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Weekly Mailing List Archives
28th November 2008


Alastair McIntyreElectric Scotland's Weekly Email Newsletter

Electric Scotland - The No.1 Scottish History Site Aois - The Celtic Community
The Electric Scotland Article Service

Dear Friend

It's your Electric Scotland newsletter meaning the weekend is nearly here :-)

You can view what's new this week on Electric Scotland at http://www.electricscotland.com/rss/whatsnew.php and you can unsubscribe to this newsletter by clicking on the link at the foot of this newsletter.

See our Calendar of Scottish Events around the world at http://www.electricscotland.com/familytree/calendar_help.htm It's your Electric Scotland newsletter meaning the weekend is nearly here :-)

CONTENTS
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Electric Scotland News
The Flag in the Wind
The Scottish Nation
Poetry and Stories
New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Book of Scottish Story
History of Glasgow
The Scottish Historical Review
The Concise Household Encyclopaedia
Reminiscences of Cromar and Canada
Sketches of North Carolina
John Knox, A Biography (New Book)
Artists and Architects from Scots in America
Ministers of the Gospel from Scots in America


ELECTRIC SCOTLAND NEWS
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We've now had a week to try out the new comment service and pleased to say we've had quite a few comments in and as a result promises of some articles coming to us as a result :-)

Of course we've also had a few idiotic comments but these are easily deleted. Mind you I am aware that you'll only see such comments if you actually visit a page that has them.

I've decided to just use the comment section so have removed the navigation and poll services as they really aren't working that well. I have noticed an odd glitch in adding a comment but if you refresh the page that normally sorts it out.

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I have started work on a new book about Loch Etive which is due to go up January or February and I've been given a couple of very good colour photographs to go with the book. You can see them on the index page of the book where you can also read the Preface at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/etive/

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I've also made a start at the John Knox biography for which more below.

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I've come to the end of the David Hunter pictures so over the next few weeks will be adding pictures of Glen Lyon in Perthshire.


ABOUT THE STORIES
-----------------
Some of the stories in here are just parts of a larger story so do check out the site for the full versions. You can always find the link in our "What's New" section at the link at the top of this newsletter or on our site menu.


THE FLAG IN THE WIND
--------------------
This weeks Flag is compiled by Richard Thomson. Richard has produced two main articles, one on the media and the other on the Calman commission.

In Peter's cultural section he's telling us about Parks...

Scotland is fortunate that in cities and towns, the length and breadth of the nation, have benefited from benefactors who made public parks available, for the benefit of all. Such a park, was my child-time and, indeed, continuing favourite, the Duthie Park, by the banks of the River Dee, in Aberdeen. The 4 acres of land which the park covers was gifted to Aberdeen Council in 1881 by Lady Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston, in memory off her uncle, Walter, and brother, Alexander. The land cost £30,000 from the estate of Arthurseat. The lay-out of the Duthie Park was designed by the Dundee surveyor and architect William R McKelvie. The Earl of Aberdeen and lady Duthie cut the first sod on Saturday 27 August 1881 and the park was formally opened on 27 September 1883 by Princess Beatrice. Generations of Aberdonians and the many visitors to the city have enjoyed the park ever since.

The Duthie Park is this week’s visitor attraction because regardless of the weather a visitor can enjoy the splendid David Welch Winter Gardens, with tropical and arid houses, in all seasons. The original greenhouses were opened in 1891 but after a severe storm in May 1969 demolished. The rebuilt Duthie Park Winter Gardens were opened by Lord Provost Lennox on 9 April 1970. The Winter Gardens were renamed the David Welch Winter Gardens after the death in 2001 of David Welch, who had been an outstanding Director of Parks for Aberdeen. The gardens are the third most visited in Scotland and are a must see on any visit to the Granite City.

An Aberdeen recipe, probably of Dutch origin, Aberdeen Cruella, is this week’s tasty offering.

