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The Scottish Nation

CRAWFORD, CRAUFURD, or CRAUFORD, a surname derived from the barony of Crawford in Lanarkshire, of which the origin is unknown.

      The family of Crawford is of undoubted Norman origin. The site of the ruins of Crawford castle is still called Norman Gill, and the early names of this family are all pure Norman. The account of their descent from an Anglo-Danish chief, as given by George Crawfurd, and adopted by Robertson in his Ayrshire Families, is altogether erroneous. Burke, [History of the Commoners, vols. ii. and iii.,] conjectures that they are descended from that old and distinguished race, the earlier earls of Richmond, with whose armorial bearings theirs nearly correspond, being Gules, a fesse ermine in the former, and a bend on the latter. According to his hypothesis, Reginald, youngest son of Alan, fourth earl of Richmond, who died in 1146, and great grandson of Galfridus, duke of Brittany, who died in 1008, obtained large grants of land from King David the First in Clydesdale, being one of the thousand Norman knights whom he established in his dominions. These grants may have originated in his (Reginald’s) connection with the royal family of Scotland, as his brother Conan le Petit, fifth earl of Richmond, married a grand-daughter of David, namely, Margaret, daughter of Prince Henry, and sister of King William. In connection with this relationship and settlement of Reginald in Scotland, Theobaldus the Fleming, the reputed ancestor of the Douglases, who held lands in Yorkshire under the earls of Richmond, appears to have followed his fortunes into that kingdom, as also Baldwin of Biggar, formerly of Multon in Yorkshire, under that family, who afterwards married the widow of Reginald. He is presumed to be the party who assumed the surname of Crawford, according to the practice of that age, from his barony of Crawford in Clydesdale. He is alluded to, in a charter of William de Lindsey, afterward confirmed by King William, early in that prince’s reign, wherein mention is made of Johannis de Craufurd, filius Reginaldi. In 1127 there were two brothers of this name, knights, sons must probably of this Reginald, namely, Sir John Crawford and Sir Gregan Crawford, both in the service of King David the First. On the foundation of the abbey of Holyrood by that monarch, Sir Gregan’s arms were placed therein, as he was instrumental in saving his majesty’s life from a stag that had unhorsed him whilst hunting on that spot on Holyrood day, in 1127. [Nisbet’s System of Heraldry, vol. i. p. 334.] The old stones on which his arms were emblazoned, taken from the ruins of Holyrood Abbey, were built over the lintels of the Canongate church porch; this church having been a dependency of the Abbey. He carried in his armorial bearings, argent, a stag’s head erazed, with a cross crosslet, between his attires, gules, laying aside his paternal bearing; gules, a fesse ermine, carried by some branches of the Crawfords. On the abbey of Holyrood are the arms of Archibald Crawford, treasurer to James IV., and brother of Crawford of Henning, as shown in the subjoined cut, viz., a fesse ermine with a star in chief, and the shield adorned on the top with a mitre. Sir Gregan had a grant of lands from King David in Galloway, called after him, Dalmagregan. This appellation is most probably a corruption of “De la Mag Gregan,” and implies “the lands of the chief Gregan,” and is an instance of the adoption of the prefix Mac in connection with the Romanesque Dal, as well as in reference to a Norman knight.

[arms of Archibald Crawford]

      Galfridus, styled Dominus Galfridus de Crawford, frequently occurs among the magnates Scotiae, as a witness to the charters of King William inter 1170 et 1190. He married the sister of John le Scot, earl of Chester, and niece of the king. She was the daughter of David earl of Huntingdon, second son of David the First of Scotland by his queen Maud. He is termed kinsman by John le Scot earl of Chester, nephew of the king, in a charter quoted by George Crawford, along with John le Scot’s two natural brothers, where they are all styled fratribus, in accordance with the practice of that age in the use of this term.

      Reginald de Crawford, probably the son of Galfridus above mentioned, is witness in 1228, to a charter of Richard le Bard (the original of the name of Baird) to the monastery of Kelso. Reginald was succeeded by his second son, Sir John de Crawford, designed dominus de eodem, miles, in several donations to the monasteries of Kelso and Newbottle. He died, without male issue, in 1248, and was buried in Melrose Abbey. He is said to have had two daughters, the elder of whom, Margaret, married Archibald de Douglas, ancestor of the dukes of Douglas, and the younger became, about 1230, the wife of David de Lindsay of Wauchopedale, ancestor of the earls of Crawford. There is, however, no proof of this latter marriage, and William de Lindsay of Ercildun possessed the barony of Crawford long before the date assigned to it.  (See LINDSAY, name of.) The Lindsays held it till the year 1488, when David duke of Montrose was deprived of it, and it was given to Archibald Bell the Cat, earl of Angus. Others say that the duke exchanged it with Earl Archibald for lands in Forfarshire.

      Contemporary with the above Galfridus de Crawford was Gualterus de Crawford, witness to a charter of Roger, bishop of St. Andrews, sometime between 1189 and 1202. From him came Sir Reginald de Crawford, who, about 1200, married Margaret de Loudoun, the heiress of the extensive barony of Loudoun in Ayrshire. He was the first vice-comes or high sheriff of the county of Ayr, an office hereditary in his family. In consequence of this marriage he quartered the arms of Loudoun with his own. He witnessed a donation of David de Lindsay to the monastery of Newbottle, confirmed by Alexander the Second in 1220. It was under this Sir Reginald, as hereditary sheriff principal of Ayrshire, that the three bailiwicks of Carrick, Kyle, and Cunningham were first formed into a county, in 1221. [See Chalmers’ Caledonia, vol. iii. p. 452.]

      His son, Hugh Crawford of Loudoun, sheriff of yr, in a charter of Walter, son of Alan, high steward of Scotland, of a donation to the monastery of Paisley, of the lands of Dalmullin (De la Mouline) in 1226, is designed Hugo, filius Reginaldi. By a grant of Allan, son of Roland of Galloway, he had, pro homagio et servitio suo, the lands of Monoch, which is ratified by a charter of King Alexander the Second at Cadihou (Cadzow) the last day of March, 1226. He had another charter from the great constable his superior, de tota terra de Crosby, afterwards enjoyed by his descendants the Crawfords of Auchinames. He was one of the magnates et barones Scotiae, who put themselves into the protection of the king of England, in the commotions that happened in 1255. He died in the end of the reign of Alexander the Second. His son Sir Hugh Crawford, sheriff of Ayr, had a letter of safe-conduct to go to England in the year last mentioned. He settled a contest with the abbot of Kelso, cum consensu Alicie spousae suae. He had two sons and a daughter; the latter, Margaret, married Sir Malcolm Wallace, of Elderslie, knight, and became the mother of Sir William Wallace, the hero of Scotland. As old Wintoun says:

                        “His father was a manly knight,
                        His mother was a lady bright.”

Sir Hugh was succeeded by his son, Sir Reginald Crawford of Loudoun, sheriff of Ayr, who, in 1288, witnessed a charter of donation of James, high steward of Scotland, to the monastery of Paisley. In 1292, he was one of the nominees on the part of Robert Bruce in his competition for the crown of Scotland with Baliol; and in 1296, with many others, he swore fealty to King Edward the First of England, when he overrun Scotland with his armies. In the Ragman Roll occurs the name of Radolphus de Crawforde (Nisbet’s Heraldry, App. vol. ii. p. 10. ed. 1742), on which Nisbet remarks, “This is the same person with Reginaldus de Crawford, in the same record entitled vice-comes de Air.” Believing that the oath to Edward, as it had been exacted by force, was not binding on him, he joined with the first of the Scottish patriots who rose in arms against Edward. He, with other Scottish knights, is described by Blind Harry as having lost his life at the mysterious transaction called the conference of Ayr in 1297, a deed avenged shortly afterward by his nephew Sir William Wallace. By Cecilia his wife, he had a son, Sir Reginald or Raynauld (otherwise Ronald) Crawford, of Loudoun, sheriff of yr, who was among the first of the Scottish barons to join Wallace his cousin, and was with h im in all his  struggles and dangers. He was also among the first to join Robert the Bruce. In 1306, he accompanied Thomas and Alexander, the brothers of Bruce, in their descent on Galloway, with seven hundred men; when, being attacked on their landing at Loch Ryan by Duncan M’Dowal, or MacDougall (Magnus du Gall, or chief of the Gall or Wallense), a powerful chieftain, their little army was totally defeated, 9th February 1306-7, and the two brothers, with Sir Reginald Crawford, were grievously wounded and made prisoners. M’Dowall carried them to the English king at Carlisle, where they were ordered to instant execution, their heads being placed on the castle and gates of that town. He left an only child, Susanna Crawford of Loudoun, his sole heiress, who married Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochawe, ancestor of the earls of Loudoun (See LOUDOUN, earl of).

      In the Ragman Roll the surname of Crawford occurs no less than eight times as that of Scottish barons who swore fealty to Edward the First in 1292, 1296, 1297, &c. Nisbet remarks that this surname was then so frequent that it is difficult to distinguish them from one another.


      The Crawfords of Kerse in the district of Kyle, Ayrshire, a branch of the Crawfords of Loudoun, ultimately became the representatives of the Dalmagregan Crawfords, and, in consequence, carried in their armorial bearings a stag’s head, as did also the Crawfords of Drumsoy and the Crawfords of Comlarg. The first of the Kerse family was Reginald, son of Hugh Crawford of Loudoun, He got a grant of the lands from his brother Hugh in the reign of King Alexander the Third. Notices of various individuals of this family occur in the reigns of James the First and Fourth, Esplin being at that period a favourite Christian name with them. In 1508, David Crawford of Kerse, David his son, John Crawford, ‘proctour,’ Esplane Crawford, and seven others, came in the king’s will, for hindering the sitting of the bailliary court of Carrick, when the laird of Kerse was americated in five pounds, and each of the others in forth shillings. This case arose out of one of the numerous feuds for which the district of Carrick was at one time notorious. On October 5th, 1527, Bartholomew Crawford of Kerse; David and Duncan his brothers; George Crawford of Lochnorris, and William his brother; John Crawford of Drougan, John and William his sons, with a great number of others, found caution to underlie the law for assisting Hugh Campbell of Loudoun, sheriff of Ayr, in the cruel slaughter of Gilbert earl of Cassillis. The grandson of this Bartholomew, David Crawford of Kerse, in consequence of having only female issue, entailed the estate in 1585, and on his death in 1600, he was succeeded by Alexander Crawford of Balgregan in Galloway, the next remaining heir male, descended from a son of David, the brother of Bartholomew, and designed of Culnorris and Balgregan. The original lands of Kerse appear subsequently to have gone to the next heir of entail, who seems to have been of the Comlarg family. IN 1680, Alexander Crawford of Kerse is infeft in the lands of Nether Skeldon, as heir of his father Alexander Crawford of Kerse. This Alexander Crawford appears to have been the last male proprietor of Kerse of the name of Crawford. His only daughter, Christian Crawford of Kerse, married Mr. Moodie of Meicester, and having no succession, she disponed the lands of Kerse to William Ross of Shandwick, writer in Edinburgh, who was, soon after, drowned on his passage to Orkney, when the estate of Kerse devolved on his heirs; who afterwards sold it to Mr. Oswald of Auchencruive, in whose family it still remains.

      The Crawfords of Kerse were famed for their feuds with the Kennedies, and a characteristic poem, called ‘Skeldon Haughs, or the Sow is Flitted,’ by the late Sir Alexander Boswell of Auchinleck, baronet, one of whose ancestors married a daughter of the laird of Kerse, founded on a traditional story current in Carrick, and the date of which Sir Alexander assigns to the fifteenth century, was printed at the celebrated Auchinleck press, and will be found in the appendix to the Account of the Kennedies. Edin. 1830, 4to.


      The Craufurdland branch of the Craufurds, one of the oldest of the name, descend from Sir Reginald de Crawford, sheriff of Ayr, who married the heiress of Loudoun. His third don, John, obtained from him several lands in Clydesdale, and in right of his wife, Alicia de Dalsalloch, became chief proprietor of that barony. This John conferred Ardoch, to which he gave the name of Craufurdland, in Ayrshire, upon his second son, John Craufurd, who lived in the time of Alexander the Second. His grandson, James Craufurd of Craufurdland, fought under his cousin, Sir William Wallace, and a descendant of his, John Craufurd of Giffordland, living in 1480, was ancestor of the Crawfords of Birkheid.

      Sir William Craufurd of Craufurdland, of this family, one of the bravest warriors of his day, was knighted by James the First. He was one of the Scottish auxiliaries in the service of Charles the Seventh of France, and in 1423 he received a severe wound at the siege of Crevelt in Burgundy, where a bloody battle was fought between the French and Scots and the English, when the Scots, under James Stewart, Lord Darnley, being basely deserted by the French, were defeated, with a loss of three thousand killed, and two thousand taken prisoners. Douglas (in his Baronage, p. 432) states that Craufurd was among the slain, but this is a mistake, as in the following year, he was amongst the prisoners released, with James the First.

      Robert Craufurd, the youngest son of Robert Craufurd of Auchencairn, a son of the laird of Craufurdland, died in 1487, of a wound received at the Wylielee in Ayrshire, in defending James Boyd, earl of Arran, when that nobleman was attacked and slain by the earl of Eglinton, with whom he was at feud. His father, Archibald Craufurd of Craufurdland, had two other sons, namely, Thomas, ancestor of the Craufurds of Classlogie and Powmill in Kinross-shire, and William, secretary to the earl of Morton, and progenitor of the Craufurds who settled in Tweeddale. Betwixt the lairds of Craufurdland and the lairds of Rowallan, the superiors of the lands of Ardoch, there had been a long feud, in the course of which the title deeds of both families were destroyed. In 1476, in a justice-eyre, holden at Ayr, by John Lord Carlyle, chief justice of Scotland, on the south side of the Forth, Robert Muir of Rowallan and John Muir his son, and diverse others their accomplices, were indicted for breaking the king’s peace against Archibald Craufurd of Craufurdland. By means of the sister of the second wife of the latter, dame Margaret Boyd, who had been mistress to King James the Fourth, and married Muir of Rowallan, this feud was at length extinguished, and a new charter, upon resignation, granted to the lair of Craufurdland of the lands of Ardoch.

      His grandson, John Craufurd of Craufurdland, by his prudent conduct, reconciled the Boyds and Montgomeries, and obtained in marriage Janet Montgomery, daughter of the laird of Giffin, and with a daughter, Renee, had two sons, John his successor, and Archibald, born after his father’s death.

      This Archibald Craufurd was bred to the church, and became parson of Eaglesham, in the shire of Renfrew, and as such had a manse in the Drygate of Glasgow, which he conveyed, in free property, to his chief the laird of Craufurdland. He was secretary and almoner to Queen Mary of Guise, regent of Scotland, with whose corpse he was sent to France in 1560, to see it deposited in the Benedictine monastery of St. Peter at Rheims, where his own sister Renee was then abbess. When in France, he got a commission from the unfortunate Mary queen of Scots, renewing to him his office of secretary and almoner, and expressive of her obligations for his great services rendered to her late mother, which commission was dated at Joinville in France, 17th April 1561. After Mary’s return to Scotland, in consequence of the attacks that were sometimes made on the chapel of Holyroodhouse, where the popish worship was allowed to be performed for the queen’s household, and the danger of its being pillaged at any time when she might be absent from Edinburgh, the queen, on January 11, 1561-2, directed Sir James Paterson, the sacristan or keeper of the sacred utensils, to deliver to her valet de chambre, Servais de Conde, the furniture of her chapel to be kept by her almoner, Mr. Archibald Craufurd, in the wardrobe of her palace at Edinburgh, from whence it could easily be conveyed as often as was necessary. On the restoration of the jurisdiction of the archbishop of St. Andrews in 1563, Mr. Archibald Craufurd was one of the judges deputed by that prelate to exercise it. In March of that year, he was cited before the justice court, for celebrating mass, but the result is not stated. [Pitcairn’s Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 29.] He was appointed by Queen Mary, a lord of session on the spiritual side, on the death of the bishop of Brechin, and took his seat on 26th April 1566. After the queen had been sent a prisoner to Lochleven, in June 1567, an inventory was taken of all her plate, jewels, &c., at Holyroodhouse, and the specie thereof was, by the confederated lords, melted and converted into coin. It appears, however, that her majesty found means to put into the hands of Mr. Archibald Craufurd, her almoner, certain pieces of plate, for the service of her table, which he faithfully kept in his possession till the following November, at which time they were demanded from him by the treasurer, Mr. Robert Richardson, and, on the 13th of that money, were delivered by the said treasurer to the regent Murray, who granted his acquittance for the same to Mr. Archibald Craufurd. On June 2d, 1568, his place on the bench of the court of session was given to the prior of Coldinghame, “as being vacand through his inhabilitie, and divers offences committed be him, quhilk merit his deprivatioun.” His attachment to the queen was most likely his principal offence. Among other public acts, he erected the west church of Glasgow, and built the bridge of Eaglesham.

