theme, there were great
celebrations, in the past, when the last sheaf was cut. The last
sheaf was called a maiden if the harvest was early and the cailleach
if it was late. There was a variety of customs associated with this
important sheaf. Often it was dressed like a maiden with ribbons and
finery and took pride of place at the Clyach or little winter feast,
held to celebrate the completion of the cutting and before the Kirn,
and toasts were drunk to her. Part of the sheaf, a fertility symbol,
was kept until the first horse was foaled as it was thought to
represent new life, and another part might be buried beneath the
first furrow ploughed so that the fertility might be transferred.
The hairst is a reminder that oatmeal was an essential part of the
Scottish diet in days of auld langsyne. Oatmeal was used in a
variety of recipes including desserts - cranachan is a lovely way to
enjoy oatmeal and raspberries.
This is a cream crowdie, made from toasting 2 heaped tablespoons
oatmeal lightly, then mixing it into 1/2 pint cream which has been
whipped until frothy, but not stiff, and sweetened to taste. It can
be flavoured with rum, vanilla ( vanilla sugar can be used for
sweetening ) or 1 cup fresh raspberries ( or other soft fruit ), and
makes an excellent dessert. Vanilla ice-cream can be used instead of
cream. (serves 4)
The Scottish Nation
My thanks to Lora for transcribing these volumes for us.
We're now onto the S's with Southesk, Spalding, Speirs, Spens /
Spence, Sprewel, Spottiswood and Spynie.
There are several famous people with the Spottiswood name and the
SPOTTISWOOD, a local surname, assumed from the lands and barony of
that name in Berwickshire. The family of Spottiswoode are descended
from Robert Spottiswood, lord of Spottiswood, who was born in the
reign of Alexander III., and died in that of Robert the Bruce. His
son, John Spottiswood of Spottiswood, was witness, in the reign of
David II., to a charter of Alexander Lindsay of Ormiston. He had a
son, Robert Spottiswood of Spottiswood, who married a daughter of
the ancient family of Leighton of Ulyshaven or Usan, Forfarshire,
and was father of Henry Spottiswood of that ilk. The latter died in
the end of the reign of James II. His son, James Spottiswood of
Spottiswood, was forfeited for his adherence to James III. He was,
however, restored to his estate by James IV. This barons son,
William Spottiswood, fell at Flodden, in September 1513. By his
wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Hop-Pringle of Torsonce, he had,
with two younger children, two sons, David, his successor, who died
toward the end of the reign of James V.; and John, superintendent of
Lothian, a memoir of whom is given below in larger type. The latter
married Beatrix, daughter of Patrick Crighton of Lugton and
Gilmerton, and had, with one daughter, two sons, John, archbishop of
St. Andrews, who carried on the line of the family, and James,
appointed bishop of Clogher in Ireland in 1621, who dying in London
in 1644, was buried in Westminster Abbey. The descendants of his
son, Sir Henry Spottiswood, still continue in Ireland.
David Spottiswood of Spottiswood left an only son, Ninian
Spottiswood of Spottiswood, who was served heir to his father in
1550; and left two sons. William, his successor, died unmarried in
1594. John succeeded his brother, and died soon after, without
The representation of the family devolved on his cousin, John
Spottiswood, archbishop of St. Andrews. This eminent prelate sold,
in 1620, the estate of Spottiswood to a family of the name of Bell.
He married Rachel, a daughter of David Lindsay, D.D., bishop of
Ross, and with a daughter, Anne, wife of William Sinclair of Roslin,
had two sons, Sir John, and Sir Robert. The elder son succeeded to
the estate of Dairsie, Fifeshire, which had been purchased by his
father, and was one of the gentlemen of the bedchamber to James VI.
His only son, Mr. John Spottiswood, was a faithful adherent of
Charles I., and having joined the marquis of Montrose, was taken
prisoner with him, tried, condemned, and executed for high treason
in 1650. Of Sir Robert, the second son, president of the court of
session and secretary of state for Scotland, beheaded 16th January
1646. By his wife, Bethia, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Morrison
of Prestongrange, a lord of session, Sir Robert had, with three
daughters, three sons. 1. John, who died, unmarried, before the
Restoration. 2. Alexander. 3. Robert, physician to the governor and
garrison of Tangier, and author of a Catalogue of Plants growing
within the fortifications of Tangier in 1673, inserted in the
Philosophical Transactions for 1696 (Abr. iv. p. 85). He died in
1688, leaving an only son, Alexander, born in 1676, a general in the
army, appointed governor of Virginia in 1710. The latter married and
New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
The first volume I am dealing with is the one on Aberdeenshire.