Aberdeen Cruella

Ingredients: 2 oz (50g) butter at room temperature; 2 oz (50g) sugar; 7 oz (200g) self-raising flour; 1 egg; oil for deep frying

Method: Beat the butter and sugar until light and creamy. Beat in the egg. Stir in the flour to make a stiffish dough. Knead until smooth and divide into 6 portions. Roll each portion to an oblong about 5”-6” long (120cm-150cm). Cut each portion into three strips almost to the end. Plait the strips and seal the end with a little water. Deep fry until they are quite golden. Drain excess fat and lay them on kitchen paper. Dust with caster sugar or icing sugar and eat either hot or cold.

You can read the Flag, listen to the Scots Language, enjoy the Scots Wit and lots more at http://www.scotsindependent.org

we've got another diary entry from Christina McKelvie MSP at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/mckelvie/081127.htm


The Scottish Nation
-------------------
My thanks to Lora for transcribing these volumes for us.

We're now onto the W's with Wellwood, Wemyss, Whitefoord, Whyte-Melville, Wigton, Wilkie and William.

An interesting account of William I which starts...

WILLIAM I., KING OF SCOTS, styled William the Lion, from being the first Scottish monarch who assumed the figure of a lion rampant on his shield, grandson of David I., and brother of Malcolm IV., was born in 1143. He succeeded to the throne in 1165, and soon after he repaired to the English court, to endeavour to obtain from Henry II. of England the restoration of the territory of Northumberland, which had been relinquished by Malcolm. Henry put him off with fair promises, and, at length, finding all his solicitations fruitless, William sent ambassadors to France, in 1168, and concluded a treaty with the French king against England. In 1172 he joined with Richard, Caeur de Lion, in a confederacy against the English monarch, father of that prince, who promised to restore to him the earldom of Northumberland, and to give to his brother, David, the earldom of Cambridge. In accordance with this agreement, William invaded England. He divided his army into three columns; the first of which laid siege to Carlisle, the second he himself led into Northumberland, and his brother, David, advanced with the third into Leicestershire. After reducing the castles of Burgh, Appleby, and Warkworth, William joined that division of his army which was besieging Carlisle. The place was already so much weakened, that the governor had agreed to surrender it by a certain day, provided it was not previously relieved; on which the king, leaving some troops to continue the siege, invested the castle with part of the forces under his command, at the same time sending a strong reinforcement to his brother David.

At this juncture, when his army was so much reduced, he received intelligence that a strong body of English were on their march to surprise him. Retiring to Alnwick, he laid siege to the place; but was unexpectedly attacked by 400 Yorkshire horsemen, who, disguising themselves in Scottish habits, had approached his camp unobserved. William mistook them for a party of his own stragglers returning loaded with spoil; but the display of the English banners soon undeceived him. On perceiving his error, he gallantly charged the enemy at the head of sixty horse; but being overpowered by numbers, he was taken prisoner and conveyed to Richmond castle. He was then carried in chains before Henry, at Northampton, and ordered to be sent to the castle of Falaise in Normandy, where he was confined with other state prisoners. Towards the close of the year he regained his liberty, but only by consenting to do homage to Henry for Scotland and all his other possessions; and, as a security, he was obliged to deliver into the hands of the English monarch the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick, Jedburgh, Edinburgh, and Stirling. David, the king’s brother, with twenty barons, who were present at the signing of this convention, were given to Henry as hostages on the occasion. This took place in 1174, and in the succeeding year, William, with the clergy and barons, did homage to Henry at York.

You can read the rest of this account at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/nation/william.htm

You can read all these entries at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/nation/index.htm


Poetry and Stories
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Another poem from John Henderson called "The Abortive 1715 Rising" which you can read at http://www.electricscotland.com/poetry/doggerel289.htm

We also have some new poems and articles from Donna, Alastair and others in our Article Service at http://www.electricscotland.com/article/

I might add that I post up a story or two each week about things happening in Scotland.


New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
------------------------------------------
We have now added the Parish of Dolphinton to the Lanark volume.