      His elder brother, John Craufurd of Craufurdland, accompanied James the Fourth to the fatal field of Flodden, where he fell in the flower of his age. The eldest son of the said John, also John Craufurd of Craufurdland, in his father’s lifetime, got from Mary queen of Scots, a gift of the ward of the lands of Redhall in Annandale. The deed of gift, having the queen’s signature, is dated at Edinburgh 26th December 1561. Hugh, his second son, portioner of Rutherglen, had several sons, who all went to Germany, and settled there. John Craufurd of Craufurdland, who died in 1686, had several sons. Of these, John, the eldest, who succeeded him, was imprisoned in 1684, on suspicion of being concerned in the rising of Bothwell Bridge; Alexander, the second son, was designed of Fergushill; and William, the third, a merchant and burgess of Glasgow, was the father of Matthew Craufurd, designed of Scotstoun, author of the Ecclesiastical History deposited in the Advocates’ Library, Edinburgh, in manuscript. The grandson of John, also named John Craufurd of Craufurdland, succeeded, on his father’s death in 1744. He was twice married, and in right of his first wife, a daughter and heiress of John Walkinshaw of Walkinshaw, assumed the additional surname and arms of that family.

      His son, John Craufurd of Craufurdland, entered the army at an early age, and attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was present at the victory of Dettingen, and distinguished himself in the hard-fought field of Fontenoy. He was the intimate and faithful friend of the ill-fated earl of Kilmarnock, who was beheaded on Towerhill for his share in the rebellion of 1745, and attended that unhappy nobleman to the scaffold; for which act of trying friendship his name, it is said, was placed at the bottom of the army list. Nevertheless, in 1761 he was appointed falconer to the king for Scotland. Colonel Craufurd died at Edinburgh, unmarried, in February 1793, aged seventy-two. He settled his estate, by deed made on his deathbed, on Thomas Coutts, Esq., the eminent London banker. This deed was, however, disputed by his aunt and next heir, Elizabeth Craufurd, and after a protracted litigation, carried on by herself and her successor, it was eventually reduced by a decree of the House of Lords in 1806, and the ancient estates came back to the rightful heir. This Elizabeth Craufurd was twice married; first to William Fairlie of that ilk, by whom she had one daughter, who died in infancy; and, secondly, on 3d June, 1744, to John Howison, Esq. of Braehead, in the parish of Cramond, Mid Lothian. She died in 1802, aged ninety-seven, and was succeeded by her only surviving child, Elizabeth Howison-Craufurd of Braehead and Craufurdland. This lady married, in 1777, the Rev. James Moodie, who assumed the additional surnames of Howison and Craufurd. He died in 1831. On the death of his wife, 1st April 1823, she was succeeded by her only surviving son, William Howison-Craufurd of Craufurdland and Braehead, born 29th November 1781, married 14th June 1808, Jane Esther, only daughter of James Whyte, Esq. of Newmains, by his wife, Esther Craufurd, with issue.

      The Howisons possessed Braehead in Mid Lothian since the reign of James the First. According to a tradition, which is embodied in the popular drama of ‘Cramond Brig,’ part of the estate was conferred by James the Second or Third, as a reward to one of their ancestors for having gone to the rescue of the king, then wandering about in disguise, when attacked by a gang of gipsies, and with no other weapon than his flail, with which he had been thrashing corn in his barn, delivering him from his assailants. The tenure by which this land is held, is the presenting of a basin of water and a napkin to the king of Scotland, to wash his hands, King James, on entering Howison’s cottage, before partaking of refreshment, having asked for water and a cloth to wipe the marks of the scuffle from his clothes. This service was performed by Mr. Howison-Crawfurd, then younger of Crawfurdland, in right of the lairdship of Braehead, to King George the Fourth, at the banquet given to his majesty by the city of Edinburgh, 24th August, 1822, when he was attended by masters Charles and Walter Scott, the one a son, the other a nephew of the author of Waverley, as pages, attired in splendid dresses of scarlet and white satin. The rose-water then used has ever since been hermetically sealed up, and the towel which dried the hands of his majesty on that occasion has never been used for any other purpose. All the documents mentioned as granted to the above-named Archibald Craufurd, almoner to Queen Mary, are likewise carefully preserved by the Craufurdland family.


      The Crawfords of Drumsoy, in Ayrshire, are descended from Duncan Crawford of Comlarg, who lived in the reign of James the Fourth, and was the third son of David Crawford of Kerse. His daughter, Margaret, married John Crawford of Drongan, and their youngest son, William, became the founder of this branch of the family. John Crawford of Comlarg having a feud with the Kennedys, was, on the last day of July 1564, attacked in the sheriff-court of Ayr, while the court was sitting, by Barnard Fergusson of Kilkerran, and fifty-three others, of the Kennedy faction, and defended by this William Crawford of ‘Drummishoy,’ David his brother, David Crawford of Kerse, and several others. For this offence both parties were subsequently tried. [See Pitcairn’s Criminal Trials, under date December 12, 14, and 15, 1564.] His grandson, Sir Robert Crawford, in his father’s lifetime, married Agnes, only daughter of David Fairlie of that ilk, and in consequence assumed the additional surname of Fairlie. His eldest daughter Agnes, heiress of Drumsoy, married her cousin, Robert Crawford, a descendant of whom, in the fourth generation, was David Crawford of Drumsoy, historiographer to Queen Anne, a biographical notice of whom is given below in its place. On his death in 1710, he left an only daughter, Emilia Crawford of Drumsoy, who died, unmarried, in 1731. At her instance the estate was sold, when it was purchased by her grand-uncle, Patrick Crawford, merchant in Edinburgh, third son of David Crawford, sixth laird of Drumsoy. He had previously become the proprietor of the estate of Auchinames at a judicial sale, 25th February, 1715. This Patrick Crawford was twice married; first to a daughter of Gordon of Turnberry, by whom he had two sons. Thomas, the elder, after being secretary to the embassy of the earl of Stair to the French court, became himself envoy extraordinary to the same court, and died in Paris in 1724.

      Robert, the poet, usually but erroneously designed of Auchinames, was the younger. He is also sometimes called William instead of Robert. He was author of the beautiful pastoral ballad of ‘Tweedside,’ ‘The Bush aboon Traquair,’ and other popular Scottish songs, first contributed to Ramsay’s ‘Tea-Table Miscellany.’ He resided long in France. He died, or according to the information obtained by Burns was drowned on his return to Scotland in 1733. A notice in a manuscript obituary kept by Charles Mackie, professor of civil history in the university of Edinburgh, states the time of his death to have been in May 1733, in which month and year his father also died. Robert’s body appears to have been recovered, and brought to Scotland for interment. He was never married. According to Sir Walter Scott, the lady celebrated in Crawford’s song of ‘Tweedside’ was a Miss Mary Lillias Scott, one of the daughters of Walter Scott, Esq. of Harden, an estate delightfully situated on the north side of the Tweed, about four miles below Melrose. She was the descendant of another celebrated beauty, Mary Scott, daughter of Mr. Scott of Dryhope, in Selkirkshire, known by the name of ‘The Flower of Yarrow.’

      By his second wife, Jean, daughter of Archibald Crawford of Auchinames in Renfrewshire, Patrick Crawford had as his eldest son, Patrick, who succeeded his mother on her death in 1740, in the estate of Auchinames. He was M.P. for Ayrshire from 1741 till 1754, and for Renfrewshire from 1761 till 1768. He died 10th January 1778. The second son, George, was lieutenant-colonel of the 53d regiment, and died in 1758.

      Patrick Crawford, M.P., above mentioned, had two sons; John, his heir, and James, colonel in the guards, one of the equeries to Queen Charlotte, and governor of Bermuda, who died in 1811. The elder son, John Crawford of Drumsoy, Auchinames, &c., was the associate and friend of Charles James Fox; member for Old Sarum in the parliament of 1768, and afterwards for the county of Renfrew. He died, unmarried, in 1814, when he was succeeded by his cousin, John Crawford, grandson of Colonel Crawford, third son of the above mentioned Patrick Crawford, who purchased the estates of Drumsoy and Auchinames. He is designed of Auchinames and Crosby. Born 4th January 1780, he married, 16th August 1814, Sophia Marianna, daughter of Major-general Horace Churchill, and great-granddaughter of Sir Robert Walpole.

      The laird of Auchinames is the sole representative of the family of Drumsoy, and therefore the designation of Drumsoy is still retained, as is also that of Kerse, the original property. He is also considered the sole representative of the Dalmagregan Crawfords, as those of Comlarg, Balgregan, Drongan, &c., all merged in the house of Drumsoy. The estate of Ardneil (or Arnele) is of modern acquisition, having been purchased in 1746 by Patrick Craufurd of Auchinames from the Boyds of Kilmarnock, to whom it was granted by King Robert the Bruce. Many royal charters are dated from Ardneil.


      The Crawfurds of Auchinames were descended from Hugh Crawfurd, second son of Sir Reginald Crawford of Loudoun, sheriff of Ayr in 1296. This Hugh appears to have inherited the lands of Monoch or Manoch, and also Crosby near Kilbride in Ayrshire. His son, Reginald Crawfurd of Crosby, in 1320 obtained a grant of the lands of Auchinames in Renfrewshire for his services to Robert the Bruce, as well as an augmentation to his arms, of two lances in saltire, commemorative of his exploits at the battle of Bannockburn. Auchinames, being the larger possession, became the designation of the family, though in a different county and a less ancient estate. His grandson, Thomas Crawford of Auchinames, mortified several lands to the church of Kilbarchan, in 1401, for a monk to say mass for the salvation of his soul, and his wife’s, and his father’s and mother’s, and for the soul of Reginald Crawford his grandfather. His son Archibald had two sons; the younger, Thomas, was ancestor of the Crawfords of Thridpart, while the elder, Robert Crawford of Auchinames, must have been a person of some consideration in his day, as he had for his first wife Isabel Douglas, youngest daughter of George master of Angus, sister of Archibald, sixth earl of Angus, who married the widowed queen of James the Fourth. His son, who was also Robert Crawford of Auchinames, was slain at Flodden in 1513. A subsequent laird, John Crawford of Auchinames, fell at the battle of Pinkie in 1547. His grandniece Jane, on whom were settled the lands of Crosby, married, about 1606, Patrick Crawfurd, the then laird of Auchinames, and thus the ancient estates of the family were again united. Their grandson, Archibald Crawford, the sixteenth baron of this family, was the last laird of Auchinames in a direct male line.

      Robert Crawfurd of Nethermains, Ayrshire, third son of Patrick Crawfurd of Auchinames and his spouse Jane Crawford of Crosby, continued the representation of the original family of Auchinames (See Crawfords of Drumsoy), and was the progenitor of the Crawfords of Newfield. His eldest son, Robert Crawfurd, M.D. of Nethermains, married a daughter of the Rev. George Crawford, minister of West Kilbride about 1640, of whom the following characteristic anecdote is preserved in Crawfurd’s ‘Genealogical Collections,’ in the Advocates’ Library: “Mr. George Crawfurd, a son of Thirdpart, was minister at Kilbride. He was deposed in the strict times of the Covenant for warldly-mindedness and selling a horse on the Sabbath day, as old Portincross (Robert Boyd of Portincross, who dyed very aged, near 100 years of age, in 1721) told me, who knew him minister of Kilbryde, and was a witness against him at the presbytery.”

      Dr. Crawfurd’s next brother, Patrick Crawfurd of Nethermains, had an only daughter, Agnes, who sold that estate. On the death of her father without male issue, the representation devolved on his younger brother, Moses Crawfurd, who died in 1723. His grandson, Moses Crawfurd, went to India about 1765, and there attained the rank of major in the military service of the East India Company. He was second in command at the capture of Beechigar, a strong hill fort on the Ganges, and was left in command of that place with a garrison of two thousand men. He returned home in 1783, and purchased the estate of Newfield in Ayrshire. He died in 1794, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert Crawfurd, Esq. of Newfield, formerly a captain in the 7th Hussars, with which regiment he served in the Peninsula. A second son, John, major of the 44th foot, was present at the battles of Salamanca and Orthes, and was wounded and taken prisoner in the latter engagement. Robert Crawfurd, Esq. of Newfield, an officer in the Rifle Brigade, the son of the last-mentioned Robert, succeeded in 1843, and is the representative of the original Crawfords of Crawford.


      The firs Craufurd mentioned as laird of Fergushill is Alexander Craufurd, whose name appears in the rolls of the Convention parliament among those of the commissioners for ordering out the militia of Ayrshire. He was a commissioner of supply for that county in 1695, and lastly in 1704. His eldest son, John Crawford, married Anna, the younger sister of Major Daniel Ker of Kersland, a celebrated covenanter, who was killed in 1692, at the battle of Steinkirk, where nearly the whole of his regiment, the Cameronians (now the 26th), was cut to pieces; and by an arrangement with his wife’s eldest sister, Jean, he became proprietor of Kersland, and assumed the name of Ker. He was the well-known John Ker of Kersland, who wrote the ‘Memoirs, containing his secret transactions and negotiations in Scotland, England, the courts of Vienna, Hanover, &c.” (London, 1726, 8vo); and was otherwise remarkable for his political tergiversations in the reigns of King William and Queen Anne. The property of Fergushill was alienated from the Craufurd family in 1728.


      Of the Giffordland Crawfords, the third laird was killed at the battle of Flodden, and the fifth fell at Pinkie. They were both named John Crawford. The latter had three daughters, the youngest of whom, Margaret, married Thomas Craufurd, a younger son of the laird of Craufurdland, to whom she had two daughters, Grizel and Isabel. The elder married John Blair of Windyedge, and Giffordland became inherited by their descendants, under the name of Blair.


      The Craufuirds of Baidland, now of Ardmillan, in Ayrshire, are lineally descended from a younger brother (whose name has not been preserved) of Sir Reginald Craufurd, sheriff of Ayr in 1296. The name in the ancient Titles is spelled sometimes Craufurd and sometimes Craufuird. By the marriage of James Craufuird of Baidland, not many years after the Restoration, with a daughter of Hugh Kennedy of Ardmillan, he ultimately succeeded to that estate, which from that time became the title of the family. This gentleman made a conspicuous figure on the government or persecuting side, in the civil and religious troubles towards the end of the reign of Charles the Second. On the 20th March 1683, James Craufuird of Ardmillan was, by the privy council, appointed commissioner for the bailliary of Carrick, and on the 28th July, the same year, he was included in the royal commission for the county of Ayr, along with John Boyle of Kelburn, Colonel White, and Captain Inglis. According to Wodrow (vol. ii. p. 225), in the transfer of heritable jurisdiction from many of the leading nobility which took place in those unsettled times, Graham of Claverhouse and he were the only untitled persons on whom these honours were conferred, the regality of Tongland and sheriffdom of Wigton being taken from the families of Kenmuir and Lochnaw, and given to “the laird of Claverhouse,” and the bailliary of Carrick and regality of Crossraguel from the earl of Cassillis and given to “the laird of Ardmillan.” He had a large family, some of whom settled in Ireland, where several branches still remain. His daughter became the wife of David Crawford of Drumsoy, and the mother of David Crawford, historiographer to Queen Anne for Scotland. His eldest son, William Craufuird, was distinguished for his defence of the fortress of the Bass, the prison of the Covenanters, against King William’s government in 1691. He predeceased his father, who, in 1698, executed a settlement in favour of a younger son, John, but it was set aside by the court of session, and ultimately by the House of Lords, in 1712. This John settled in England, and was the ancestor of the Crawfurds of Sussex. Archibald Craufuird, eldest son of the above William Craufuird, in consequence of the above decision, succeeded to Ardmillan, but the original estate of Raidland had been sold to Hugh Macbride, merchant in Glasgow. This Archibald Craufuird was a keen Jacobite, and after the rebellion of 1745, was compelled to reside for some time under surveillance in Edinburgh. He died in 1748. his elder son, Archibald Craufuird of Ardmillan, who died in 1784, was deeply involved in the unfortunate banking copartnery of Douglas, Heron, and Co., in consequence of which the estate of Ardmillan was brought to a judicial sale, during the minority of his son, Archibald Craufuird, writer to the signet, and bought by his uncle, Thomas Craufuird, who had been long in the army, and having for his military services been rewarded with a lucrative office under government at Bristol, he was thereby enabled to preserve the estate fro going out of the family. He had a son, Archibald-Clifford-Blackwell Craufurd, major in the army, and two daughters, Margaret, married to her cousin, Archibald Craufurd, writer to the signet, above mentioned, and Anne, the wife of MacMiken of Grange. The said Archibald Craufurd, W.S., died 16th May 1824, leaving, with other children, a son, Thomas MacMiken Craufurd of Grange.