There are some 85 parishes in this volume and a write up on each.
Have also added the penultimate chapter from the Appendix on
"Account of the University and King's College of Aberdeen".
The account starts...
There appears to have existed in Old Aberdeen, from a very early
period, a Studium Generate, or University, attached to the Episcopal
Chapter of the See of Aberdeen. It is said to have been founded in
1157 by Edward, Bishop of Aberdeen, and although, according to Boece,
it still existed at the period when King's College was founded, it
is probable that it had in some way ceased to answer the purposes
which it must have been designed to serve, since King James IV., in
his letter to Pope Alexander VI., requesting him to found a
University in Old Aberdeen, mentions as the chief motive for the
undertaking, the profound ignorance of the inhabitants of the north
of Scotland, and the great deficiency of properly educated men to
fill the clerical office in that part of his kingdom.
Foundation of the University In 1494, William Elphinston, Bishop
of Aberdeen, and Chancellor of Scotland under James III., persuaded
James IV. to make the above application to the Pope, who was then
considered the only source of the universal privileges which were
desired for the projected institution, the power of the king
extending only to his own dominions, while that of the Roman pontiff
embraced the whole of Christendom. The result of this application
was a Bull dated 10th February 1494, instituting a University in Old
Aberdeen or Aberdon, which was to include every lawful faculty,
namely, those of Theology, Canon and Civil Law, Medicine, and the
Liberal Arts. Masters were appointed to read in all the faculties,
and were empowered specifically to confer all the lawful degrees of
Baccalaureate Master and Doctor, in like manner as these degrees are
granted in any the most highly privileged University. It was also
provided in this Bull, that the degrees thus conferred should carry
with them all the usual privileges and immunities that are attached
to such degrees in other Universities ; and that, not only within
the University itself, but in all other Universities, ubique
terrarum, without further examination of the graduates. It is
particularly mentioned, that the University of Aberdeen was to
possess all the privileges enjoyed by those of Paris and Bologna,
two of the most highly favoured in Europe. This Bull of institution
has been printed in the Report of the University Commission of 1826,
along with all the charters of King's College, and may be referred
to by those who wish to ascertain the precise terms in which the
very ample privileges of King's College were conferred. By a mandate
dated on the same day, but not executed till 1496, Bishop Elphinston,
with two coadjudators, was directed to publish the Bull, to defend
and protect the doctors, masters, and scholars in all their
immunities, &c, and to cause the statutes to be inviolably observed.
By a second Bull dated in 1495, the Pope annexed to the University
the church of Aberbuthnot, now Marykirk, and the revenues of the
Hospital of St Germains in Lothian.
Book of Scottish Story
Our thanks to John Henderson for sending this in for us.
This week have added...
The Vacant Chair - Part 1
Here is how it starts...
YOU have all heard of the Cheviot mountains. They are a rough,
rugged, majestic chain of hills, which a poet might term the Roman
wall of nature; crowned with snow, belted with storms, surrounded by
pastures and fruitful fields, and still dividing the northern
portion of Great Britain from the southern. With their proud summits
piercing the clouds, and their dark, rocky declivities frowning upon
the glens below, they appear symbolical of the wild and untamable
spirits of the Borderers who once inhabited their sides. We say, you
have all heard of the Cheviots, and know them to be very high hills,
like a huge clasp riveting England and Scotland together ; but we
are not aware that you may have heard of Marchlaw, an old, gray-looking
farmhouse, substantial as a modern fortress, recently, and, for
aught we know to the contrary, still inhabited by Peter Elliot, the
proprietor of some five hundred surrounding acres. The boundaries of
Peters farm, indeed, were defined neither by fields, hedges, nor
stone walls. A wooden stake here, and a stone there, at considerable
distances from each other, were the general landmarks; but neither
Peter nor his neighbours considered a few acres worth quarrelling
about ; and their sheep frequently visited each others pastures in
a friendly way, harmoniously sharing a family dinner, in the same
spirit as their masters made themselves free at each others tables.