Name—Boundaries.—A Dolphin fish is represented in the arms of the principal heritor; but the name of Dolphinstown, as it was anciently spelled, seems with more probability to be derived from that of one of the early proprietors of the manor. Dolfine, the eldest brother of Coss Patrick, first Earl of Dunbar, acquired this property during the reign of Alexander I., about the beginning of the twelfth century. In the district of the country from which he came, a village with the ruins of an ancient castle still retains his name; and there are other places of the same appellation in Roxburgh-shire and in West Lothian. [In Douglas MS. Chronicle of England, Thomas Dolfine is recorded among the "grete lordes of Scoteland" who were defeated at Halidon Hill in 1338.]

The parish is 3 miles long from east to west, 21 broad, and contains 2926 statute acres. Its form is nearly that of an oblong square, bounded by Linton, Walston, Dunsyre, and Kirkurd.

Topographical Appearances.—Dolphinton hill is in height above the level of the sea about 1550 feet. This and the hill of Walston adjoining to it, are separated about a mile from the west end of the Pentlands, and form with Tinto, which is five miles to the westward, so many connecting links of one of the great collateral chains which gird our island, from St Abb's Head to Ailsay Craig. With the exception of Keir-hill, which rises in a conical shape about 250 feet high, the rest of the land in the parish is arable, with a moderate acclivity in an altitude' of from 700 to 800 feet. [Altitude of Garvaldfoot, as ascertained by Telford, 735 feet. The top of Dolphinton-hill, as lately measured by the writer of this account, is 816 feet above the site of the manse.]

You can read this account at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/statistical/dolphinton.htm

The index page for the New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845) can be found at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/statistical/


Book of Scottish Story
----------------------
Our thanks to John Henderson for sending this in for us.

This week have added...

Janet Smith

And here is how it starts...

Old Janet Smith lived in a cottage overshadowed by an ash—tree, and flanked by a hawthorn, called Lasscairn,— so named, in all probability, from a caim of stones, almost in the centre of which this simple habitation was placed, in which, even within the period of my remembrance, three maiden veterans kept "rock and reel, bleezing hearth and reeking lum." They were uniformly mentioned in the neighbourhood as "the lasses o’ Lasscairn,” though their united ages might have amounted to something considerably above three-score thrice told. Janet, however, of whom I am now speaking, had been married in her teens, and her husband having lost his life in a lime-quarry, she had been left with an only child, a daughter, whom, by the help of God’s blessing, and her wee wheel, she had reared and educated as far as the Proofs and Willison’s. This daughter having attained to a suitable age, had been induced one fine summer evening, whilst her mother was engaged in her evening devotion under the shadow of the ash-tree, to take a pleasure walk with Rob Paton, a neighbouring ploughman, but then recently enlisted, and to share his name and his fortunes for twenty-four months to come. At the end of this period, she found her mother nearly in the same position in which she had left her, praying earnestly to her God to protect, direct, and return her "bairn.” There were, however, two bairns for the good old woman to bless, instead of one, and the young Jessie Paton was said to be the very picture of her mother. Be that as it may, old Janet, now a grannie, loved the bairn, forgave the mother, and by the help of an additional wheel, which, in contradistinction to her own, was designated "muckle,” she, and her "broken-hearted, deserted" daughter, contrived for years to earn such a subsistence as their very moderate wants required. At last a severe fever cut off the mother, and left a somewhat sickly child at about nine years of age, under the sole protection of an aged and enfeebled grandmother. It was at this stage of old Janet’s earthly travail that, in the character of a schoolboy, I became acquainted with her and her daughter,—for ever after the mother’s death, the child knew her grandmother by no other name, and under no other relation.

You can read the rest of this at http://www.electricscotland.com/books/story/story69.htm

The other stories can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/books/story/index.htm


The History of Glasgow
----------------------
By Robert Renwick LL.D. and Sir John Lindsay L.D. in 3 volumes (1921)

We are now onto the final 3rd volume and added this week are the following chapters...