      James Craufurd, a judge of the court of session by the title of Lord Ardmillan, son of Major Archibald C.B. Craufurd of Ardmillan, born at Havant, Hants, in 1805, was educated at the Ayr Academy, and afterwards studied for the bar at Glasgow college and at the university of Edinburgh. Passed advocate in 1829, in February 1849 he was appointed sheriff of Perthshire. In November 1853 he became solicitor-general for Scotland. In January 1855 he was appointed a lord of session, and in June of the same year a judge of the high court of justiciary. Subjoined are the arms of the family. The motto is, “Durum Patientia Frango.”

[arms of Craufurd family]

      A branch of the Baidland family possessed the estate of Haining in Stirlingshire. Archibald Craufurd, lord high treasurer of Scotland, a younger son of William Craufurd of Haining, was in 1457 nominated abbot of Holyrood, and appointed a lord of council in 1458. He was ambassador to England, and negotiated, with others, a treaty of marriage betwixt James III. and Edward IV. in 1482, in which it was contracted that James duke of Rothesay, afterwards James IV., should marry the princess Cicely, second daughter of Edward IV., and a great part of the portion was delivered, though the marriage did not take place. He died in 1483, and his arms were beautifully cut on the fly buttresses on the north side of the nave of the abbey of Holyrood: – a fesse ermine, with a star of five points in chief, Or, surmounted with an abbot’s mitre.


      The immediate ancestor of the Crawfurds of Jordanhill in Renfrewshire, was Lawrence Craufurd of Kilbirnie in Ayrshire, progenitor of the viscounts of Garnock (merged in the earldom of Crawford in 1749, see CRAWFORD, earl of, below), and the eleventh generation of that illustrious family in a direct male line. The lands of Kilbirnie anciently belonged to a branch of the potent family of Barclay. John Barclay of Kilbirnie, the last male heir of that house, died in 1470, and his only daughter, Marjory, married Malcolm Crawfurd of Easter Greenock (which barony he possessed in right of his mother, a Galbraith), a descendant of the house of Crawfurd of Loudoun. The above Lawrence Craufurd of Kilbirnie flourished in the reign of James the Fifth. He exchanged the barony of Crawfordjohn, the ancient inheritance of his ancestors, with Sir James Hamilton of Fynnart for the lands of Drumry, in the county of Dumbarton, for which he got a charter under the great seal, dated 5th April 1529. About the year 1546, he endowed a chapel at Drumry, with the lands of Jordanhill, for the support of a chaplain, and died 4th June 1547. By his wife, Helen, daughter of Sir Hugh Campbell, ancestor of the earls of Loudoun, he had six sons. From the eldest, Hew, his successor, who fought on Queen Mary’s side at the battle of Langside, was lineally descended Sir John Craufurd of Kilbirnie, created a baronet by Charles the First in 1642, the grandfather of John Craufurd of Kilbirnie, created by Queen Anne, in 1703, viscount of Garnock (see GARNOCK, viscount of), the son of Margaret, second daughter of the said Sir John Craufurd, and her husband, the Hon. Patrick Lindsay, (second son of John, the fifteenth earl of Crawford and first earl of Lindsay,) on whose heirs, male and female, he entailed his estate of Kilbirnie, on their assuming the surname and arms of Craufurd.

      The sixth son of the above Lawrence Craufurd of Kilbirnie was the celebrated Captain Thomas Craufurd of Jordanhill, whose daring exploit of surprising and carrying by escalade, in April 1571, the almost impregnable castle of Dumbarton, which had long held out for Queen Mary, is familiar to every one acquainted with the history of Scotland during the minority of James the Sixth. Of this bold enterprize, an interesting account, written by himself to John Knox, is inserted in Bannatyne’s Journal. He appears to have commenced his military career at a very early age, as he was taken prisoner at the disastrous battle of Pinkie in 1547, but after some time obtained his liberty by paying ransom. In 1550 he retired to France, and entered into the military service of Henry the Second, under the command of James earl of Arran; and in 1561, he returned with Queen Mary to Scotland. Previously to this, he had, with consent of his eldest brother, Hew Craufuird of Kilbirnie, received from Sir Bartholomew Montgomery, chaplain of Drumry, the lands of Jordanhill, which had been bestowed by his father on that chaplainry, and the grant was confirmed by a charter under the great seal, dated 8th March, 1565-6. He was long attached to the Lennox family, and was one of the gentlemen of Lord Darnley, the husband of the queen. On her unexpected visit, in January 1567, to her sick husband at Glasgow, Darnley sent Craufurd to meet her majesty, with a message excusing himself from waiting on her in person, on account of his illness. After Mary had left him, Darnley called Craufurd, and informing him fully of all that had passed between the queen and himself, bade him communicate it to his father the earl of Lennox. He then asked what he thought of the queen’s proposal to remove him to Craigmillar. “She treats your majesty,” replied Craufurd, “too like a prisoner. Why should you not be taken to one of your own houses in Edinburgh?” “It struck me,” said Darnley, “much in the same way, and I have fears enough, but may God judge between us, I have her promise only to trust to.” On the murder of Darnley, soon after, he joined in the association with the earls of Argyle, Morton, Athol, Glencairn, &c., for the defence of the young king’s person, and the bringing the murderer to trial. He was examined on oath before the commissioners at York, December 9, 1568, when he produced a paper which he had written immediately after the conversations between himself, and the queen and Darnley. His deposition, indorsed by Cecil, is quoted by Tytler, in his History of Scotland (vol. vii. p. 78). He afterwards accused Lethington of participation in the king’s murder.

      For his capture of the castle of Dumbarton, Captain Craufurd obtained from James the Sixth, the lands of Blackstone, Barns, Bishopsmeadow, and others, in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, with an annuity of two hundred pounds Scots, during his life, payable out of the priory of St. Andrews. He commanded in several expeditions against the queen’s party, and was captain of the king’s forces all the time of the calamitous civil war which raged during the regencies of Lennox, Mar, and Morton. In September 1571, when a body of Kirkaldy’s troops from the castle of Edinburgh, surprised the town of Stirling, and the regent Lennox was killed, Captain Crawfurd, with the assistance of a party from Stirling castle and some of the citizens, chased the attacking faction out of the town. In the following year, he had some skirmishes in the wood of Hamilton with the Hamiltons. Previous to the surrender of the castle of Edinburgh, in 1573, the regent Morton appointed him and Captain Hume to keep the trenches, and at the head of their respective companies and a band of English, on the morning of the 26th May, they advanced to storm the Spur, an outwork of the castle of great strength, in the form of a half-moon. A dull old ballad, entitled the ‘Sege of the Castell,’ (Scots Poems of the Sixteenth Century,) says:

      “That Hume and Craford to the lave were gyde,
      With certain sojours of the garysoune,
      Four captains followit at their back to byde,
      Semphill and Hector, Ramsay and Robesoune.”

The attempt proved successful. After a desperate conflict which lasted for three hours, the ravelin was stormed, and the standard of James the Sixth immediately displayed upon it. The surrender of Edinburgh castle put an end to the civil war, and during his latter years, Captain Crawfurd resided at Kersland, in the parish of Dalry, Ayrshire, the heiress of which, Janet Ker, was his second wife. On the 15th September 1575, the king wrote him the following characteristic letter: “Captain Crawfurd, I have heard sic report of your guid service done to me from the beginning of the warrs against my onfriends, as I shall sum day remember the sam, God willing, to your greit contentment; in the mean quhyle be of guid comfort, and reserve you to that time with patince, being assured of my favour. Fareweel. Your guid friend, James Rex.” He afterwards got a charter under the great seal “acras terrarum ecclesiasticarum viccariae pensionaris de Dalry.” &c., in Ayrshire, dated 20th March 1578; and another charter to himself and Janet Ker his spouse, of the lands of Blackstone &c., in the shire of Renfrew, dated 24th October, 1581. The latest   notice we have of him is in the same year, when the king, by a gift, dated at Holyrood, grants him a hundred pounds Scots, yearly, “out of the superflue of the third of the benefices not assignat to the maintenance of the ministrie.” He died 3d January 1603, and was buried in the old churchyard of Kilbirnie. On his monument, which was erected in his lifetime, in 1594, to himself and his spouse, is inscribed “God schaw the Richt,” a motto given him by Morton, in memory of his bravery in the fight of the Gallowlee, between Leith and Edinburgh, in which, however, he had been repulsed.

      His eldest son, David, succeeded to his mother’s estate of Kersland, and assumed the name of Ker, but his male line has long been extinct. The second son, Hew, carried on the Jordanhill family. This Hew had, with two daughters, five sons; namely, 1. Cornelius, his heir, whose second son, Thomas, was progenitor of the Crawfurds of Cartsburn; 2. Thomas, a colonel in the Russian service; 3. John, rector of Halden in the county of Kent; 4. Laurence, a major-general in the Scots army, in the reign of Charles the First, killed at the siege of Hereford, in September 1645; and 5. Daniel, a lieutenant-general in the army of the czar of Muscovy, at one time governor of Smolensko, and at his death in 1674 governor of Moscow.

      Hew Crawfurd of Jordanhill, the seventh laird, only son of Hew, the sixth laird, was on 19th July, 1765, served heir male to the above-mentioned Sir John Crawfurd of Kilbirnie, baronet, ancestor of the families of Kilbirnie and Jordanhill. He married Robina, only child of Captain John Pollok of Balgray, third son of Sir Robert Pollok of Pollok, baronet, and in her right became Sir Hew Crawfurd Pollok, baronet. He had a large family, several of whom died when young. The eldest daughter, Mary, was married in 1775 to General Fletcher of Saltoun (then Campbell of Boquhan), and afterwards to Colonel John Hamilton of Bardowie in Stirlingshire; and the third, Lucken, to General John Gordon Skene of Pitlurg, Aberdeenshire, by whom she had ten children. Another of his daughters, and one of his sons, Captain Hew Crawfurd, form the subject of two caricatures by Kay, and some curious notices of them will be found in Kay’s Edinburgh Portraits. The eldest son Sir Robert Crawfurd Pollok, baronet, died, unmarried, in August 1845, and was succeeded by his nephew, Sir Hew Crawfurd of Pollok and Kilbirnie, baronet, now the representative of the family.

      The estate of Jordanhill continued in the possession of the Crawfurds till 1750, when it was sold to Alexander Houston, merchant in Glasgow, whose son, Andrew Houston, sold it, in 1800, to Archibald Smith, youngest son of Andrew Smith of Craigend, in Stirlingshire, and it afterwards became the property of his eldest son, James Smith, Esq. of Jordanhill.


      the family of Craufurd of Kilbirney, Stirlingshire, on whom a baronetcy was conferred, 8 June 1781, are descended from the Crawfurds of Kilbirnie in Ayrshire. The first baronet was Sir Alexander Craufurd, son of Quentin Craufurd, Esq. of Newark, in Ayrshire, one of his majesty’s justiciary baillies of the west seas of Scotland. Sir Alexander had three sons, James, second baronet; Sir charles, G.C.B., a lieutenant-general in the army, and colonel of the second dragoon guards, and Robert, the celebrated General Craufurd, who was killed at Ciudad Rodrigo in 1812, and of whom a biographical notice is given below. Sir James, the second baronet, born 20th October 1762, succeeded in 1801, and in 1812 assumed the additional name of Gregan. His eldest son, Thomas, was killed at Waterloo. His second son, Alexander Charles, lieutenant-colonel in the army, died 12th march 1838. On his own death in 1839 he was succeeded by his third son, the Rev. Sir George William Craufurd, of Kilbirney, Stirlingshire, and Burgh Hall, Lincolnshire, third baronet. Twice married, issue, two sons by first wife.


      The Crawfurds of Cartsburn, in Renfrewshire, are descended from Thomas Crawfurd, second son, by his wife, Mary, daughter of Sir James Lockhart of Lee, of Cornelius Crawfurd, who succeeded to the estate of Jordanhill in 1624. Cartsburn was an ancient possession of the Kilbirnie family. It was included in the barony of Easter Creenock, which was acquired by Crawfurd of Kilbirnie through his marriage with the heiress, about the end of the fourteenth century. In the reign of Queen Mary, it became the patrimony of a younger brother of the Kilbirnie family. this branch ended in the person of David Crawfurd, in the reign of Charles the First. The lands of Cartsburn next went to Malcolm Crawfurd of Newton, also a descendant of the house of Kilbirnie, from whose heirs they were acquired by Sir John Campbell of Kilbirnie in 1657. In 1669, Sir John’s daughter and heiress, Margaret, wife of the Hon. Patrick Lindsay, conveyed these lands to her cousin, the said Thomas Craufurd, second son of Cornelius Crawfurd of Jordanhill. His eldest son succeeded to Cartsburn. His second son was Hew Crawfurd of Woodside, a small but pleasant property in the vicinity of Paisley, which continued in his family till 1755, when it was sold. The third son, George, was the genealogist and historian; author of the ‘Genealogical History of the Royal and Illustrious Family of the Stewarts, from the year 1034 to the year 1710; to which are added, The Acts of Sederunt and Articles of Regulation relating to them; to which is prefixed, A General Description of the Shire of Renfrew,’ Edin. 1710, fol.; ‘The Peerage of Scotland, containing an Historical and Genealogical Account of the Nobility of that Kingdom,’ Edin. 1716, fol.; ‘Lives and Character of the Crown Officers of Scotland, from the Reign of King David I. to the Union of the two Kingdoms, with an Appendix of original papers. 1st vol., all that was published; Edin. 1726, fol. He married Margaret, daughter of James Anderson, the eminent antiquary, compiler of the ‘Diplomata Scotiae,’ whose life is given in this work, by his wife, a daughter of John Ellis of Ellisland, advocate in Edinburgh. Thomas Crawfurd, the first of Cartsburn of this line, died in 1695. In 1669, the year in which he acquired the property, he obtained a crown charter in confirmation of one which had been granted by Charles the First in 1633, whereby the lands of Cartsburn were erected into a free burgh of barony. The village which arose, called Craufurdsdyke or Cartsdyke, from a dyke or quay he built there, adjoins the town of Greenock, from which it is separated by the Cart’s burn, and is included within the parliamentary boundaries of that burgh.

      Thomas Craufurd, the sixth laird of Cartsburn, died in 1791, and was succeeded by his aunt, Christian Crawfurd, great-granddaughter of the first Thomas. She married Mr. Robert Arthur, and died in 1796. She had a son, Thomas, who predeceased her, and a daughter, Christian Arthur Crawfurd, who succeeded her in Cartsburn, and married Thomas Macknight of Ratho, son of Rev. William Macknight, who died in 1750, minister of Irvine, and had a son, and two daughters, The eldest daughter, Christian, married Rev. Thomas Macknight, of Dalbeath, D.D., one of the ministers of Edinburgh. The son, William Macknight, assumed the surname of Crawfurd under an entail, on succeeding to Cartsburn. He married Jean, daughter of James Crawford of Broadford.


CRAWFORD, earl of, a title in the peerage of Scotland, first conferred, in 1398, on Sir David Lindsay of Glenesk, whose ancestor, William de Lindsay of Ercildun, in the reign of Malcolm the Fourth, was the first of the family who possessed the barony of Crawford in Clydesdale. That line terminated, in 1249, in an heiress, Alice de Lindsay, the wife of Sir Henry Pinkeney, a great baron of Northamptonshire, whose grandson, Sir Robert Pinkeney, claimed the crown of Scotland at the competition in 1292, as descended from the princess Marjory through his grandmother Alice de Lindsay. The barony of Crawford was afterwards forfeited, and bestowed on Sir Alexander Lindsay of Luffness, the ancestor of the more recent house of Crawford [see ante, and LINDSAY, surname of].