Peter was placed in very unpleasant circumstances, owing to the
situation of Marchlaw House, which, unfortunately, was built
immediately across the "ideal line, dividing the two kingdoms; and
his misfortune was, that, being born within it, he knew not whether
he was an Englishman or a Scotchman. He could trace his ancestral
line no farther back than his great-grandfather, who, it appeared
from the family Bible, had, together with his grandfather and
father, claimed Marchlaw as their birthplace. They, however, were
not involved in the same perplexities as their descendant. The
parlour was distinctly acknowledged to be in Scotland, and
two-thirds of the kitchen were as certainly allowed to be in
England;his three ancestors were born in the room over the parlour,
and, therefore, were Scotchmen beyond question; but Peter,
unluckily, being brought into the world before the death of his
grandfather, his parents occupied a room immediately over the
debatable boundary line which crossed the kitchen. The room, though
scarcely eight feet square, was evidently situated between the two
countries; but, no one being able to ascertain what portion belonged
to each, Peter, after many arguments and altercations upon the
subject, was driven to the disagreeable alternative of confessing he
knew not what countryman he was. What rendered the confession the
more painful was, that it was Peters highest ambition to be thought
a Scotsman. All his arable land lay on the Scottish side ; his
mother was collaterally related to the Stuarts ; and few families
were more ancient or respectable than the Elliots. Peters speech,
indeed, betrayed him to be a walking partition between the two
kingdomsa living representation of the Union; for in one word he
pronounced the letter r with the broad, masculine sound of the
North Briton, and in the next with the liquid burr of the
Merchant and Craft Guilds
A History of the Aberdeen Incorporated Trades by Ebenezer Bain
This is an interesting book but you should be warned that a sizeable
amount of the text is in the old Scots language as the book contains
many charters in that language.
Here is what the Preface has to say...
WHILE holding office among the Seven Incorporated Trades of Aberdeen
a few years ago, I had frequent opportunities of scanning their
interesting old records and other documents, and I had not gone far
in my perusal of them until I discovered that they contained a
considerable amount of material fitted to throw light on the trading
customs, and the social and religious life of the community from the
fifteenth century downwards.
It was also an agreeable surprise to find that, notwithstanding the
many vicissitudes through which so many of our local institutions
have passed, the records of the Trades, including the documents
belonging to the monastery of the Trinity Friars, were in an
excellent state of preservation; and it occurred to me that, as a
new generation has now arisen, having little in common with the old
burgher life, a historical account of these ancient societies might
prove acceptable, not only to the existing members of the Trades,
but to many others who take an interest in the different phases of
early burgh life.
In estimating the position which these craft guilds held in the
community, it is necessary to bear in mind the large proportion of
the population that came within their jurisdiction. The families,
journeymen, apprentices, and servants, as well as the craftsmen
themselves, were all subject to the authority of the deacons and
masters of the different crafts, and amenable to the laws and
statutes enforced under the powers conferred by Royal Charters,
Seals of Cause, and Acts of Council; and taken at a moderate
computation, these classes would represent about two thirds of the
whole community. The history of the craft guilds, therefore, ought
in no small measure to reflect the conditions of life among the
great bulk of the industrial classes; and if this volume helps to a
better understanding of the guild life of our own community my
object in collecting the historical information in this volume will
be fully accomplished.
To the many friends who have assisted me in various ways I take this
opportunity of returning my best thanks, more particularly to Mr. P.
J. ANDERSON, Secretary of the New Spalding Club; Mr. A. H. MUNRO, of
the Aberdeen Town House; and Mr. J. P. EDHOD, and to the CONVENER,
MASTER OF TRADES HOSPITAL, DEACONS, and BOXMASTERS of the various
Trades who so readily afforded me access to the books and documents
under their charge. To Mr. ANDREW J. GIBB, Mr. E. W. JAPP, Mr. C.
CARMICHAEL, and Mr. GEORGE WATT, I am also indebted for assistance
in connection with the plates and drawings.
The History of Glasgow
By Robert Renwick LL.D. and Sir John Lindsay L.D. in 3 volumes
We are now making progress with these volumes and this week we have
Leper Hospital and Chapel and their EndowmentsEndowments of other
Fergus Aisle in CathedralRood ScreenChurch of Little St. KentigernSt.