Chapter XIV
College Life

Chapter XV
A Glasgow Jacobite: John Walkinshaw of Barrowfield

Chapter XVI
The Shawfield Riot

Chapter XVII
Campbell of Shawfield and his Compensation

Chapter XVIII
Colonel William Macdowall and the West India Trade

Chapter XIX
James Macrae, Governor of Madras, and Glasgow's First Equestrian Statue

Chapter XX
Results of Reviving Trade

Here is how Chapter XIX starts...

IT is not commonly known that Glasgow possesses what are probably the earliest portrait sculptures in Scotland. It is matter of frequent regret that no contemporary portraits exist of the great national heroes, Sir William Wallace and King Robert the Bruce. Of Wallace there is nothing but the verbal description by Henry the Minstrel, and of King Robert there is only the rather unreliable representation on a few coins of his reign. Glasgow, however, possesses authentic portraits of royal and notable personages of fifty years' earlier date. The only earlier portrait of any kind known to exist in Scotland is contained in an illumination in the Kelso chartulary, which is believed to represent King David I. The Glasgow sculptures form bosses in the vaulting of the lower church of the Cathedral, and are believed to date from about the year 1248, and to represent King Alexander II., Bishop William de Bondington, Comyn, Lord of Kilbride, and his lady, and King Alexander III. as a boy. All these personages were concerned with the completion of the building of the Cathedral, and their likenesses are vivid and realistic after the lapse of nearly seven centuries. [Casts of these sculptures, made for the Scottish National History Exhibition of 1911, are to be seen in the city's Art Galleries at Kelvingrove.] Next in date of portrait sculptures in possession of the city is the bust of the redoubtable Zachary Boyd, minister of the Barony, whose faithful dealing with Oliver Cromwell on his visit to the city in 1651 is a familiar tradition. For two centuries it occupied a niche above the doorway in the quadrangle of the old College in High Street, and now occupies a place of honour in the University at Gilmorehill. Of about the same period are the fine statues of the brothers Hutcheson, founders of Hutchesons' Hospital and Schools, which at first stood on each side of the tower of the original hospital in Trongate, looking northward over the garden acre, and which now look down Hutcheson Street from the front of the more modern building.

You can read the rest of this chapter at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/glasgow/glasgow3_19.htm

The index page of the book is at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/glasgow/historyndx.htm


The Scottish Historical Review
------------------------------
I have added a few more articles from these publications...

The Western Highlands in the Eighteenth Century
IN the muniment room at Dunvegan, the seat of MacLeod of MacLeod in Skye, are preserved a great number of documents which throw much light on the conditions prevailing in the Highlands during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Aesculapius in Fife: a Study of the Early Eighteenth Century
AMONG the many records of Scottish domestic accounts during the seventeenth century which have been published there are few which make any reference at all to expenditure on medical attendance, though, as the papers dealt with in here clearly show, the doctor's bill must have formed an appreciable item in the annual budget of the family man.

Rent-Rolls of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in Scotland
IN the years 1828-29-30 the late James Maidment, Advocate, Edinburgh, published in very limited editions copies of certain papers which had come into his hands relating to the history, privileges and possessions of the Knights-Templars in Scotland and their successors the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. These pamphlets, five in number issued in paper covers, are now rare. To one of them entitled Abstract of the Charters and other papers recorded in the Chartulary of Torphichen from 1581 to 1596 is prefixed an introductory notice wherein the loss, or supposed loss, of the greater part of the Chartulary is deplored.

You can read these articles at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/articles/review


The Concise Household Encyclopaedia
-----------------------------------
This week have added...

Four more pages which include, Cherry Pie, Cherry Pudding, Cherry Sandwich Pudding, Cherry Wood, Chervil, Cheshire Cheese, Chess, Chess Board, Chest, Chest of Drawers.

You can see these at http://www.electricscotland.com/household/c.htm

The index page for this publication is at http://www.electricscotland.com/household/index.htm


Reminiscences of Cromar and Canada
----------------------------------
By Donald Robert Farquharson

We have now completed this book with the following chapters...