      Sir David Lindsay, the first earl of Crawford, is supposed to h ave been born in 1366. He succeeded his father, Sir Alexander Lindsay, in Glenesk (which had belonged to his mother, Catherine, daughter of Sir John Stirling of Glenesk), in 1382, and his cousin Sir James Lindsay of Crawford in 1397. Having married the princess Catherine, fifth daughter of King Robert the Second, he received with her the barony of Strathnairn in Inverness-shire. In his twenty-fifth year, he proved the victor in the celebrated tournament with John Lord Welles at London-bridge in May 1390. That nobleman had been sent ambassador to Scotland by Richard the Second, and at a banquet with the Scottish nobles, where the conversation turned on deeds of arms, on Sir David Lindsay extolling the prowess of his countrymen, Welles exclaimed, “Let words have no place; if you now not the chivalry and valiant deeds of Englishmen, assail ye me, day and place where ye list, and ye shall soon have experience.” Then said Sir David, :I will assail ye!” Lord Welles naming London Bridge for the place, Sir David appointed the festival of St. George for the day of combat. For this tourney he obtained a safe-conduct for himself and his retinue of twenty-eight persons, including two knights, squires, valets, &c. He was received with high honour by King Richard, and on the appointed day, in presence of the king and court, and after the usual preliminary ceremonies, at the sound of the trumpet the two champions encountered each other, upon their barbed horses, with spears sharply ground. Both spears were broken, but in this adventure the Scottish knight sat so strong that although Lord Welles’ spear was shivered to pieces upon his helmet and visor, he stirred not, and the spectators cried out that, contrary to the law of arms, he was bound to the saddle; whereupon he vaulted lightly off his horse, and leapt back again into his seat, without touching the stirrup. In the third course he threw Lord Welles out of his saddle to the ground. He then dismounted, and a desperate foot combat with their daggers ensued, when Sir David, fastening his dagger between the joints of his antagonist’s armour, lifted him off his feet, and hurled him to the ground, where he lay at his mercy. Instead of putting an end to his life, as the laws of these combats permitted, he raised his opponent, and after presenting him to the queen, who gave him his liberty, he supported him in the lists till assistance came, and afterwards visited him every day till he recovered. A full description of this famous tourney is given in Wyntoun’s Cronykil. Two years after, Sir David nearly lost his life in an affray with some of the clan Donachie, who, with Duncan Stewart, natural son of the Wolf of Badenoch, were ravaging Glenisla, the north-west of Angus; and were encountered at Glenbrerith, about eleven miles north of Gaskclune, by the Lindsays and Ogilvies. Armed at all points, and on horseback, Sir David made great slaughter among the catarans, but having pierced one of them with his lance, and pinned h im to the ground, the latter writhed his body upward on the spear, and collecting all his force, with a last dying effort, fetched a sweeping blow with his broadsword, which cut through the knight’s stirrup-leather and steel boot.

      Three ply or four above the foot,
to the very bone, –

                  ‘That man na straik gave but that ane,
      For there be delt; yet nevertheless
      That guid Lord there wounded wes,
      And had deit there that day
      Had not his men had him away,
      Agane his will, out of that press.’
            [Wyntoun’s Cronykil, tom. ii. p. 367.]

      On the 21st April 1398, Sir David Lindsay was, by King Robert the Third, created earl of Crawford. The barony of Crawford was at the same time regranted with a regality, conferring privileges on him and his posterity, akin to those of the earls palatine of England and the Continent. He had frequently safe-conducts granted him to England, being charged with negociations with the English court, and sometimes he sought for adventure and honour in foreign wars. “Between a visit to England in October 1398 and the 29th of December 1404, – the date of his safe-conduct for entering England with one hundred persons, horse and foot, in his train, and passing through to Scotland, (being then one of the commissioners to treat of peace with England,) – his name is not once mentioned in the Rotuli Scotiae, and it is merely from foreign sources that we learn that he gave a letter of service and homage, under his seal of arms, to Louis duke of Orleans, on the 1st of January 1401-2, and that in May that year he was hovering with a fleet on the coast of Corunna in Spain, probably as a partisan of France.” [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. i. p. 99.] In December 1406, he was again and for the last time one of the ambassadors to the English court to treat of peace. He died in February 1407 at his castle of Finhaven, and was buried in the family vault in the Greyfriars church at Dundee. The following is the seal of David, first earl of Crawford:

[seal of David first earl of Crawford]

      A letter in French from the first earl of Crawford to Henry the Fourth of England, in February 1405, inserted in the first volume of the Lives of the Lindsays (p. 105), on the occasion of a merchant-ship of St. Andrews having been seized and confiscated by the English, in violation of the truce, is interesting as showing that the merchants and town of St. Andrews were under his protection, and also that at that period French or Latin was the language used by the Scottish nobles in their intercourse with the court of England, so much so that the celebrated earl of March, writing to Henry five years before, apologizes for his letter being in English, as it was “mare clere” to his understanding “than Latyne or Fraunche.” With three sons, Alexander, second earl; David, of Newdosk, and Gerard; he had three daughters, Lady Margaret or Matilda, married to her cousin, Archibald, fifth earl of Douglas, duke of Touraine; Lady Marjory, to Sir William Douglas of Lochleven; and Lady Elizabeth, to Sir Robert Keith, great marishal of Scotland. Ingelram Lindsay, bishop of Aberdeen from 1442 to 1458, is also said to have been a son of the first earl of Crawford, but, says Lord Lindsay, strict proof of his filiation is wanting.

      Alexander, second earl, the year after his father’s death, had a safe-conduct to go to France. In 1416, with the earls of Douglas and Mar, he had letters of safe-conduct to England, to negociate the temporary release of the captive king, James the First, on his leaving hostages for his return, but the negociation was suddenly broken off. In 1421, however, it was renewed for the entire liberation of the king, when the earl was again one of the commissioners. On James’ return in 1423, Crawford was among the nobles who met him at Durham and escorted him to Scone, where he was crowned on the last day of May. After receiving the accolade of knighthood from his majesty’s hand, Crawford departed for England, being one of the twenty-eight hostages pledged for his sovereign, his kinsman, Sir John Lindsay of the Byres, being another. In the treaty for James’ release, the annual income of the hostages is stated – the earl of Crawford being rated at one thousand merks, and Lindsay of the Byres at five hundred. The latter obtained his liberty in 1425, but the earl was detained in England till November 1427, when he had leave to return on giving an equivalent. He is said to have been active in the capture of the assassins of James the First, and died in 1438, the year after.

      His son, David, third earl, entered into a league of association and friendship with the powerful earl of Douglas, lieutenant-general of the kingdom, with the object of drawing to their party the other great feudal families, and, thus united, to rule paramount in the state. [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. i. p. 126.] On the discovery of this league, Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews and primate of Scotland, joined with Crichton, the chancellor, to oppose their machinations. In resentment, the earl of Crawford, assisted by his kinsman Alexander Ogilvie of Inverquharity, and other allies, invaded the bishop’s lands in Fife, burning his granges and tenements, and carrying off an immense booty. After fruitlessly remonstrating against this outrage, Kennedy formally excommunicated the earl, for a year, and before it expired he received his death-wound in a desperate conflict at Arbroath on the 13th January 1445-6, between the Lindsays and Ogilvies, which arose from the following cause: The Benedictines of the abbey of Arbroath had appointed his eldest son, Alexander, master of Crawford, their chief justiciar, or supreme judge in civil affairs throughout their regality; but he proved so expensive to the monks, by his retinue of followers and manner of living, that they formally deposed him, and appointed in his place Alexander Ogilvy of Inverquharity, nephew of John Ogilvy of Airlie, who had a hereditary claim to the office. As, however, the master of Crawford had taken forcible possession of the town and abbey, an appeal to the sword was rendered necessary. Both parties assembled their forces. Douglas sent one hundred Clydesdale men to the aid of Lindsay, and the Hamiltons also assisted him with some of their vassals. The Ogilvies on their part found an unexpected auxiliary in Sir Alexander Seton of Gordon, afterwards earl of Huntly, who, as he returned from court, happened to arrive the night before the battle at the castle of Ogilvy, on his road to Strathbogie; and although in no way personally interested in the dispute, found himself compelled to assist the Ogilvies by a rude law of ancient Scottish hospitality, which bound the guest to take part with his host, in any quarrel or danger, so long as the food eaten under his roof remained in his stomach. With the small train of attendants and friends who accompanied him, he marched with the Ogilvies to Arbroath, where they found the Lindsays, in great force, drawn up in battle array before the gates. As the battle was about to commence, the earl of Crawford, anxious to avert bloodshed, suddenly galloped into the field from Dundee, where he had heard of the approaching conflict, but before he could interfere, one of the Ogilvies’ men darted his spear through his mouth and neck, and mortally wounded him. The Lindsays instantly attacked the Ogilvies and their allies with great fury, and they were driven from the field with the loss of five hundred men, while that of the Lindsays did not exceed a hundred. Earl David expired after a week of lingering torture, and his body lay for four days unburied, until Bishop Kennedy sent the prior of St. Andrews to take off the excommunication. The superstitious feeling of the times did not fail to notice that the battle of Arbroath was fought on that day twelvemonth that the slain earl of Crawford had ravaged “St. Andrew’s land” in Fife. Ogilvy of Inverquharity, sorely wounded, was taken prisoner and carried to the castle of Finhaven, where he died. According to the tradition of the district, the countess of Crawford, who was his own cousin-german, in the agony of finding that her husband had been mortally wounded in the affray, rushed to Inverquharity’s chamber, and smothered him with a down pillow. The Lindsays afterwards burnt and wasted the lands and houses of the Ogilvies, and from this time the feud between the two clans raged incessantly until the accession of James the Sixth to the English throne. By his wife, Marjory, daughter of Alexander Ogilvie of Auchterhouse, hereditary sheriff of Angus, the earl had five sons; Alexander, fourth earl of Crawford; Walter Lindsay of Beaufort and Edzell; William Lindsay of Lekoquhy, ancestor of the Lindsays of Evelick in Perthshire and their various cadets; Sir John Lindsay of Brechin and Pitcairlie, killed at the battle of Brechin in 1452, ancestor of the house of Pitcairlie in Forfarshire, and their junior branch of Cairnie; and James, who, accompanying the princess Eleanor, daughter of James the First, to Germany, when she went to be married to Sigismund of Austria, espoused an heiress near Augsburg, where his descendants, the Crafters, were reported to be residing in the last century.

      Alexander, fourth earl, the victor at Arbroath, was styled “the tiger,” or “earl Beardie,” from the ferocity of his character and the length of his beard or rather, as one writer suggests, from the little reverence in which he held the king’s courtiers, and his readiness to ‘beard the best of them.” [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. i. page 134.] In 1446, he had the office of heritable sheriff of Aberdeen, and besides being justiciary of the abbey of Arbroath, as already mentioned, was also justiciary of the abbey of Scone. He was one of the guarantees of a treaty of peace with England, one of the wardens of the marches, and ambassador to the English court in 1451. With the earl of Douglas and Macdonald of the Isles, titular earl of Ross, he entered into a league of mutual alliance, offensive and defensive, against all men, not excepting the king himself; on hearing of which, the king – James the Second, then in his seventeenth year – sent for Douglas to Stirling castle, and after vainly urging him to break it, on his refusal, drew his dagger, and stabbed him to the heart. Crawford immediately flew to arms, and assembling all his forces encamped at Brechin, with the intention of intercepting the earl of Huntly, his old antagonist at Arbroath, now appointed lieutenant-general of the kingdom, who was hastening with an army to his sovereign’s assistance. The contending parties met on the 18th May 1452, on a level moor, about two miles north-east of Brechin. The forces of Huntly far outnumbered those of Crawford, but the victory, which had long remained doubtful, was at last inclining to the latter, when John Collace of Balnamoon, one of his most trusted vassals, who commanded a division of three hundred men, stationed in the left wing, deserted to Huntly. Before the battle he had requested Crawford that, in the event of their victory, his son might be put in fee of the lands of Ferne, which lay near his house. “The time is short,” replied the earl, “stand bravely by me to-day, and prove yourself a valiant man, and you shall have all and more than your desire.” His defection was fatal to the earl, whose troops, weakened by the departure of Balnamoon’s division, and furiously attacked by Huntly’s forces, took to flight in every direction. Among the slain were the earl’s brother, and nearly sixty gentlemen, with numerous persons of inferior rank, while on Huntly’s side the loss did not exceed five barons, and a small number of yeomen, but he had to lament the loss of two brothers. Earl Beardie fled to Finhaven, and on alighting from his horse he called for a cup of wine, and was heard to exclaim that he would “willingly pass seven years in hell, to gain the honour of such a victory as had that day fallen to Huntly.” He had already been denounced a rebel, and his lands, life, and goods, were declared forfeited to the state, his coat of arms being torn, and his bearings abolished. The lordship of Brechin, with the hereditary sheriffship of Aberdeenshire, was also taken from him, and given to Huntly, his victorious opponent. His power, however, was little weakened by this defeat, and as soon as he had recruited his forces, he took a terrible revenge on all who had either refused to join his banner, or, like Balnamoon, had deserted him in the battle, ravaging their lands, and destroying their castles and houses. But after the submission of the Douglases, being abandoned by many of his allies, he took an opportunity of the king passing through Forfarshire, in April 1453, on his way to the north, to appear before his majesty, in a mean habit, bareheaded and barefooted, and with tears in his eyes he made a speech, in which he acknowledged his offence, and craved mercy for his adherents, being more concerned for their safety than for his own. “When the earl had endit,” says Pitscottie, “the noble and gentle men of Angus, that came in his company to seek remission, held up their hands to the king maist dolorously, crying, ‘Mercy!’ till their sobbing and signing cuttit the words that almaist their prayers could not be understood.” At the intercession of Huntly and Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews, with whom he had been privately reconciled, and by whose advice he had thus acted, he was pardoned, and afterwards entertained James magnificently in his castle of Finhaven. As, however, the king had sworn, in his wrath, “to make the highest stone of Finhaven the lowest,’ his majesty went up to the roof of the castle, and threw down to the ground a stone which was lying loose on one of the battlements, thus keeping his oath strictly to the letter. Earl Beardie became a loyal subject, but in six months afterwards, he was seized with a fever, of which he died in 1454. By his wife, Elizabeth Dunbar, he had two sons, minors, David, fifth earl of Crawford, created duke of Montrose by James the Third, and Sir Alexander Lindsay of Auchtermonzie, who long after succeeded as seventh earl. He had also a daughter, Lady Elizabeth Lindsay wife of John, first lord Drummond.

      In the time of this earl a noble Spanish chestnut tree, nearly forth-three feet in circumference, ornamented the court of the castle of Finhaven, and, according to tradition, a gillie or messenger-lad having cut a walking-stick from it, the earl was so enraged that he hanged him on one of its branches, and from that moment the tree began to decay. The ghost of the gillie, it is locally said, has ever since walked between Finhaven and Carriston, under the name of Jock Barefoot.

      David, fifth earl, appears, soon after his accession to the title, to have been a prisoner to James earl of Douglas, on a second rebellion of that nobleman, speedily suppressed, in March 1454, as in a charter, dated 27th February 1458-9, he grants Herbert Johnstone of Dalibank, ancestor of the house of Westerhall, the lands of Gleneybank, with the office of baillie of the regality of Kirkmichael in Dumfries-shire, “for his faithful service at the time when he was held a captive by the late James earl of Douglas, and chiefly for the liberation and abduction of his person from captivity, and from the hands of the said earl.” [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. i. p. 145.] His lordship had a charter of the office of sheriff of Forfar, 19th October 1466, on the resignation of James Stewart, afterwards earl of Buchan. On the downfall of the Boyds, he rose daily in power and influence, and for twenty years, – from 1465 to 1485, – was employed in almost every embassy or public negociation with England. On 9th March 1472-3 he obtained a grant from King James the Third of the lordships of Brechin and Navar for life; in July 1473 he was appointed keeper of Berwick for three years; on the 26th October 1474, he appeared as procurator for King James on the betrothment of the princess Cecilia, youngest daughter of Edward the Fourth of England, and the prince royal of Scotland, which took place in presence of various English commissioners and gentlemen, in the Low Greyfriars’ church at Edinburgh, and a description of which is given in Tytler’s History of Scotland, vol. iv. p. 242; and in May, 1476, he was constituted high admiral of Scotland, for the suppression of the rebellion of the earl of Ross, (MacDonald of the Isles,) who, alarmed at the formidable preparations against him, speedily submitted.