Nicholas HospitalChurch of St. RocheLiners of the BurghForeign
PopulationOld GreenFeuing of Common LandsWaulk Mill on Water of
KelvinLinningshaughSkinners Green Society of FishersAssize of
HerringSubdean's Mill Fortified House in High StreetLands of
Gorbals, Cadder and Monkland
Commercial ProgressShippingActs of
ParliamentBurgessesArchbishops Blacader and BeatonRegality and
Diocesan JurisdictionsKing and Archbishop of St. AndrewsRental
Book of Barony Lands
Earls of LennoxManses of Govan and RenfrewBattle of FloddenProvosts-DeputeAltar
of St. ChristopherSeal of Cause to Skinners and FurriersDuke of
Albany, Governor of Kingdom---Insurrectionary MovementsSiege of
Archbishops Beaton and DunbarCustody of the KingMerchants and
Foreign TradeClyde ShippingSpread of "Heresies "John Major,
Theologian and HistorianPrebend of Barlanark or ProvanKing's
Visits to GlasgowCourt of Session
Blacader's Hospital for Casual PoorCollegiate Church of St. Mary
and St. Anne
And here is a bit from Chapter XLII...
THE end of the fifteenth century is regarded as marking the close of
the Middle Ages and the dawn of a new era for modern Europe. The
discovery of America and of a fresh sea route to India enlarged
geographical knowledge and gave promise of immense advance in
commercial enterprise ; and it may be supposed that other countries
besides the leading maritime nations of Spain and Portugal would
share to some extent in the impetus thus given to trading activity.
Of the prosperous condition of Scotland we have a contemporary
account given by Don Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish ambassador to the
court of King James. Writing in 1498 this foreigner reported that
the country had greatly improved during the king's reign, that
commerce was much more considerable than formerly and was
continually advancing. There were three principal articles of
export, wool, hides and fish, and the customs were substantial and
on the increase. [Early Travellers, pp. 42, 43. Ayala says: "The
towns and villages are populous. The houses are good, all built of
hewn stone, and provided with excellent doors, glass windows, and a
great number of chimneys. All the furniture that is used in Italy,
Spain, and France, is to be found in their dwellings. It has not
been bought in modern times only, but inherited from preceding
ages." (Ibid. p. 47.)]
About this time, and for a considerable period afterwards, Dumbarton
was the chief port in the west of Scotland and the most frequented
as a naval base. It was the favourite place of departure and arrival
to and from France. Expeditions to the Isles were organised at
Dumbarton, fleets were fitted out there, and thence they sailed. At
the time King James was making strenuous efforts to create a navy
one ship was built at Leith, another in Brittany and a third at
Dumbarton. There are many other recorded cases of shipbuilding at
Dumbarton, and it long continued to be a harbour for such royal
ships as came to the west coast. [River Clyde, pp. 17, 18; Lord High
Treasurer's Accounts, iii. and iv. In the year 1512 there are
several payments out of the royal treasury for timber and other
material used for the building of a galley at Glasgow, a vessel
about which, unluckily, there are no further particulars (Ibid. iv.
In 1499 Glasgow and Dumbarton entered into an amicable arrangement
for the defence and maintenance of each other's privileges. In
future each of the two burghs was to have an equal interest in the
river Clyde, neither of them pretending privilege or prerogative
over the other. [Glasg. Chart. ii. pp. 62, 72, 119. In connection
with the purchase of wine from a ship, in 1531, Glasgow had sued
Dumbarton in the consistorial court, and on this ground the latter
burgh alleged that the " band " of 1499 had been broken, but the
treasurer of Glasgow protested against his burgh being prejudiced by
the proceedings (Glasg. Prot. No. rio3). An indenture entered into
between the two burghs, in 1590, is on the same lines as the
agreement of 1499, and provision is made for the settlement of
disputes by six representatives from each who were to meet in the
burgh of Renfrew (Glasg. Chart. i. pt. ii. pp. 225-7)] As subsequent
records show this judicious arrangement worked satisfactorily and,
subject to various modifications, it was renewed from time to time.
History of Banking in Scotland
By Andrew William Kerr (1908)
We have now completed this book with...
Comparison of Scottish Banking in 1865 and 1883
A Critical Period
Earliest Scottish Bank Notes
The Scottish Banks in 1883 and 1901-2 [page not available]
Amalgamations among the Scottish Banks
Note Issues of the Scottish Banks
Note Forgeries not mentioned in the text
Banks Defunct whose notes are still retired
The Conclusion starts by saying...