Chapter XIX
Westward Ho

Chapter XX
Tilbury East

Chapter XXI
Friends New and Old

Chapter XXII
The Clerkship and Drainage

Chapter XXIII
A Generation Passes

Chapter XXIV
Stewarts, Farquharsons and Fletchers

Appendix
Proverbial Sayings in Use in Cromar

Appendix
Glossary

Here is how Chapter XIX, Westward Ho, starts...

THE terminal year of our farm lease at last had come, and the question of renewal which, for years, had been, with our household, an anxious matter for discussion, now demanded immediate settlement. Some six years previously, my father had purchased in Canada a hundred acre bush farm, and the thought of being able to make our home in such a possession, free from rent and expiring leases, had appealed strongly to the imagination of every one of our household. Now rumour had it that our proprietor, with the consent of his interested heirs, had succeeded in releasing from entail, or as Burns would have it: "Riving his father's auld entails," in respect of that portion of his estate situated in Cromar, and that our farm, together with all those in that district, was to be sold.

WE DECIDE TO EMIGRATE

In regard to a change of proprietor such as that would involve, the general experience amongst tenants had been that the new lairds were less considerate of their tenants than had been the old hereditary aristocracy, who were reputed to have retained a sort of fatherly interest in their tenantry from generation to generation. The Cromar estate was soon purchased by an English lawyer of the name of Coltman, an estimable gentleman, I believe, who probably knew little of the conditions of his new tenants or their peculiar needs. For him, it must be said that he purchased the estate with a statement in his hand, prepared by expert valuators employed by the vendor, making their appraisal of the amount of yearly rental which might be reasonably expected from the several farms on the estate. That valuation may have been high, but most likely the purchaser had depended upon it in making the purchase. My father, at least, had the offer of renewal in terms of the appraised valuation, and I am not aware that in any case was demand made for rental in excess of the amount thereby indicated. If, therefore the rents were excessive, the responsibility therefor would seem to rest not less upon the former proprietor than upon his successor. Indeed it may well be that, to the former, through the increased price realized, may have accrued most, if not all of the benefit arising from the increased rental.

You can read the rest of this chapter at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/canada/cromar/chapter19.htm

The other chapters can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/canada/cromar/index.htm


Sketches of North Carolina
--------------------------
Historical and Biographical, illustrative of the Principles of a portion of her Early Settlers by Rev. William Henry Foote (1846)

We've now added several more chapters to this book...

Chapter VI - State of Religion in Ireland from the time of the Emigration from Scotland to the first effort to emigrate to America, 1631
The Emigrants from Scotland. Stewart's character of them. The opinion in Scotland about the Emigration. Christian Ministers go over to Ireland to the Emigrants:--1st, Edward Brice; 2d, John Ridge; 3d, Al. Hubbard; 4th, James Glendenning; 5th, Robert Cunningham; 6th, Robert Blair; 7th, James Hamilton. The Success of these Ministers. Commencement of the Great Revival. Stewart's account of it. The Monthly Meeting at Antrim. Stewart's and Blair's account of it. More Ministers pass over to Ireland. The 6th, Josias Welch; 9th, Andrew Stewart; 10th, George Dunbar; Andrew Brown, the Deaf Mute; 11th, Henry Colwort; 12th, John Livingston, of Kirks, of Shott's Memory; 13th, John McClelland; 14th, John Semple. Monthly Meeting at Antrim improved. Bodily Exercises no mark of Religion.

Chapter VII - The Eagle Wing, or first attempt at Emigration from Ireland to America
Cause of the attempt at Emigration. Four Ministers forbid the Ministry. Delegates appointed to New England. Cotton Mather's notice of the matter. The Eagle Wing sails, 1636, with a band of Emigrants. Livingston's account of the Voyage. Child Baptized at sea. Vessel driven back to Ireland. The reception of the Emigrants. The Ministers return to Scotland in 1637; their flocks go over to receive the Sacraments. The Influence of these men on Ireland and the World.