      In 1474, this earl made a new entail of the family estates, settling them on his heirs-male for ever, a document which regulated the succession for many generations afterwards. In 1480, he was appointed master of the king’s household, and after the raid of Lauder in 1482, he became lord chamberlain. Although one of the purifiers of the royal council, as they termed themselves, and present at the famous secret meeting of the nobility, where Archibald earl of Angus acquired the name of Bell-the-Cat, and wherein it was resolved to put to death Cochrane and the other favourites of the king., he would not be a party to the plot for deposing his sovereign, and on being made aware of such a design, he abandoned the factious nobles, and gave his whole support to the throne. In 1487 he was appointed justiciary of the north, along with the earl of Huntly, After the disbanding of the royal forces at Blackness, and the hollow pacification that then took place, the earl of Crawford was created duke of Montrose, by royal charter, dated 18th May, 1488, to himself and his heirs, being the first instance of the title of duke having been conferred on a Scottish subject, not of the royal family. The grant conveyed to his grace the castle and borough of Montrose, with its customs and fisheries, and the lordship of Kincleven in Perthshire, to be held in free regality for ever, with courts of justiciary, chamberlainship, &c., on the tenure of rendering therefrom a red rose yearly on the day of St. John the Baptist. On this creation the duke added to his arms an escutcheon argent, charged with a rose, gules, which he carried by was of a surtout over his arms. Subjoined is an engraving of his seal and his autograph, from the first volume of Lord Lindsay’s Lives of the Lindsays

[seal of Crawford, Duke of Montrose]

A new royal or public herald was also created on this occasion under the name of ‘Montrose,’ as appears by the Exchequer Rolls. At the battle of Sauchieburn, soon after, (112th June 1488), the duke eminently distinguished himself, on the side of his unfortunate sovereign, James the Third, but was severely wounded, and being taken prisoner, was compelled to ransom himself and his followers, and was deprived of all his public offices. The act rescissory which, on the 17th October following, was passed in the Estates, annulling all grants of lands, and creations of dignities, conferred by the late king since the 2d of February preceding, was conceived not to affect the original patent of this ducal title, as the young king, James the Fourth, had previously directed a free pardon, by letters patent, to be issued under his privy seal, to the duke of Montrose, which he placed in the hands of Andrew Lord Gray, to remain in his possession until the duke should resign to that nobleman the hereditary sheriffship of Forfarshire. This was accordingly done on the 6th November 1488, in his grace’s name by procurators appointed by him for the purpose, he having previously protested against the whole proceeding as illegal and unjust. On the 19th September 1489, he received a new patent or charter, under the great seal, of the dukedom of Montrose, and in February following, he was appointed a member of the secret council, but subsequently to the battle of Sauchieburn he took little part in public affairs. He died at Finhaven, at Christmas 1495, in his fifty-fifth year.

      The dukedom of Montrose, it has been decided by the House of Peers, ended with him; as having been by the renewed patent conferred for life only; In 1848, the earl of Crawford and Balcarres presented a petition to the queen, claiming the title of duke of Montrose, on the ground of its being vested in the heir male. This petition, in accordance with the rule and practice in contested peerage cases, was referred to the House of Lords, and the claim was opposed both by the duke of Montrose, of the noble house of Graham, and by the Crown;. After a lapse of nearly five years the House of Lords gave their decision on 5th August 1853, by adopting a resolution to the effect that the earl of Crawford and Balcarres had not made out his right to the dignity. (See MONTROSE, Duke of.)

      By his wife, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James, first Lord Hamilton, the duke had 2 sons, Alexander, Lord Lindsay, and John, styled master of Crawford, who became 6th earl. His elder son, Alexander, Lord Lindsay, when a mere stripling, had revived an old feud with the Glammis family, and that with such violence as to require the interference of parliament, March 6, 1478. On the 22d April 1479, he was committed to the castle of Blackness for chasing two monks. In the autumn of 1489 he quarrelled and fought with his younger brother John, by whom he was wounded, and died shortly after at his castle of Inverqueich. He had married Lady Janet Gordon (afterwards the wife of Patrick, son of Lord Gray), whom popular rumour accused of having smothered her first husband with a down pillow while lying ill of his wound.

      John, the second son, became the sixth earl of Crawford. In 1504, on the abortive rebellion of the Hevrideans and Western Islanders, in support of Donald Dhu, grandson and heir of John, Lord of the Isles, he was appointed, conjointy with Huntly, Argyle, Marischal, Lord Lovat, and other powerful barons, to lead the array of the whole kingdom north of Forth and Clyde, against them. [Gregory’s History of the Western Highlands, p. 98.] Lord Lindsay says that this earl’s extravagance was great. Besides alienating lands held in capite of the crown, and thus incurring the displeasure of the king, he was reduced to resign the hereditary sheriffdom of Aberdeenshire to William, earl of Errol, 10th February 1510, and it was not regained for many years after his death. [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. i. p. 180.] On 23d April, 1512, twenty-three years after his brother’s death, letters “to search John, earl of Crawford, for the slaughter of Alexander, his brother,” were issued by Lord Gray, sheriff of Angus, charging the earl, his cousins, Sir David and Alexander Lindsay, and others their accomplices, to give surety to appear before the king’s justiciary, on the third day of the next justice-eyre at Dundee to “underlie the law” for the said crime; and not appearing they were denounced rebels, 24th July 1513. Two months afterwards, the earl was killed at Flodden, where he had a chief command, His children all died in infancy, but a natural son, John Lindsay of Downie, in Forfarshire, was father of Patrick Lindsay, archbishop of Glasgow.

      Alexander, seventh earl, the younger son of Earl Beardie, and previously styled Sir Alexander Lindsay of Auchtermonzie (a barony inherited from his mother), succeeded his nephew, as collateral heir male. He was one of the four noblemen appointed by parliament, 1st December 1513 continually to remain with the queen-mother, to give her counsel and assistance as regent of the kingdom. For the suppression of the deadly feuds that then raged both in the Highlands and on the borders, he was appointed high-justiciary north of the Forth, while Lord Home received the same office south of that river. Crawford, however, died shortly afterwards, at a great age, in May 1517. By his wife, Margaret, daughter of Campbell of Ardkinglass, he had David, his successor, another son. Alexander, of Rathillet, who died without issue, and a daughter, married to Sir Archibald Douglas of Kilspindie, high treasurer of Scotland.

      David, eighth earl, took part with the queen-mother and Angus against the regent duke of Albany, and on the departure of the latter for France in 1524, he was one of the nobility who attended her majesty when she brought the young king, then only thirteen years of age, from Stirling to Edinburgh, and, on 30th July of that year, made him assume the government. The earl was subsequently deprived by James of large estates in the Lowlands, and of his lands in the Hebrides, which so incensed him against the king that it was believed he might easily have been induced to join the English interest, but the unnatural conduct of his son (by his first wife, Lady Marion Hay, only daughter of the third earl of Errol), withdrew his attention from all but his domestic sorrows. This son, Alexander, called the “evil” or “wicked master” of Crawford, had been put in fee of the earldom by his father, as future earl, and the barony of Glenesk had been assigned to him in consequence, by charter under the great seal, 2d September 1527. Being, however, of an unruly and turbulent disposition, he seized his father’s fortress of Dunbog, and, at the head of a band of robbers and outlaws, pursued a wild and lawless life, oppressing the lieges, tyrannizing over the inferior clergy, and exacting ‘black mail’ from the whole surrounding country. In 1526 his father had been obliged to appeal to the crown for protection from “bodily harm,” threatened against himself, his second wife (Isabel, daughter of Lundy of Lundy), and his friends, by his unnatural son, who, on expressing his contrition, was, through the intervention of the archbishop of St. Andrews, and others, received into favour, on condition of his banishing his evil associates, and relapsing not into crime. In 1530, he was indicted for killing a servant of Lord Glammis, and on the 16th February 1530-1, he was arraigned at a justice-eyre held at Dundee, the king himself presiding in person, for, among other crimes alleged against him and his accomplices, having besieged his father’s castles, with the intention of murdering him, surprising him at Finhaven, laying violent hands upon him, and imprisoning him in his own dungeon for twelve weeks, and on another occasion carrying him by force to Brechin, and confining him for fifteen days; besides, breaking open his coffers, pillaging his writs, and seizing his rents and revenues. He was found guilty, but his life was spared. Both he and his issue had forfeited their right to the succession, which opened in due course of law to the next heir-male under the entail of 1474, namely, David Lindsay of Edzell. A special charter of entail thereafter passed the great seal, dated 16th October 1541, to the said David Lindsay, and the heirs male of his body, whom failing, to others therein enumerated, and failing them, to the earl’s own nearest legitimate heirs male whatsoever, bearing the name and arms of Lindsay. Soon after, “the wicked master” was ignominiously slain at dundee, having been stabbed by a cobbler “for taking a stoup of drink from him.” His father, after a lingering illness, died at the castle of Carnie in Fife, on the 27th or 28th November 1542.

      David Lindsay of Edzell succeeded as ninth earl. Having no issue by his first wife, )the dowager Lady Lovat,) in his generosity he adopted David Lindsay, the son of “the wicked master,” who had been secluded from the succession by his father’s forfeiture, and in his favour resigned all the lands of the earldom, with the exception of Glenesk and Ferne, executing the requisite charters under the great seal 2d May, 1546, by which that youth was reinstated in his birthright, and put in fee of the earldom as master of Crawford. By his second wife, Catherine, daughter of Sir John Campbell of Lorn and Calder, whom he married in 1549, the ninth earl had five sons: Sir David Lindsay of Edzell, whose male line is extinct; John, Lord Menmuir, ancestor o the earls of Balcarres; Sir Walter Lindsay of Balgawies, a convert to popery, and the most zealous and daring “confessor” of his time; James, the protestant rector of Fettercairn, who died young, 15th June 1580, while on a mission to Geneva; (an elegy to his memory by the celebrated Andrew Melville is inserted in the Deliciae Poetarum Scotorum); and Robert, of Ballhall. The earl had also two daughters, Margaret and Elizabeth, the wives respectively of John earl of Athol, and Patrick third Lord Drummond. He died in September 1558.

      David, tenth earl, the son of “the wicked master,” proved very ungrateful to his benefactor, the ninth earl. He joined the association for Queen Mary in 1568, and adhered steadily to her interest. He had married, soon after his restoration to the family succession, Margaret, daughter of Cardinal Bethune. In the contract dated at St. Andrews, 10th April 1546, the cardinal expressly called the bride his daughter, and he gave her four thousand merks in dowry. The nuptials were solemnized at Finhaven with great pomp and magnificence in presence of the cardinal, who was assassinated the following month. The earl had four sons; David, eleventh earl; Sir Henry of Kinfauns, thirteenth earl; Sir John Lindsay of Ballinscho and Woodwray; and Alexander first Lord Spynie (see SPYNIE, lord); and a daughter, Lady Helen, married to Sir David Lindsay of Edzell.

      David, eleventh earl, is described in the family genealogies as “ane princely man,” but a sad spendthrift. Soon after his accession to the title, the old family feud with the house of Glammis was revived through the following unfortunate accident. On the evening of the 17th March 1577-8, the earl and Lord Glammis, then chancellor, happened to meet, at the head of their respective followers, in a narrow street, called the School-house Wynd, in Stirling, as Crawford was passing to the castle, and the chancellor returning to his lodging, after making his report to the young king, James the Sixth. They made way for each other, and called to their attendants to do the same; all obeyed, except the two last, who, having jostled, drew their swords, and attacked each other. In the uproar which ensued, Glammis received a mortal wound in the head by a pistol-bullet, from whose hand is uncertain, but the earl was unjustly blamed for it. Thomas Lyon, uncle of the chancellor, and tutor or guardian of his infant son, and usually styled master of Glammis, as presumptive heir to that barony, to avenge his nephew’s death, immediately carried fire and sword into the Lindsay’s country, while the earl himself was imprisoned in Stirling, but soon released. He was indicted for the crime, but his trial it appears was postponed, ad David Lindsay of Edzell and Patrick Lord Lindsay of the Byres, his sureties, were fined for his nonproduction to underlie the law, 5th March 1579. [Pitcairn’s Criminal Trials, vol. i. part 2, p. 85.] The 3d of November was appointed for his subsequent appearance, and it is presumed that he was then acquitted. From a curious circular addressed to his principal friends, and printed in the appendix of the first volume of the Lives of the Lindsays, the earl on this occasion seems to have had recourse to the usual practice of the Scottish barons of those days, namely, to appear at his trial with such a host of attendants as was likely to overawe the judges. Not long afterwards he and the earl of Huntly went to France, whence he proceeded to Italy. He returned to Scotland by the last day of October, 1581, when he sat in the parliament then held in Edinburgh.

      After the raid of Ruthven in 1582, he joined the association formed to liberate the king, and on the escape of James to St. Andrews, Crawford, Huntly, Argyle, and others of the banded nobles, occupied the town, with their followers, while Gowrie and the other insurgent lords made their submission. The king then commanded two chief nobles of each faction, Angus and Mar on the one side, and Crawford and Huntly on the other, to withdraw from court for a season, to “prevent the renewal of factious debates.” Shortly after this, the master of Crawford was appointed chief master stabler to King James, who wrote to the magistrates of Dundee, “commanding them to elect and take Crawford to be their provost, albeit they had chosen their own provost.” He was one of the jury on the trial of the earl of Gowrie, and in the confiscations that were subsequently carried on by Arran and his friends, Crawford obtained the abbey lands of Scone, and the church lands of Abernethy. On the 1st of November 1585, the banished lords, supported by Queen Elizabeth, entered Scotland, with a large army, and marched unexpectedly on the king at Stirling. No one was with him except Arran and the earls of Crawford and Montrose, who garrisoned the castle with their followers. Arran fled, but Crawford and Montrose retired into the castle with the king. The castle soon surrendered, and Crawford and Montrose were committed to the charge of Lord Hamilton.

      The earl had been converted to the popish faith by father William Crichton, a well-known Jesuit, and on the arrival of the news of the decapitation of Mary queen of Scots at Fotheringay 7th February 1586-7, he and the other Catholic lords, Huntly and Errol, entered into a correspondence with Spain, then preparing the invincible armada for an attack upon England. In the previous year they had assembled their forces at the Bridge of Dee, when the king marched to oppose them, and the simple fact of Arran, Huntly, Montrose and Crawford having subsequently held a meeting at the lodging of the latter, had created new suspicion against them. At the celebrated reconciliation banquet which took place at Holyrood-house early in 1587, Crawford and Glammis, and other hereditary enemies, walked together hand in hand to the cross, where they drank to each other amid the thunder of the castle guns, and the songs and shouts of the citizens. But this reconciliation was but a hollow one. Long standing feudal enmities could not be so easily healed. In May of that year, Crawford, Huntly and Bothwell were accused of treasonable insurrection against the king, but nothing was established against them. In their correspondence with the prince of Parma, they undertook, with the aid of six thousand men, to render the king of Spain master of Scotland. This correspondence falling into the hands of Elizabeth, was by her sent to James. In the meantime, a preliminary plot, for seizing the king’s person, and excluding from court the chancellor Maitland and the master of Glammis, high treasurer, the king’s chief councillors, came to light, and on Huntly’s arrival in Edinburgh he was arrested; when, news being brought of Crawford and Errol’s having come in arms to the North Ferry, the whole kingdom was alarmed; but the earls made their submission. a few days after, Crawford and Huntly met at Perth, and at first designed to fortify that town; but hearing that the treasurer Glammis had arrived in Angus, they waylaid him, and chased him to the house of Kirkhill, which being set fire to, he was obliged to surrender to his cousin the laird of Auchindown, who kept him some weeks’ prisoner in the north. In April 1589, the three earls, Crawford, Huntly, and Errol, collected their forces in Aberdeen, whence they issued a rebellious proclamation, but the king advancing against them, their followers dispersed. Crawford fled, and the treasurer, being released, interceded with the king for him and Huntly. They “offered to enter their persons in ward, and submit themselves to the punishment his majesty might be pleased to impose.” Crawford went to Edinburgh on the 20th of May, and was warded in his own lodging. On the 24th he was tried, with Huntly and Bothwell, also implicated in the same rebellion, and all found guilty of repeated acts of treason. James, however, would not allow any sentence to be pronounced against them, but committed Crawford to Blackness, Bothwell to Tantallon, and Huntly to his old quarters in Edinburgh castle, and after keeping them a few months in confinement, he took occasion, amidst the public rejoicings on the approach of his marriage, to set them at liberty. A key to his majesty’s conduct on this occasion is furnished by the fact of his having, on the first news of his mother’s execution, connived at, if he did not encourage, the treasonable correspondence with Spain, and permitted Jesuits and other popish priests to travel unmolested through the kingdom, and had himself instigated the rebellion. soon after the earl had a safe-conduct to pass through England, on his way to France. He returned to Scotland in 1601, after an absence of eleven years, and died 22d November 1607. He was twice married. His first wife, Lilias, daughter of David, second Lord Drummond, with whom he received the then large tocher of ten thousand merks, died young; This earl was of a suspicions and jealous disposition, and an old north country ballad, entitled ‘Earl Crawford,’ (printed in Buchan’s Ancient Ballads of the North of Scotland,) relates that a merry jest of Lady Crawford as to the father of her child (David, who died in infancy) was taken by her husband in earnest.

      “I turn’d me right and round about,
      And aye the blythe blink in my e’e.–
      It was ae word my merry mou’ spake
      That sinderit my guid lord amd me.”