THE present sketch of banking in Scotland may be fitly concluded
with a short consideration of some of the leading features of the
system which has made Scottish banking conspicuous among the banking
systems of the world. Perhaps the chief of these is its suitability
to the circumstances of the country and the genius of the nation.
This may almost seem a truism, in as far as the system was of almost
entirely natural growth. But this is in itself a circumstance quite
unusual in other countries. Elsewhere the State has been the motive
power in calling banking into existence, has moulded its character,
and has regulated its action all along. In Scotland the State took
little interest in the matter beyond sanctioning the formation of a
few of the earliest establishments. The consequence was a
naturally-evolved system, moulded by the requirements of the people.
Scottish Banking Practice
This booklet is the first in a series (a full list of titles is
given on the back cover) produced by the Institute of Bankers in
Scotland. The original text was written in 1949 by Frank Taylor,
then the General Secretary of the Institute, but this new edition
has been completely revised and updated.
The booklet gives a brief introduction to the origins and
developments of Scottish Banking which, in spite of mergers and
takeovers, still retains some of the unique flavour which at one
time made it the most advanced banking system in the world.
The booklet is an ideal introduction to the Scottish Banking system
for new recruits to the Banks who intend to study for the
Institute's examinations and should also be a useful reference
source for the practising banker and the general reader seeking a
brief introduction to the Scottish Banking scene.
The author, Dr Charles Munn, is a lecturer in History at the
University of Glasgow and author of the book The Scottish Provincial
Banking Companies, 1747-1864.
ISBN: 0 901473 07 3
It seemed appropriate to start on this publication for those that
have enjoyed "The History of Banking in Scotland" and our thanks go
to the Chatered Institute of Bankers in Scotland for allowing us to
publish this on the site.
The Glengarry McDonalds of Virginia
By Mrs Flora McDonald Williams (1911)
We have some more chapters up...
Susan Leacy McDonald
Harry Peake McDonald
Allan Lane McDonald
Here is a bit from the Flora McDonald chapter...
Flora McDonald, the youngest child and fourth daughter of Angus W.
'McDonald and Leacy Anne Naylor (his wife), was born the 7th of
June, 1842, and named for her illustrious cousin (many degrees
removed) of the Clanranald branch. She lost her mother at the age of
six months and was cared for, for the next eighteen months by her
father's aunt, Mrs. William Naylor. This lady was also stepmother to
Leacy Anne, to whom she was much devoted.
One of Flora's earliest and happiest recollections was when her new
mother arrived and took her child's heart by storm, with her kindly
words and affectionate manner, and in all the long years following,
she had little cause to change those first impressions. She first
remembers going to school at Mrs. Meaney's, but after a year or so
there her education was carried on in a very desultory fashion. With
eight brothers and sisters older than herself and quite a number
younger, it is scarcely to be wondered at that her opportunities
were somewhat restricted.
At twelve years of age she was sent from "Wind Lea," where the
family then lived to Charles Town, to live with her sister, Mrs. T.
C. Green, and attended a private school, but a spoil of illness
lasting for some months seriously interfered with her educational
progress, and at the end of her first term she returned to her home,
and was permitted to do pretty much as she pleased for the next two
years in order to re-establish her health. Much of her time, in open
weather. was spent in the woods and on the banks of the streams in
genuine enjoyment of this close contact with nature.
Nothing delighted her so much as being allowed to accompany her
brother Marshall on his expeditions in quest of specimens. And once
when about nine year's of age, he took her with him quite a distance
to the house of a mountain woman, in order that she might be taught
how to "net." so that she could make for him the little nets which
were necessary to enclose each individual fish before he dropped
them into the flask of alcohol preparatory to despatching them to
the Smithsonian. Soon she became so expert, that no other diversion
gave her half such joy as weaving these little travelling jackets
for the fish while, at the same time, performing this service for
the brother she so dearly loved.
The Highland Host of 1678
By John Rawson Elder (1914)
Have now completed this book with the final chapter and the
The Conduct of the Host chapter starts...