Chapter VIII - Formation of Presbyteries in Ireland
First Meeting of a Presbytery in Ireland, 1642. Steps Preparatory. Convocation of the Irish Clergy appointed Usher to draw up a Confession of Faith. Its character. Heylin's account of the Church in Usher's time. Blair and Livingston's course respecting Ordination. Laymen conduct public worship after the Clergy retire to Scotland. The Scottish army introduced to crush Rebellion, 1641. Massacre of Protestants. Six Chaplains accompany the Scotch regiments; also Mr. Livingston. Regular Presbyterian Churches formed in the Regiments. The Presbytery Constituted. Sessions formed in the country around. The people petition the General Assembly of Scotland for Supplies. Six Ministers sent to regulate the Churches. The Congregation take possession of some of the vacant Parish Churches. Some persons Episcopally ordained., join the Presbytery. Solemn League and Covenant adopted in Scotland, 1643, and in many parts of Ireland, 1644. Its effect. Number of Presbyterian Ministers in Ireland from 1647 to 1657. The first Presbytery divided into five Presbyteries. Number of Ministers in 1660 and in 1689. The Presbytery of Lagan license the first Presbyterian Minister settled in the United States; Francis Makemie.

Chapter IX - The Political Sentiments of the Scotch-Irish Emigrants
They were Loyal. Reasons for their ancestors being chosen to colonise Ireland. Their views of the authority of Parliament after the King's Death. How the Magistrates are to be chosen. 2d. They insisted on choosing their own Ministers of Religion; this the source of all their trouble; Republicans in their nations. 3d. They demanded ordination by Presbyters instead of Bishops. 4th. Strict discipline in morals and in the instruction of Youth. Their views of Education. Connection of their Religion with their politics. Their agreement in fundamentals; and disagreement in smaller matters.

Chapter X - The Settlement of the Scotch on the River Cape Fear and the Reverend James Campbell
Some families Settled as early as 1729. The Clark family as early as 1730, from the Hebrides. Charles Edward, the Pretender, appears, lands in Scotland. The heads of the great Clans against his plans; joined by the young men. Is for a time successful. Is ruined at Culloden. Executions follow his defeat; the country laid waste; but the Prince escapes. Anecdote of a Scotch gentleman. Anecdote of Kennedy. The Rebels condemned; 17 suffer, the rest exiled, go to Cape Fear; causes of settling there. The Religion of the Scotch. No Minister came with the first Emigrants. The Rev. James Campbell; birth-place; emigrates to America; gives over Preaching. By means of Whitefield resumes his Ministry. Emigrates to Cape Fear. His extensive labors; his regular preaching places. Bluff and its Elders. Barbacue and its Elders. Use of the Gaelic Language. The Rev. John McLeod.

Chapter XI - The Political Opinions of the Scotch Emigrants
The Scotch not Radicals; desired a Government of Law. The Bible their guide. Revolution. Natural right in given cases. Their National Covenants; their object. Hetherington's view of the Covenants. Rutherford's Lem. Rex. Charles 2d and James 1st, swore to the Covenants; the Oath. Division of sentiment about the Revolution. The Association in Cumberland, drawn by Robert Rowan, 1773. Governor Martin commissions Donald M'Donald as Brigadier. He erects the Royal Standard, Feb., 1770. The Camp at Campbellton, or Cross Creeks. Col. Moore marches against him M'Donald sends an Embassy. Moves down to Moore's Creek, Makes an attack on Caswell and Livingston, and is defeated. The action of the Provincial Congress respecting the Prisoners.