He sent her home to her family in disgrace, when her brother offered to marry her to

      ...................”as fine a knight
      That is nine times as rich as he.”

She answered,

      “Oh! Hand your tongue my brother dear,
      And ye’ll let a’ your folly be,
      I’d rather as kiss o’ Crawford’s mouth,
      Than a’ his goud and white monie.”

She rode back to her husband’s castle to entreat his forgiveness and “comfort,” but he refused to listen to her. Soon after he rode over to Stobhall, the seat of the Drummonds, to sue for pardon himself, but the lady returned him the same answer he had given her:

      “Indeed I winna come mysel’
      Nor send my waiting maid to thee, –
      Sae take your ain words hame again,
      At Crawford castle ye tauld me.”

      The earl’s second wife was Lady Griselda Stuart, daughter of the earl of Athol. The following is the autograph of the eleventh earl:

[autograph of eleventh earl of Crawford]

      His eldest son, David the Twelfth earl, was so reckless and extravagant that he acquired the name of the “prodigal earl.” He had been sadly neglected by his father in his youth, and while at the university of St. Andrews, was often left without clothes or food, but what his tutor, Mr. Peter Nairn, could procure for him, “as his poverty and credit could serve.” [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. ii. p. 50.] He afterwards gathered a band of broken Lindsays around him, and pursued with unrelenting fierceness his feudal and personal enemies. On the 25th October 1605, he slew, “under assurance,” between Brechin and the Place of Edzell, his kinsman Sir Walter Lindsay of Balgawies, brother of Lord Edzell [Pitcairn’s Criminal Trials, vol. iii. pp. 65 and 248], and the son of that earl to whose generosity his father owed his estates and honours. The relations of Sir Walter bitterly resented this injury, and his nephews especially determined to be revenged. On the 5th July 1607, between nine and ten o’clock at night, the latter, with eight followers, six of them Lindsays, attacked, in the High Street of Edinburgh, the master of Crawford, then without attendants, and accompanied only by Lord Spynie, the uncle of both parties, and who was anxious for a reconciliation between them, and Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig. All three were wounded, the master severely, and Lord Spynie mortally. Sir David Lindsay of Edzell, (styled Lord Edzell, as a lord of session,) and Alexander Lindsay of Canterland, his second son, were subsequently, on the 6th September 1609, indicted as suspected connivers at the death of Lord Spynie, but no one appearing against them, on the 19th of that month they formally protested that no one should at any future time be allowed to call them to account. To prevent the continual alienation of the estates of the earldom carried on by this earl, the family got him imprisoned in Edinburgh castle, where he spend the last years of his life under surveillance, but acting in every respect otherwise as a free agent. In consequence he was sometimes styled ‘Comes Incarceratus,’ of the ‘captive earl.’ He died in the castle in February 1621, and was buried in the chapel of Holyroodhouse. He had been divorced from his wife, Lady Jean Ker, of the Lothian family, and had only one child, a daughter, Lady Jean Lindsay, who having run away with a common “Jockey with the horn,” or public herald, lived latterly by begging. [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. ii. p. 51.] By a grant under the privy seal, of date 4th June 1663, King Charles the Second granted her a pension of one hundred a-year, “in consideration of her eminent birth and necessitous condition.”

The prodigal earl was succeeded by his uncle, Sir Henry Lindsay of Kinfauns, thirteenth earl of Crawford, He had been master of the household to the queen (Anne of Denmark), and in his younger days he built the house of Carraldstone (now Carriston) in Forfarshire. On 2d September 1592, David Cochrane of Pitfour complained to the king and council that he had raised letters against Harry Lindsay of Kinfauns for having come to his house, at the head of a band of armed men, forcibly expelled his wife “with nyne young bairnes,” and taken violent possession of it. Lindsay was accordingly charged to deliver up the house, &c., and to answer before the king and council for this act of oppression; on which he delivered up the house to its lawful possessor, and withdrew his men from it. After he had succeeded to the title, it is recorded of him that he gathered “all he could together of the wrackit estate of the earldom of Crawford.” [Lives of the Lindsays, vol. ii. p. 52, note.] He died in 1623. By his wife, Beatrix, daughter and heiress of George Charteris of Kinfauns, he had four sons; Sir John of Kinfauns, (invested with the order of the Bath at the coronation of James the First of England in 1603,) who died without issue; and George, Alexander, and Ludovic, successively fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth earls of Crawford.

      George, fourteenth earl, succeeded to a dilapidated estate, and having, in 1629, sold Finhaven to his kinsman, Lord Spynie, he quitted Scotland, and served with distinction, as colonel of a foot company of Dutch or Germans, under Gustavus Adolphus, but was basely killed in 1633, by a lieutenant of his own regiment whom he had been provoked to batoon. A council of war (consisting of Germans) being held upon the latter, he was acquitted of the slaughter, on account of its being contrary to the Swedish discipline to cudgel any officer. But General Leslie (afterwards commander-in-chief of the Covenanters, and earl of Leven), being then governor of Staten, where the earl was buried, caused his murderer to be immediately apprehended and shot. [Lives of the Lindsays. vol. ii. p. 56.] The earl left an only child, Lady Margaret Lindsay, who died in 1655, in Caithness.

      His brother, Alexander, fifteenth earl, who had attained the rank of colonel in the Swedish service, became insane, and was kept in confinement till his death in 1639.

      His youngest brother, Ludovic, sixteenth earl, had entered the Spanish service, in which he rose to the rank of colonel. In 1641, he returned to Scotland, to give his support to Charles the First, whose cause he upheld with so much constancy during the whole civil wars, as to be distinguished by the name of the “loyal earl.” The strange plot known in history as “the Incident,” was the joint concoction of him and Montrose. Its object was to seize the marquis of Hamilton, his brother the earl of Lanark, and the marquis of Argyle, the most powerful of the covenanting nobles, and convey them on board a vessel in Leith roads, where they were to be detained till the king should gain such an ascendancy in Scotland, as would enable him to try them as traitors. Crawford and his men were to seize Edinburgh the same night, capture the castle, release Montrose, then a prisoner, and deliver it into his hands as governor. On the discovery of the plot, (through the information of a gentleman who was invited to join in it,) Crawford was arrested, but liberated without caution or security, in little more than a month afterwards. While in prison the earl of Lindsay paid him a visit, and proposed to save his life, on condition of his resigning the earldom of Crawford in his favour. To this he is said to have assented, and thereby, through Lindsay’s interest, to have escaped punishment. Accordingly, on the 15th January, 1642, Crawford resigned his earldom into the king’s hands at Windsor, for new investiture to himself and the heirs male of his body, whom failing, to John, earl of Lindsay and the heirs male of his body; whom failing, to his own heirs male collateral for ever. This transaction has been usually but erroneously assigned to 1644.

      On the raising of the royal standard at Nottingham, 25th August 1642, the earl of Crawford joined Charles there immediately, and was created commander of the volunteers. At the head of his own regiment of horse, he fought gallantly under charles, at the unfortunate battle of Edgehill, on 23d October following; and, at the battle of Lansdowne, on 5th July 1643, he contributed greatly to the rout of the parliamentary forces. Soon after, being sent for a supply of powder, he was intercepted by Sir William Waller, and defeated with the loss of his ammunition, and a troop or two of his regiment. Having subsequently received a reinforcement of cavalry from the king at Oxford, Crawford, commissary Wilmot, and Sir John Byron (ancestor of the noble poet of that name), attacked and defeated Waller, killing six hundred of his men, taking eight hundred prisoners, with seven pieces of cannon, and all their colours He fought at Newbury, 20th September 1643, and at Reading. Five days after, he had a narrow escape in an attempt to gain the town of Poole for the king, through the treachery of Captain Sydenham, one of the garrison, who for forty pounds and a promise of preferment, agreed to admit him and a force under him into the town, but having previously acquainted the governor, no sooner had a portion of them got in than they were unexpectedly attacked and nearly all killed or taken prisoners. The earl was one of the few who cut their way out. Soon after, in company with Sir Ralph Hopeton, he invaded Sussex, and took Arundel castle, but being attacked at Alton near Farnham, by Waller, he made his escape with a few only of his troops, the rest, to the number of nine hundred, being all taken, with twelve hundred arms.

      With the marquis of Montrose, he marched into Scotland, in the beginning of April 1644, when Dumfries was taken by them, but they were soon obliged to retreat to Carlisle. For this he was, on the 26th of the same month, excommunicated by the commission of the General Assembly. Sentence of forfeiture was pronounced against him in absence by the Scots parliament, on the 26th July thereafter, and on the same day was passed a ratification in favour of the earl of Lindsay of his right and patent as earl of Crawford, which title was conferred on him by parliament, and he was thereafter designated earl of Crawford-Lindsay.

      Earl Ludovic had, in the meantime, rejoined the royalists, and he acted as a general in Prince Rupert’s army, when it was defeated at Marston-moor, 2d July 1644. He afterwards, with Lord Reay and other Scots officers, threw himself into Newcastle, but that town being taken by storm by the Scots army under General Leslie, in the following October, his lordship was made prisoner and sent to Scotland. He arrived at Edinburgh, 7th November, and was conducted bareheaded, and with every mark of indignity, by the Watergate of the Canongate to the Tolbooth. soon after he was tried and condemned to death as a traitor, mainly, according to Wishart, through the influence of his cousin the earl of Lindsay, who had usurped his honours, and now thirsted for his blood. It was debated whether he should be at once beheaded, or his execution delayed for some days, that he might suffer along with the other prisoners, and the last alternative was carried. After the battle of Kilsyth, August 15, 1645, the marquis of Montrose despatched the master of Napier and Nathaniel Gordon to release Lords Crawford and Ogilvie and other imprisoned royalists. The humblest prayers were now made to these two noblemen by the magistrates of Edinburgh, for their intercession with the victorious Montrose, which they cheerfully promised. His lordship was at the battle of Philiphaugh, 13th September the same year, where the royalists were totally defeated. He escaped, however, and met Montrose the next day at a ford beyond the Clyde, where they again separated, Montrose conducting what remained of the foot to Inverness and Crawford the horse to the Mearns. They then retired to the Highlands, and in the various skirmishes, retreats, &c., that afterwards took place, the earl figured conspicuously. In the beginning of 1646 he advanced into Buchan, and burnt the town of Fraserburgh. He then went to Banff, but was compelled to retire hastily into Moray, with some loss, in February, by a division of Middleton’s army. He continued with Montrose till the king delivered himself up to the Scottish army at Newark, and sent them his commands to lay down their arms. With Montrose and three others, he was specially excepted from pardon by the articles of Westminster, 11th July 1646, but by an agreement made betwixt General Middleton and Montrose, he was permitted to retire unmolested beyond the seas; on which he accompanied the Irish auxiliaries to Ireland, in order to consult with the marquis of Antrim, as to a new scheme which he had organized with Montrose for the king’s rescue, and having obtained frm that nobleman a promise of two thousand men, he proceeded to Paris, where he arrived on the 13th October, and communicated his plan to the queen, Henrietta Maria. Finding, however, himself and his scheme neglected and discountenanced, he repaired to Spain, “to crave arrears,” says Bishop Guthry (Memoirs, p. 180), “due to him by that king,” and received the command of a regiment of Irish infantry in the Spanish service. IN 1651 he was again in Paris, as, in the midst of the tumults of the Fronde, he appeared as a partisan of Cardinal de Retz, guarding him in his citadel of Notre Dame, with fifty Scottish officers, who had served under Montrose. He is said to have died in France in 1652. this chivalrous and loyal nobleman was the last of the old original line of the earls of Crawford. He had married Lady Margaret Graham, second daughter of William earl of Strathern, Menteith, and Airth, (dowager Lady Garlies,) but had no issue.

      The male representation of the family of Crawford devolved on George third Lord Spynie (see SPYNIE, lord), at whose death in 1671, John Lindsay of Edzell, descended from David ninth earl of Crawford, became heir male of the family, and entitled in terms of the charters of 1546 and 1565, and the act of parliament 1567, to the earldom of Crawford. He preferred his claim thereto in the second parliament of James the Seventh, but was not successful.

      The title was taken up, as already mentioned, by the earl of Lindsay, who under the name of Crawford-Lindsay became seventeenth earl. This was John, tenth Lord Lindsay of the Byres, (see LINDSAY, lord,) born about the year 1596, and served heir to his father 1st October 1616. He was created earl of Lindsay by patent, dated the 5th May 1633; but in consequence of joining Lords Balmerino and Rothes, and the party who opposed the king in the act of uniformity, the patent was stopped at the chancery. He continued to act a conspicuous part on the side of the covenanters, and was considered one of the leaders of the party. In November 1641, he was appointed an extraordinary lord of session; obtained a patent as earl, with precedence from the date of the warrant; and was also constituted one of the commissioners of the Treasury then names. This commission expiring in 1644, the estates, on the 23d July of that year, appointed him lord treasurer until the next triennial parliament. The office was confirmed to him in 1646 by King Charles, after his surrender at Newark. In January 1645 he was chosen president of the parliament in room of the earl of Lauderdale. Possessing most of the principal offices of the state, it seems beyond a doubt that it was by his instigation and influence that the Scots parliament passed sentence of forfeiture against Ludovick earl of Crawford in 1644, when he himself immediately assumed the title. [Crawford Case, p. 26.] Besides his various offices, he acquired also the revenues of five bishoprics, those of Caithness, Ross, Moray, Dunkeld, and Dunblane. He was one of the council of war that directed the movements of General Baillie’s troops against Montrose, and when Baillie in the north vainly attempted to bring the latter to a battle, the earl was stationed at the castle of Newtyle with an army of reserve, to prevent Montrose from crossing the Forth. His lordship had severely censured the campaigns of Argyle, and insinuated that the result would have been different had he possessed the command. The force under h im was newly raised, while he himself was without military experience, and he was saved from disgrace and defeat only by the desertion of the Gordons from Montrose, when the army of the latter had arrived within seven miles of his camp. In consequence of this event, Montrose retraced his steps northward, in pursuit of Baillie, who, in the meantime, was encamped on Deeside, where he was joined by Crawford-Lindsay, when, exchanging a thousand of his raw recruits for a similar number of Baillie’s veterans, the earl returned with these and the remainder of his army, through the Mearns into Angus. thereafter, he entered Athol, and in imitation of Argyle, plundered and burnt the country. After the battle of Kilsyth, so disastrous to the covenanters, Crawford-Lindsay, with Argyle, Lanark, and others, sought refuge in Berwick, from the victorious army of Montrose; but the defeat of the latter at Philiphaugh, retrieved their affairs again.

      After the surrender of the king to the Scots army in 1646, the earl was sent, with the duke of Hamilton and the earl of Cassillis, to his majesty at Newcastle, to entreat him to accede to the Westminster propositions, but in vain. In December of that year, he ineffectually opposed the vote by which the Scots parliament resolved to deliver up the king to the English, and in his speech on that occasion appealed to the national honour and generosity in his behalf. In signing officially, as president of the parliament, the public warrant of surrender, he recorded his solemn protest against it as an individual; and after the restoration he presented a paper to the high commissioner and the parliament, explanatory of the same, and requiring that its truth should be investigated by witnesses, in order that he might be acquitted of all individual participation in the transaction. The inquiry was accordingly made, and the truth of his statement substantiated to his satisfaction.

      In 1647, when Charles was a prisoner at Carisbrook, Crawford-Lindsay and his brother-in-law the duke of Hamilton, became the head of the constitutional royalists, in opposition to the earl of Argyle and the extreme presbyterians, and in the following year he entered with zeal into the ‘Engagement,’ for raising an army to attempt the rescue of the king. The endeavours of Hamilton, at this juncture, to propitiate Argyle and the protestors, created a suspicion among the ultra-loyalists that he had a secret understanding with them, and to efface this impression he is said to have got up a mock duel between Crawford-Lindsay and Argyle. Taking offence at some speech of his in parliament, the latter sent a challenge to the former, and they met at Musselburgh Links; but the duel was prevented from taking place. for the conduct in this business Argyle was obliged by the commission of the General Assembly to perform public repentance before them, and Lindsay was desired to do the same, but refused.