THE Commission granted to the Leaders of the Host exonerated them,
as we have seen, from all blame, no matter what excesses their
followers might commit. These followers were for the most part poor
ignorant Highlanders, many of them doubtless "broken men,"
accustomed to look upon the neighbouring Lowlands as the fitting
ground for marauding expeditions, all of them likely as the result
of habit and long training to feel that a descent in force upon the
Whigs must have as its only object the accumulation of booty. In
this particular case they were taking part in an expedition
sanctioned by the King and led by their chiefs, who, as members of
the Committee of the West, were present not to restrain their
followers from lawlessness, but to point out those against whom they
must direct themselves. From January till March these rude
Highlanders were engaged day by day in the attempt to force an
unwilling people into submission, searching their houses, seizing
their weapons, leading off their horses. Inflicted as these
indignities were in no kindly fashion upon men by no means easily
cowed and still unbroken in spirit, the wonder is that the only
recorded instance of actual bloodshed is that of the poor
Highlander, M'Gregor, already mentioned, killed at Campsie on the
It is to be feared, however, that little credit is to be given for
this bloodless invasion either to the members of the Host or to
those who sent them forth. That a rebellion did not ensue
immediately, as so many of Lauderdale's followers, eager for
confiscated estatesfor which, indeed, according to Burnet, they had
already cast lots, [Burnet, History of My Own Times, vol. ii. p.
146.] desired, is to be attributed not to any easy interpretation of
brutal orders nor to any desire to lessen the burden for a people
against whom King, Bishops, and Council were united, but to the
fixed determination of the unbending Whigs that they would not
gratify those who sought to goad them on to insurrection so that
they might be harried from the land. Against such passive resistance
the Highlanders had no excuse for bloodshed, and the most serious
authentic case of violence is that of Alexander Wedderburn, minister
of Kilmarnock, who was severely injured by a blow with the butt of a
Highlander's musket. [Wodrow, vol. ii. p. 429.]
Back in the 17th and 18th centuries many of the monuments of the
past were referred to as Pictish - it was used a kind of general
term for the ancestors. This meant that constructions as far apart
as Stone Age barrows and medieval Deer Dykes were given the label of
being Pictish. Today some people still think that anything old is
Pictish but scholars nowadays would tend to put the Pictish
Period from around 80 AD to the mid 9th century. 80 AD Was the date
of the battle of Mons Graupius between the Romans and the
Caledonians who were called Picts by later Roman writers,. The only
record we have of this battle, and argument still rages as to where
it was fought, is a Roman one - and it will come as no surprise that
it claims a total Roman victory. The fact that the Romans retreated
from Scotland north of the Forth soon after and only ever came back
on temporary raids suggests a different interpretation. To misquote
an even earlier Roman, Julius Caesar ven, vidi, vanished! In the
middle of the ninth century the Picts amalgamated with the Scots of
Dalriada - they had had several joint monarchs before this - and the
country became known in time as Scotland. The Pictish language,
probably like an early form of Welsh, disappeared, which has led
many people to speculate on the disappearance of the Picts
themselves. Language and culture changed, leadership too but there
is no reason to suppose the people were either eradicated or
emigrated. In short the Picts are our ancestors, as are the Scots,
the Norse and the Angles.
However the notion of the Picts as the ancestor people was
widespread and survived in many parts of Scotland. One version of
this idea, from Fife is particularly striking. According to this
tale the Pechs, or Peghts, as they were generally called in the oral
tradition were wee short folk with red hair, long arms, broad feet
and were tremendously strong. They were the builders of all the old
castles and forts in the land and would stand in a line from the
quarry to the building site passing the stones from hand to hand
until the building was finished. One version of the story says their
feet were so broad that when it rained they could stand on their
hands and use their feet as umbrellas!
The Scottish Historical Review
I have added several more articles from these publications. I might
add here that there are many excellent and interesting articles in
these volumes and am picking out ones that I think will be of
Scottish Officers in Sweden
An account of some of the Scots Officers who served in Sweden.
The Scalacronica of Sir Thomas Gray
In his account of the Norman Kings he reveals information not
available elsewhere and from the point of view of a soldier. Written
around 1355 this gives us a unique glimpse into that period. This
was compiled while the author was being held captive at Edinburgh
The Celtic Trews
The costume consisted of a blouse with sleeves, confined in some
cases by a belt, with trousers fitting close at the ankle, and a
tartan plaid fastened up at the shoulder with a brooch. This form of
Celtic dress is of special interest to all who are connected with
the Scottish Highlands.
Scottish Industrial Undertakings before the Union
Some interesting facts about the industrial and other undertakings
around the 17th century.
Old Time Customs
Conditions of the Early Settlers in Nova Scotia
This is an interesting account which I thought you might enjoy and
here is how it starts...