Chapter XII - Flora MacDonald
Her first appearance in the Trials of the Pretender. Roderick Makenzie. The Prince lands on South Uist; is followed by three thousand armed men. Plans for his escape in disguise. Appeal to Flora M'Donald; she accepts the offer. O'Neill joins. Interview with the Prince. A Passport procured for the Prince disguised as a servant. The danger of discovery. They set sail. A tempest. Land at Kilbride. New dangers from Soldiers; escape. The Prince's farewell. His escape from Scotland. Flora M'Donald seized and conveyed to London. The companions of her confinement. The nobility become interested in her favor. Prince Frederick procures her release. She is introduced at Court, loaded with presents and sent home. Marries Allen M'Donald and emigrates to North Carolina. Her stay at Cross Creeks, at Cameron's Hill, and in Anson County; joins the Royal Standard at Cross Creeks. After her husband's release they return to Scotland. Attacked by a Privateer on the Voyage; her heroism. Her family; the close of her life; her burial-place.

You can read the rest of this and the first five chapters at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/america/nc/


John Knox, A Biography
----------------------
By D. MacMillan M.A. (1905)

The Preface states...

THIS biography of the great Scottish Reformer has been directly inspired by the quarter centenary of his birth, which is to be celebrated this year. This is at once its excuse and its justification. The book is intended to fill a place midway between the larger and the smaller biographies of Knox already in existence. It is meant to meet the wants of those whose desire is to have a full sketch of the Reformer's career, but one which, at the same time, is not overburdened with unnecessary details.

I have to express my indebtedness to writers who have gone over the field before me: to the historians of the period, and in particular to the two chief biographers of Knox, Dr. McCrie and Dr. Hume Brown. Among the smaller biographies I have found that of Mrs. Maccunn the most suggestive. Dr. David Laing's well-known edition of Knox's works has, of course, been my chief source of information. Two books recently published are also of special note; these are the Baird Lecture of the late Professor Mitchell and the Croall Lecture of the late Professor Hastie. Dr. Mitchell's work, edited with great care by Dr. Hay Fleming, gives a very luminous sketch of the polity of Knox, and Dr. Hastie's volume is invaluable for its exposition of the Reformer's theology.

The question of the date of Knox's birth, recently raised, is discussed in the Appendix. It is not pretended that the matter has been finally settled, but no evidence yet adduced seems to me strong enough to cause us to depart from the date mentioned by Spottiswoode and Buchanan. Knox's spelling has been in most instances modernised, but the original form has been preserved where it appeared most effective.

Whatever value the book possesses is, I feel, greatly enhanced by Principal Story's Introduction, in which he gives an appreciation of the Reformer at once distinctive and illuminative.

My best thanks are due to Mr. William Wallace, LL.D., for valuable suggestions made while the work was passing through the press, to the Rev. P. H. Aitken, B.D., and the Rev. George Drummond, B.D., for kindly revising the proofs, and to the Rev. R. S. V. Logie, M.A., for preparing the Index.

D. MACMILLAN.

February 20, 1905.

I felt it was important to place a biography of John Knox on the site and I chose this biography as it states in the biography "It is meant to meet the wants of those whose desire is to have a full sketch of the Reformer's career, but one which, at the same time, is not overburdened with unnecessary details".

Anyone wanting to know more can of course search out the larger biographies that are available.

I have the Introduction up now which can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/knox/index.htm


Artists and Architects
----------------------
A chapter from the book "Scots in America". Here is how it starts...

PAINTINGS from Scotland by Scottish artists do not seem nowadays to find much acceptance in America. They are rarely found in the catalogues of the many art sales in New York or Boston or the other large cities, and in the art dealers' establishments the best-known painters of Scotland are unknown either by name or by example. In art circles, in periodicals devoted to art, and in the columns of newspapers which make a feature of artistic matters, hardly any attention is paid to collecting and presenting news from the Scottish studios, and even the gossip of American professional critics seldom troubles itself concerning what may be passing in Scotland, where so many recognized masters have gained their reputation and established a national claim to artistic recognition. The amateur lovers and professional creators of art in America talk glibly of Chalon, of Palmaroli, of Gamier, of Gerome, but of Thomson, Phillip, Macnee, MacCullough, Allan, Faed, or any of the recognized Scottish masters they seem to know nothing.