      On the defeat of the royal army at Preston, and its subsequent dispersion, Argyle and his party got into power, and Crawford-Lindsay was, by the act of classes, deprived of his offices of high treasurer, president of the parliament, and lord of session, voted a pubic enemy, secluded from parliament, and ordered to be confined to his house, under a penalty of one hundred thousand marks, decree being pronounced against him on the 10th February 1649. On the arrival of Charles the Second in Scotland in 1650, a coalition of parties took place, when he was admitted to court, having, at the king’s command, with some other noblemen, consented to make public acknowledgment of repentance for accession to the late ‘Engagement,’ as required by the church. He had, the previous year, peremptorily refused to make this acknowledgment, and escaped to Holland. After the defeat of Argyle at Dunbar by Cromwell, Crawford-Lindsay and his friends again took the lead in the state, and at the coronation of the king at Scone, on January 1st, 1651, he carried the sceptre. “On Saturday the 15th day of February,” says Sir James Balfour, “his majesty came at night to the Struthers, (his lordship’s family seat,) where he was entertained by the earl of Crawford till Monday the 17th.” [Annals, vol. iv.] He had previously obtained from Charles a ratification of the resignation of the earldom of Crawford in his favour, which was confirmed by act of parliament after the restoration, in 1661.

      When the king marched into England, in 1651, Crawford-Lindsay was appointed by his majesty, under the privy seal, a member of the Committee of Estates in charge of his affairs in Scotland, and he also received a commission as commander-in-chief under the earl of Leven, general of the forces raised in that country. A meeting of the Committee of Estates was held at Alyth in Forfarshire, 28th August, 1651, when they were surprised by a body of Monk’s cavalry sent fro Dundee for the purpose, and Crawford-Lindsay, with several others, was taken prisoner. He was sent by sea to England, and confined, first in the Tower of London, and afterwards in Windsor castle, for nine years. the following interesting notice appears in Lamont’s diary, (page 45,) “Aug. 1652. – About the beginning of this month, the Lady Crawford took journey from Leith for to go to London to her husband, now prisoner in the Tower. She went in the journey coach, that comes ordinarily betwixt England and Scotland.” The earl was specially excepted out of Crowell’s Act of grace and pardon, 5th May 1654, by which lands of the clear yearly value of four hundred pounds sterling were settled, out of his estate, upon his countess (Lady Margaret Hamilton, second daughter of the second marquis of Hamilton) and her children. By the authority of the English parliament, then reinstated in power by General Monk, the earl was, at last, on the 3d of March, 1660, released from his long and tedious imprisonment. After the restoration, he was restored to his offices of high treasurer president of the council, and extraordinary lord of session, the treasurership being granted to him for life, by patent dated 19th January 1661; and, after being detained for sometime at court, with the king, he was received with enthusiasm on his return to Scotland. His entrance into Edinburgh was a triumphal procession, “being met and convoyit with numbers of horsemen, and saluted with a volley of the greatest ordnance of the castle,” [Nicoll’s Diary, page 308.]

      In the subsequent attempted establishment of episcopacy, the earl was the only member of the government in Scotland who remained true to the covenant. He was “the champion and sole hope” of the presbyterians, and both in parliament and at court defended their cause with constancy and zeal; till the king was, at last, convinced by the earl of Middleton, that his removal from office was indispensable for the success of their favourite project. In 1663, at the suggestion of Archbishop Sharp, notwithstanding that he had been that ambitious prelate’s first patron, the king, in an interview which the earl had with his majesty, put it to him whether he would consent to the abjuration of the covenant commonly called the Declaration, passed in the fifth session of parliament, 1662. He replied that he could not do it with a safe conscience, and at once surrendered the white staff as treasurer, which was given to his son-in-law, the earl, afterwards duke of Rothes. In the following year he resigned his place of extraordinary lord of session, and retired from all public business to his country-seat of Struthers. He died in 1678, in his eighty-first year. He had two sons, William, eighteenth earl, and the Hon. Patrick Lindsay, ancestor of the viscounts Garnock (see GARNOCK, viscount of]; and four daughters, Lady Anne, duchess of Rothes; Lady Christian, countess of Haddington; Lady Helen, married to Sir Robert Sinclair, baronet, of Stevenston, Haddingtonshire, and Lady Elizabeth, countess of Northesk.

      William, eighteenth earl of Crawford, and second earl of Lindsay, concurred heartily in the Revolution; for years previous to which event he had been living in retirement. Before the death of Charles the Second, he had determined on emigrating, but was refused permission to leave the kingdom. By King William he was appointed, 5th June 1689, president of the parliament; 15th April 1690, a commissioner of the treasury; and 9th May following, one of the commission for settling the government of the church. He was one of the most active agents in effecting the overthrow of episcopacy. His correspondence with Lord Melville, secretary of state for Scotland at that eventful period, has been printed among the ‘Leven Papers,’ and several of his letters are inserted in the appendix to the second volume of the ‘Lives of the Lindsays.’ He died March 6th, 1698, leaving a numerous family. His second son, the Hon. Colonel James Lindsay, was killed at the battle of Almanza in Spain in 1707.

      The eldest son, John, nineteenth earl of Crawford and third of Lindsay, was sworn a privy councillor in 1702. He was an officer in the army, and was made colonel of the horse guards, 4th May, 1704. He afforded a steady support to the treaty of union, among the subordinate details of which was the settlement of a question of precedency which had long been debated between the earls of Crawford and Sutherland, and after protracted investigations, was decided in favour of the earls of Crawford, who rank accordingly as the premier Scottish earls on the union roll. He was one of the sixteen representatives of the Scottish peerage chosen by the last parliament of Scotland, 13th February 1707, and was rechosen at the general election in 1708. He attained the rank of lieutenant-general in 1710, and died in 1713. He left a son, and two daughters, Lady Catherine Wemyss, wife of General Wemyss, governor of Edinburgh castle, and Lady Mary Campbell, wife of Dugald Campbell of Glensaddell, and ancestress of the Campbells of Newfield, heirs of line of the family.

      Of the son, John, twentieth earl of Crawford and fourth earl of Lindsay, styled “the gallant earl,” and one of the most distinguished soldiers in Europe of his time, a memoir is given below.

      On the death of John, twentieth earl of Crawford, in 1749, without issue, the titles of Crawford and Lindsay devolved on his cousin, George, fourth viscount of Garnock, only surviving son of Patrick the second viscount (see GARNOCK, viscount of). Hi was the great-grandson and direct male heir of Patrick, younger son of John, seventeenth earl of Crawford, and first earl of Lindsay, and thus became the twenty-first earl of Crawford, fifth earl of Lindsay, and fourth viscount Garnock, to which latter title he had succeeded in 1738. He served as a volunteer with the allied army in the Netherlands against the French, and was one of the reconnoitring party who owed their lives to the presence of mind of the gallant earl of Crawford on the morning before the battle of Roncoux, as related in that nobleman’s life. In 1747 he was a lieutenant in Lord Drumlanrig’s regiment in the service of Holland. In 1749, he succeeded to the earldom, and devoted himself to the restoration of the family fortunes, by buying up the debts that affected it. He also purchased various lands contiguous to the estates. His lordship married, 26th December 1755, Jane, eldest daughter and heiress of Robert Hamilton of Bourtreehill in Ayrshire. He had gone to reside at Kilbirnie castle, in that county, which he repaired and ornamented, Struthers in Fifeshire, the seat of the Lindsays of the Byres, being then totally ruinous. On one fine Sunday evening in April 1757, a servant, going to the stables, saw smoke issuing from the roof, and gave the alarm of fire; in a few minutes the castle was in flames. Lord Crawford ran to the countess’ room, and catching up his infant daughter (Lady Jean Lindsay, afterwards countess of Eglinton), hurried with her into the open air. they took refuge in the manse, ans then removed to Bourtreehill, and afterwards to Fifeshire, where the earl built a house near the ruins of Struthers, subsequently enlarged and named Crawford Priory. He died in the 11th August, 1781. He had four sons, and a daughter.

      His eldest son, George Lindsay Crawford, twenty-second earl of Crawford, and sixth of Lindsay, born at Bourtreehill 31st August 1758, entered the army in 1776, and rose to the rank of major-general, which he reached 1st January 1805. He had been appointed in 1798 lord-lieutenant of the county of Fife, but was deprived of that office in 1807. On the change of administration, however, he was reinstated therein 23d May same year. He died, unmarried, 30th January 1808. His three brothers having predeceased him, without issue, the whole male descendants of the treasurer, John seventeenth earl of Crawford, then became extinct, and the succession to the earldom of Crawford, reverted, in terms of the patent of 1642, to the earls of Balcarres, the heirs male of earl Ludovic (see ante). The Crawford-Lindsay estates, being destined to heirs-female, went to the twenty-second earl’s only sister, Lady Mary Lindsay Crawford. The succession of her ladyship was opposed, unsuccessfully, by Colonel William Claud Campbell, grandson of Lady May Lindsay, sister of “the gallant earl,” and heir of line of the Crawford-Lindsay family.

      The titles of earl of Crawford and Lindsay, and viscount Garnock, were assumed by David Lindsay, serjeant in the Perthshire regiment of militia, then quartered at Dover, who directed an advertisement to be inserted in the Edinburgh Weekly Journal, of 16th March, 1808, cautioning the tenants on the estates as to the payment of their rents. He was served heir to his grandfather, John Lindsay of Kirkforther, the same year, and died, without issue, early in 1809. He appears to have been de jure Lord Lindsay of the Byres. (See LINDSAY, surname of.]

      In 1810 Mr. John Crawfurd from Castle Dawson, in Ireland, preferred a claim to the titles and estates of Crawford and Lindsay, as the nearest heir, asserting himself to be the lineal descendant of the Hon. James Lindsay, third son of John, first Viscount Garnock. Some of the documents on which he relied, having been found to have been vitiated and otherwise altered, the claimant and another person were in 1812, tried on a charge of forgery, and, being convicted, were sentenced to fourteen years transportation. In 1820, having through strong influence exerted on his behalf, procured a pardon, he returned from New South Wales, when he renewed his claim, and large sums having been subscribed on his behalf by many who thought it well-founded, he assumed the title of earl of Crawford, and twice voted at the election of peers in Holyroodhouse. On his death during the prosecution of his suit, his son asserted his pretensions with equal assurance, but in 1839 they were found untenable, and his counsel abandoned the case. Ample information of one of the most singular instances of peerage imposture on record, will be found in the work by Dr. Adams entitled ‘The Crawford Peerage,’ (manifesto of John Crawford,) published at Edinburgh in 1829, quarto; and in the ‘Examination of the Claim of John Lindsay-‘Crawford to th estates and honours of Crawford,’ in refutation of that work, by Mr. Dobie, writer, Beith, 1831, 4to.

      The titles of earl of Crawford and Lord Lindsay were by judgment of the House of Lords, on 11th August 1848, declared to belong to James, seventh earl of Balcarres; who, thereupon became the twenty-fourth earl of Crawford, and thus this long-litigated question was at last set at rest.

CRAWFORD, DAVID, of Drumsoy, historian, was born in 1665 at Drumsoy, near Glasgow, and was educated for the bar. He preferred, however, history and antiquities to the study of the law, and was appointed historiographer royal of Scotland by Queen Anne. In 1706 he published ‘Memoirs of the Arrairs of Scotland, containing a full and impartial Account of the Revolution in that Kingdom begun in 1567.’ This work, which went through two editions, was held in so much estimation, as to be frequently quoted as an authority by Hume, Robertson, and others, until Mr. Malcolm Laing published, in 1804, ‘The Historie and Life of King James the Sexth,’ from the original manuscript. To this manuscript Crawford formally referred for the authentication of certain passages in his ‘Memoirs,’ although it contained nothing that could in the least countenance them. Every statement in the ‘Historie’ unfavourable to Queen Mary, or to Bothwell, he carefully suppressed; while every vague assertion in Camden, Spottiswoode, Melville, and others, or in the State Papers, he had transcribed from the Cotton MMS., is inserted in the Memoirs, and these writers are quoted in the margin as collateral authorities. Crawford having thus constructed spurious memoirs of his own, had the impudence to declare on the title-page, and in the preface, that the work was “faithfully published from an authentic manuscript.” Truly, therefore, might Mr. Laing style Crawford’s work “the most early, of not the most impudent, literary forgery ever attempted in Scotland.” He died at Drumsoy in 1726. – his works are:

      Courtship à-la-mode; a Comedy. 1700.

      Love at First Sight; a Comedy. 1704.

      Memoirs of the Affairs of Scotland, from 1566 to 1581; containing a full and impartial Account of the Revolution in that Kingdom in the year 1567; to which is added, The Earl of Morton’s Confession. Edin. 1706, 8vo. 2d edit. Edin. 1707, 12mo.

CRAWFORD, WILLIAM, a clergyman of considerable repute in his day, was born in Kelso in 1676. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and after taking his degrees, was ordained minister of Wilton, a small country parish in the Merse. In 1711 he made a most energetic opposition to the settlement of ministers by presentations, instead of by popular election, in which he was supported by some of the most eminent clergymen then in the Established Church. He wrote a small work, entitled ‘Dying Thoughts,’ and some sermons He died in 1742.

CRAWFORD, twentieth earl of, (John Lindsay, fourth earl of Lindsay,) a distinguished military commander, was born 4th October 1702. He was the son of John, nineteenth earl of Crawford, by a daughter of Lord Doune (son of the sixth earl of Moray), and widow of Thomas Fraser of Strichen. He lost his mother when he was a child, and as his father’s military duties required him to reside generally in London, the care of himself and two sisters was committed to an old governante at the family seat of Struthers in Fife. When he was a boy in frocks the question of the union was the all-engrossing topic of discussion, and his lordship frequently, in after life, related that one day when the dukes of Hamilton and Argyle were dining with his father, (who supported the treaty,) a warm debate on the subject took place between them, as he was playing about the room, when the duke of Argyle took him up in his arms, and set him on the table among the bottles and glasses, saying to his father, “Crawford, if this boy lives, I wonder whether he will be of your sentiments.” The earl replied, “He certainly will, if he has a drop of my blood in his body.” Whereupon his grace kissed him, and set him down, saying, “I warrant he will make a brave fellow.”

      On the death of his father in December 1713, when he was only eleven years old, his grand-aunt, the dowager-duchess of Argyle, sent for the children to her house in Kintyre where the young earl resided till of age for the university, when he was first sent to Glasgow, and afterwards to Edinburgh. Mr. Rolt, his biographer, relates that during his residence in the Highlands he fell in love with a young shepherdess, in whose company he spent a great deal of his time among the hills, not even going home to meals, which he was accustomed to make on her oaten bread; and his lordship afterwards often declared that the pleasing sensations and harmless recreations, which he enjoyed with his little shepherdess, made a stronger impression of him mind than all the gallantries of the politer world, and all the pleasures of a court. while at college he gave many proofs of resoluteness and daring, and became the champion of the university, his fellow students generally choosing him for their leader in their disputes with the citizens. His favourite study was history, and he is represented as being more pleased with one lesson in Quintus Curtius, than with twenty lectures in philosophy, and more eager to understand a stratagem in the Commentaries of Caesar, than to explain the abstrusest subject in logic. From Edinburgh he returned to the duchess of Argyle, with whom he continued, under the tuition of a private tutor, till he was nineteen years of age, when, after spending a short time in London, he was, in 1721, entered at the military academy of Vaudeuil at Paris. He continued there for two years. His progress in learning was so rapid, and his acquirement of all the manly and elegant accomplishments usual with young men of rank and fortune so great, that his talents excited general admiration. In horsemanship fencing, and dancing, particularly, he surpassed all competitors. The following instance of his boldness is recited by his biographer: A grand entertainment was given at Versailles in 1723, by the young king, Louis the Fifteenth, on occasion of his being declared of age, and among other amusements a fishpond was to be drawn in the gardens. The earl was among the spectators on the occasion, and being pressed upon and insulted by a French marquis in his court robes, he took the offender up in his arms, and threw him, robes and all, headlong into the pond, in presence of the king, to the great mirth of the spectators.

      After quitting the academy, he remained some time at Paris, and then returned to England, one of the most accomplished gentlemen of the age. In December 1726, he obtained a captain’s commission in one of the three additional troops of the second regiment of Scots Greys, then commanded by General Sir John Campbell. On these troops being disbanded in 1730, he retired to the seat of the duchess-dowager of Argyle at Campbelltown, where he continued about eighteen months, during which time he studied mathematics, history, and military strategy. His recreations were sailing in a small Norway boat, and hunting, in which he took extraordinary delight, following the hounds on foot over the mountains when inaccessible for horses.

      On the last day of January 1732, his lordship was appointed to the command of a troop of the seventh or queen’s own regiment of dragoons. The same year he was elected one of the sixteen representatives of the Scots peerage, in the room of the earl of Loudoun deceased, and was thrice rechosen afterwards. In June 1733, he was appointed a gentleman of the bed-chamber to the prince of Wales; in February following he obtained the captain-lieutenancy of the first regiment of foot-guards; and in the subsequent October was nominated to a company of the third regiment of foot-guards.