IT is well sometimes to look backward to the days and the doings of
our fathers who left their home in the old land beyond the wide
ocean, that they might make for themselves and their loved ones new
homes in this new world of forests, wild beasts and untamed Indians.
We, of this age and in this Canada of ours, may well be proud of the
heritage they have left us with its priceless privileges. By noting
what we owe to our forbears we may be stimulated to higher endeavor
to leave the heritage thus fallen into our hands, with so much added
enrichment, that our children may in turn hold their fathers in
grateful remembrance for what they have done for their betterment.
Few English people were found in Nova Scotia outside of Halifax
before 1760, and the chief concern of those here was to guard
themselves against the Indian scalping knife and the French forces
sent from Quebec to recover possession of the country. Subsequent to
this date the earlier English colonists, chiefly from New England,
succeeded to the lands near Annapolis, Canard, Wolfville, Grand Pre,
Windsor, Truro, Masstown and Amherst, from which the Acadians had
been removed in 1755. New settlers who came in later, including
Loyalists from the United Statesmostly farmers and disbanded
soldierswent back into the interior of the country where the more
fertile lands were found, these new settlements in many cases being
separated from the older ones by forest-covered lands less suited to
agriculture. Through the forests the only roads were rough bridle
paths. The smaller streams were crossed by fording, the larger ones
the horses swam across, while their riders, having dismounted,
crossed them in a rude sort of boat made of a big log dug out in
These pioneer settlers went in groups of five or six families, chose
adjoining lots and built their houses about a quarter of a mile
apart. Thus, in some measure, they provided for themselves the
social advantages of larger communities. It was a truly simple life,
that of our forefathers in their forest home. While the
house-building was going on the home was in a domicile hastily
thrown together after the fashion of the Indian wigwam. The more
permanent dwelling was but a log cabin of small dimensions,
comprising two rooms with an attic under the roof. The chimney, made
of stones held together by clay mortar, was in one corner, or
sometimes outside the house against one end. Timber was
plentifulincluding pines and hemlocks large enough to be made into
boards three feet wide. As yet, however, there were no saw-mills, so
that the houses and other buildings were made of logs rudely dressed
with an axe, the roof being covered with home-made shingles, or with
the bark of a hemlock tree.
I might add that there are several articles on this theme and I'll
endeavour to add more of them.
Changes in Scots Arms
By W. Neil Fraser
Our thanks to Neil for sending us in this article which starts...
The new Lord Lyon David Sellar, appointed in March 2008, has begun
to institute changes in the Letters Patent (legal document) for new
grants of arms in Scotland. One change that would be less obvious is
that he has revised the preamble of Letters Patent relative to the
authority of the Lyon Court to reflect the legislation of the
original Scottish Parliament in 1592 and 1672 that established the
role of the Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland to exercise His
(Her) Majestys heraldic prerogative in Scotland. That authority
remains in effect today, but is now more clearly stated in modern
Centre for Scottish Studies at the University of Guelph
Dr Graeme Morton, Chair of the Centre for Scottish Studies sent this
Program: History PhD
Area of Research
Torono's Scottish community in late nineteenth and early twentieth
Why I Chose Guelph...
I chose Guelph because it offers the only graduate program in
Scottish Studies in North America. As well as being home to the
largest collection of Scottish archival material outside the United
Kingdom, the Centre for Scottish Studies has several leading
academics in Scottish history, offers scholarships for travel and
research in Scotland and offers a range of opportunities to help
further your academic career.
My Future Plans...
I would like to pursue a career in academia. As well as providing
me with the necessary support in pursuing my research interests, the
PhD program helps provide a solid teaching background as well the
practical teaching experience to go with it.
About Financial Support...
Funding within the history department is fairly generous. As well
as a guaranteed minimum for three years, there are plenty of
opportunities to apply for additional scholarships and grants aimed
at those specifically within the department.
About My Program...
Located within the Department of History, the Centre for Scottish
Studies offers the largest Scottish archival collection outside the
United Kingdom, graduate scholarships for travel and research in
Scotland, publishes the international journal of Scottish Studies,
has a Spring and Fall Colloquia as well as other conferences on
dedicated Scottish topics and most importantly some of the leading
academics in Scottish history.
About the City...
Guelph is a fantastic city. I moved from Scotland with my family
and we have taken very little time to adapt to life in Canada. You
have the benefit of living close to Canada's largest city, while at
the same time being part of a smaller, community orientated and
family friendly city.
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