This is singular when we consider that so many other professional, as well as business and working, men from Scotland, and Scottish products generally, find such a kindly reception in America. The Scottish artisan is always welcomed in every section of the United States as a superior, thorough, and industrious workman, one with a degree of intelligence above his fellows; the Scottish farmer is hailed as an accession in each agricultural community, and it is safe to say that there is not an American steamer afloat on which the services of Scotch engineers are not in use or in demand. In the higher walks of life the influence of Scotland is everywhere seen. Scottish architecture has been closely studied, and the old Baronial style has been copied, adapted, or "applied" to the majority of American modern villas, and, in fact, along with the so-called Colonial style, was the main foundation for the exteriors of such places until recently supplanted by the nondescript "Queen Anne" and pseudo-Elizabethan styles. Even in many public buildings, although a sort of mongrel renaissance is the prevailing fad, the towers and peaks and gables of the Scottish school take the place of the "Grecian" front elevations, with their wooden pillars and impossible pediments. Scotch financiers stand above the tumults, the reactions, the bull-and-bear movements of the stock exchanges, veritable pillars of strength in a seething, sonic-times repulsive, sea of dishonesty and dishonor.

Scottish theology has been gratefully accepted by Americans, and not even in Scotland have the writings of such men as Prof. A. B. Bruce, Dr. Calderwood, the late Dr. John Ker, Dr. Oswald Dykes, and Dr. Buchanan more appreciative readers. Scottish poetry, too, is also in great vogue; Robert Buchanan, for instance, used to be a favorite; several editions of "Olrig Grange" were readily disposed of when that poem first appeared; Shairp's verses also found a ready sale, and even Pollok's "Course of Time" has been printed in a dozen different forms. There are a half a dozen editions of Aytoun's "Lays," and there are numerous editions of Motherwell, Montgomery, Campbell, and most of our poets, printed and sold in this country. Scots songs are sung on every concert platform, and students of Burns are as numerous as in Scotland. Indeed, probably the most ambitious edition of the works of the Ayrshire bard—six large volumes with notes, steel engravings, and all sorts of editorial paraphernalia—was published in Philadelphia only a few years ago. Of the Waverley Novels there are over twenty-five distinct editions in the market, and editions of Scott's poetry seem to grace, either completely or singly, every publisher's catalogue. One firm has printed over 300,000 copies of Barrie's works, and there is a choice of various editions of any of the writings of Stevenson or Black. Excepting art, everything Scotch, from curling to philosophy, seems to find congenial soil in America.

You can read the rest of this at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/america/scotinamerica_chap6.htm


Ministers of the Gospel
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Another chapter from the book "Scots in America". Here is how it starts...

NO class of men have done more to direct public opinion and conserve public morals in North America than the preachers of the Gospel who have settled in the United States and Canada from Scotland. In speaking of the Scotch clergy on this continent, and particularly in the United States, we generally think of them as Presbyterians. The majority of them certainly were, and are, of the Kirk of John Knox, but we also find them in all denominations, Episcopalian and Baptist, Methodist and Roman Catholic. Indeed, one of the Bishops of the latter Church in the United States who died a year or two ago was a native of Scotland, and as proud of the fact as he was of his crozier. Presbyterianism, however, is so much associated with the history of Scotland that when we speak of a Scottish clergyman in America he is generally supposed to be a Presbyterian—until the contrary is made known. Then, many Scotch preachers ordained in some one of the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland become Congregationalists when they reach America, believing that that form of Church government is more suited to the requirements of the country than any other, and many have found in the pulpit of the Reformed Dutch Church a haven from which they could preach the Word. Such changes may, of course, be made without sacrificing one iota of the preachers' early notions of the unity of the denomination and the inter-dependence of individual congregations taught in the policy and practice of the religious organization under which their fathers had -worshipped, and in which they themselves had been trained for the work of the ministry.

You can read the rest of this at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/america/scotinamerica_chap5.htm


And that's it for this week and I hope you all have a wonderful weekend and our American friends enjoy their Thanksgiving holiday :-)


Alastair
http://www.electricscotland.com

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