      Finding no chance at that time of distinguishing himself in the British service, and being desirous of acquiring military experience in the field, his lordship obtained the king’s permission to go out as a volunteer to the Imperial army, the emperor of Germany being then at war with France. He joined the Imperialists at Bruchsal, near Heidelberg, on the Rhine, in June 1735, and was received by their commander, the celebrated Prince Eugene of Savoy, with every mark of distinction. There being, however, no prospect of active duty in that quarter, with Count Nassau, Lord Primrose, Mr. Stanhope, and Captain Dalrymple, also volunteers, he proceeded to the army under Count Seckendorff, by whom, October 17, 1735, they were sent on a reconnoitring excursion, when, meeting with a party of the enemy, three times their number, a skirmish ensued, in which Count Nassau was shot by a musket-ball, and expired next day, and Lord Primrose severely wounded, close beside Lord Crawford. The same afternoon was fought the battle of Claussen, in which Lord Crawford highly distinguished himself by his bravery and good conduct, and the result of which compelled the French to repass the moselle.

      The preliminaries of peace being concluded the same month, the earl quitted the Imperial army, and after making the tour of the Netherlands, returned to Britain, where he remained inactive for two years. Anxious to be again employed, he obtained the king’s permission to serve as a volunteer in the Russian army, under field-marshal Munich, then engaged with the Imperialists in a war against the Turks. In April 1738 he embarked at Gravesend for St. Petersburg, and on his arrival there he was gratified with a most kind and gracious reception from the czarina, Anne Iwanowna, who conferred on him the command of a regiment of horse, with the rank of general in her service. In the beginning of May he left the Russian capital for the army, and after a harassing journey of more than a month, during which he was exposed to imminent danger from the enemy, he at length arrived at the camp of Marshal Munich, who received him with all the respect due to his rank and character.

      The army having passed the Bog, on its way to Bender, was three times attacked by the Turks, who were as often repulsed. A fourth sanguinary battle took place July 26 when the Turks and Tartars were again defeated, and the Russians took post on the Dniester, July 27. In this last engagement Lord Crawford, who accompanied the Cossacks, excited their astonishment and admiration by his dexterity in horsemanship; and having sabered one of the Tartars, whom he had engaged in personal combat, he brought his arms with him to England as a trophy of his prowess. Munich afterwards retreated to Kiow, when the earl left him to join the Imperialists near Belgrade, with whom he continued for six weeks. On the Imperial army going into winter quarters, his lordship proceeded with Prince Eugene’s regiment to Comorra, thirty-three miles from Presburg, where, and at Vienna, he remained till the middle of April 1739, occupying his leisure with drawing plans, and writing observations on the Russian campaign. He then joined the Imperialists under marshal Wallis, at Peterwaradin, and was present at the battle of Krotzka, near Belgrade, commenced July 22, 1739, about three in the morning, when he had his favourite black horse shot under him, and while in the act of mounting a fresh horse, he received a severe wound in the left thigh by a musket ball, which shattered the bone and threw him to the ground. General count Luchesi, observing his lordship lying as if dead, ordered some grenadiers to attend to him. They accordingly lifted him up, and placed h im on horseback, but were compelled to leave him in that condition. He remained in that situation till about eight o’clock, when he was discovered by one of his own grooms, holding fast by the horse’s mane with both hands, his head uncovered, and his face deadly pale. He was carried into Belgrade, suffering the most excruciating agony His wound was at first considered mortal, but though not immediately fatal, he never recovered from its effects. He was removed from Belgrade, September 26, to a vessel on the Danube, in which he sailed to Comorra, where he arrived December 27, and there the principal part of the bullet was extracted February 20, 1740. He left that place April 28, and proceeded up the Danube to Vienna, where he arrived may 7, being all the time in a recumbent posture, pieces of the fractured bone continually coming away. He was able to walk on crutches for the first time September 3, and on the 20th of that month he was removed to the baths of Baden, where he remained till August 11, 1741. Then proceeding by Presburg, Vienna, Leipsic, and Hanover, he arrived at Hamelin October 3, and had several interviews with George the Second, who was there at that time. He now departed for England, where, during his absence, he had not been neglected; for, in July 1739, he was made colonel of horse and adjutant-general; on October 25 of the same year, colonel of the 42d Highlanders, and December 25, 1740, colonel of the grenadier guards.

      In May 1742 he went for a relief to the baths of Bareges in France, where he arrived June 12, and after frequent bathing, on July 12, three years after he had received his wound, he was able to walk about with one crutch and a high-heeled shoe. He left Bareges September 25, and after visiting the king of Sardinia at Chamberry, proceeded to Geneva. Afterwards passing through Milan, Genoa, Modena, Verona, and Venice, he travelled by Trieste, Gratz, Lintz, and through Bohemia and Saxony, to Hochstet, where he joined the British army, of which field-marshal the earl of Stair was commander, May 24, 1743, George the Second being also there at the time. At the battle of Dettingen, fought June 16, the earl of Crawford commanded the brigade of life guards, and behaved with his usual coolness and intrepidity. After encouraging his men by a short speech, he led them to the charge, the trumpets at the time playing the animating strain of “Britons, strike home.” At the beginning of the battle his lordship had a narrow escape, a musket ball having struck his right holster, penetrated the leather, and hitting the barrel of the pistol it contained, fell into the case without doing him any injury. The earl showed the ball to King George next day at Hanau, where his majesty, on seeing him approach, exclaimed, “Here comes my champion!”

      Having been promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, his lordship joined the combined armies in camp near Brussels, in the beginning of May 1744. At the battle of Fontenoy, April 30, 1745, he behaved with great gallantry and judgment, and conducted the retreat in admirable order. Of this battle he wrote a very interesting memoir, described by General Andreossi “as essential to the history of that war.” The earl was make major-general May 30 following.

      On the breaking out of the rebellion in Scotland, in 1745, his lordship was ordered home, to take the command of the corps of six thousand Hessians, employed by government in that service. With these troops he secured the towns of Stirling and Perth, with the passes into the low country; while the duke of Cumberland proceeded north after the rebels. On this visit to his native country the earl formed the acquaintance of Lady Jane Murray, eldest daughter of the duke of Athole, whom he married at Belfore, in England, March 3, 1747. When the rebellion was suppressed, his lordship rejoined the army in the Netherlands, and at the battle of Roucoux, October 1, 1746, he commanded the second line of cavalry, which drove back the French infantry with great slaughter. Previous to the battle, being out with a few other gentlemen reconnoitring, he was very nearly surprised by a party of the enemy, had not his own admirable presence of ind saved him and those who attended him from the danger. Upon his lordship and his friends coming in their view, which was not until they were close upon them, the French party immediately levelled, and presented their pieces to fire. His aide-de-camp and other gentleman had mistaken them for Austrian troops, and were riding up to them to let them know they were friends, when his lordship, discovering them to be French, and finding it too late to retreat, at once resolved upon personating a French general, and riding boldly up to them, he said in French to the officer, “Ne tire pas, nous sommes amis” (Don’t fire, we are friends), and without giving him time to ask any questions, proceeded to demand the name of his regiment. The officer replied, “The regiment of Orleans;” on which his lordship said in French, “It is very well keep a good look-out with your post. I am going a little farther to reconnoitre the enemy more distinctly.” He then rode off quietly, followed by his friends, and when fairly out of reach, they clapped spurs to their horses, and so got safely to their own quarters. In 1743, the earl had been made colonel of the fourth or Scottish troop of horse guards, and on its being disbanded in 1746, the command of the 25th foot was given to him, December 25th of that year. He got the command of the Scots Greys on the death of the earl of Stair, May 22, 1848, and on the 26th of September following, he attained the rank of lieutenant-general.

      At the conclusion of the campaign he went to Aix-la-Chapelle, for the benefit of the baths. His wound again breaking out, occasioned him much suffering, and while confined to his bed, his countess was seized with a violent fever, of which she died, after four days’ illness, October 10, 1747, seven months after her marriage, and before she had completed her twentieth year. At the opening of the campaign of 1748, the earl joined the duke of Cumberland and the confederate army at Eyndoven, and remained with them till the conclusion of peace in that year. He commanded the embarkation of the British troops at Williamstadt, February 16, 1749, and then returned to London, where after suffering the most excruciating tortures from his wound, he died, December 25, 1749, in the 48th year of his age. Having no issue, the earldoms of Crawford and Lindsay devolved on his cousin George, viscount of Garnock, as above mentioned. His Life, by Richard Rolt, was published at London in 1753 in quarto, printed for Mr. Henry Kopp, his faithful servant, who brought him off the field of battle when wounded so severely at ‘’‘Krotzka.

      His lordship has been admitted into Walpole’s Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors, in virtue of the following work:

      Memoirs of the life of the late Right Honourable John earl of Crawford, describing many of the highest military achievements in the late wars; more particularly the campaigns against the Turks, wherein his lordship served both in the Imperial and Russian armies. Compiled from his lordship’s own papers and other authentic memoirs. London, 1769. 8vo.

CRAWFORD, ROBERT (properly Crauford), a distinguished general of division, third son of Sir Alexander Crauford, baronet, of Kilbirnie, Stirlingshire, entered the army young, and on 1st November 1787, was appointed captain of the 75th Highlanders, with which he served in India. In the short interval of peace following on the treaty of Amiens, signed March 27, 1802, he visited the continent to improve himself in the scientific branches of his profession. He afterwards again served in India. In the end of October 1806, having now attained the rank of major-general, he was sent out to South America with the command of an expedition, consisting of four thousand two hundred men, destined originally to effect the conquest of Chili, but on the arrival of the news of the expulsion of the British from Buenos Ayres, ordered to that city to serve with the force under General Whitelocke. In May 1807 they reached that city, when the inhabitants attacked the British troops with such fury that a third part of them were destroyed, and Crawford and three regiments taken prisoners. Whitelocke concluded an unfavourable and disgraceful capitulation, in virtue of which the prisoners were restored and the whole British troops were withdrawn from the river Plata. Crawford afterwards distinguished himself greatly in the Peninsula. At the battle of Roleia (17th August, 1808), where the British and French were for the first time opposed to each other, he led one of the divisions of the right wing. He was also at the battle of Vimiera fought on the 21st of the same month. From that time till he received his death-wound at Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812, at the head of his division, he commanded the advance of the army in pursuits, its rear-guard in retreats, its outposts when in position, and its detached corps, when such by any chance was needed; nor, in any of these situations, did he fail to earn the decided approbation of Lord Wellington. Indeed, in point of intelligence and military skill he was regarded as second only to that great commander, and his unremitting attention to the wants of the troops under his charge secured for him both their attachment and their respect.

      In the army of Sir John Moore he had the command of the light brigade. In the memorable retreat upon Corunna, in December 1808, the hazardous operation of crossing the Esla on the road to Benevente, then a roaring torrent swollen by melting snow, and over plants laid across the broken arches of the bridge of Castro, in the dark, was successfully performed by General Crauford with rear-guard; after which he blew up the bridge. He was subsequently sent by Sir John Moore with three thousand men, on the road to Vigo, to secure that port for the embarkation of the troops, should it be found impossible to do so at Corunna. With these General Craufurd joined the army under Wellington, the morning after the battle of Talavera. This gallant band, at the distance of nearly sixty miles from the field of battle, were met by several Spanish runaways from the action of the 27th (July 1809), with tidings that the British were defeated and Lord Wellington killed. Withdrawing fifty of the weakest from his ranks, Crauford hurried on with the remainder, and reached Talavera at eleven o’clock on the morning of the 29th, having marched sixty-two English miles in twenty-six hours. This march, says Alison, deserves to be noted as the most rapid made by any foot soldiers on any nation during the whole war.

      After the surrender to the French of Ciudad Rodrigo, July 10, 1810, Wellington found it necessary to retreat before the superior force of Massena. He had commanded the advanced guard under General Crauford to fall back, which they did after making a gallant resistance, and on the 16th they took shelter under the guns of Almeida. In the retreat he commanded the rear-guard, four thousand five hundred strong, and on the 24th of July he was assailed on the banks of the Coa by a French force of twenty thousand infantry and four thousand cavalry, with thirty guns, and after a bloody combat of two hours, a heavy rain separated the contending parties, and Crauford retired with his division to the main body of the army. In this contest, a loss of about five hundred men was sustained on both sides. As this engagement took place in opposition to positive orders of Wellington, to avoid fighting under their then circumstances, it created some discussion at the time, and General Crauford published his own statement of the affair in one of the newspapers, in reply to a boasting official despatch of Massena. The Sierra de Busaco was considered by Wellington a favourable position for checking the pursuit, and there, on September 27, a battle took place. Three divisions of Ney’s corps advanced on Crauford’s division. He commanded part of them to withdraw behind the crest of the ridge whereon they had been formed, while he remained in front, alone, observing the enemy. On the approach of the French he gave the word to charge, when two regiments, the 43d and 52d, concealed behind the hollow, obeyed his command, and the French were bravely repulsed. That same night he drove the enemy from the village where they had taken up their quarters, after first sending them a polite message desiring them to retire. he also distinguished himself at Fuentes d’Onore, May 5, 1811, and Wellington’s despatch contained his well-deserved eulogy.

      After the combat of El Bodon, September 24, 1811, the British troops were ordered to be concentrated around Fuente Guinaldo. Crauford, eager for fighting, remained with his division all night sixteen miles off, while only fifteen thousand men under Wellington were collected in front of the whole French army under Marmont, sixty thousand strong. It was only next day at three o’clock that Crauford’s division arrived. When he came back, Wellington only said, “I am glad to see you safe, Crauford.” The latter replied, “Oh! I was in no danger, I assure you.” “But I was from your conduct,” said his lordship. In any other officer such a neglect to obey orders would not have been overlooked.

      At the storming of Ciudad Rodrigo, on the 19th January 1812, General Crauford was at the head of his division, directing his men, when a musket-ball took his left arm, and, penetrating into his side, lodged in the lungs. He fell back into the arms of one of his soldiers, and was instantly carried to the rear, where the medical attendants bled him twice. He then dropped into a slumber, from which he did not awake till long after dawn next day. He never entertained an idea of his recovery, and when General Stewart, who remained constantly with him, and others of his attendants, talked of future operations, he shook his head, and replied in a feeble voice, that his futurity, at least upon earth, would be of short duration; On the 23d, the pain of his wound abated, and he spoke, from that moment, with greater composure and apparent ease; his conversation being chiefly of his wife and children. He repeatedly entreated his aide-de-camp to inform his wife that “he was sure they would meet in heaven,” and that there was “a providence over all which never yet forsook, and never would forsake, the soldier’s widow and orphans.” About two o’clock on the morning of the 24th he fell into another deep sleep, from which he never awoke. He was buried, on the evening of the same day, at the foot of the breach which his division had so gallantly carried. His funeral was attended by Lord Wellington, General Castanos, Marshal Beresford, and a number of staff and other officers. He had introduced a system of discipline into the light division, which he had so long commanded, that made it unrivalled in the army.

      General Crauford married Bridget, daughter of Henry Holland, Esq., and had three sons, Charles, Robert, and Henry. A monument, by Bacon, junior, has been erected to his memory, and that of Major-general Mackinnon, who also fell at Ciudad Rodrigo, in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London.

      Between Sir Thomas Picton and General Crauford there was always a great rivalry. They were, says a veteran who knew them well, not formed by nature to act cordially together. The stern countenance, robust frame, saturnine complexion, caustic speech, and austere demeanour of the first, promised little sympathy with the short thick figure, dark flashing eyes, quick movements, and fiery temper of the second, nor, indeed, did they often meet without a quarrel. Nevertheless, they had many points of resemblance in their character and fortunes. Both were inclined to harshness and rigid in command; both prone to disobedience, yet exacting entire submission from inferiors; and they were both alike ambitious and craving of glory. They both possessed decided military talents – were enterprising and intrepid; yet neither was remarkable for skill in handling troops under fire. This also they had in common; they both, after distinguished services, perished in arms fighting gallantly, and being celebrated as generals of division.

CRAWFURD, QUENTIN, a learned writer, was a native of Scotland, but resided many years in France, and died at Paris in 1819. He was the author of:

      Sketches relating to the History, Religion, Learning, and Manners of the Hindoos. Lond. 1792, 2 vols. 8vo.

      Essai sur la Litterature Française. Paris, 1803. 2 vols. 4to.

      Melanges d’Hist. Et de Litt., &c., 1809, 4to.

CRAWFURD, ARCHIBALD, a minor poet, was born, of humble parentage, in the town of Ayr, about 1779. After receiving the mere rudiments of English reading, when only thirteen years of age he went to London, to learn the trade of a baker with the husband of his sister. After an absence of eight years he returned to his native town, and, at the age of twenty-two, attended the classes of the writing-master in Ayr academy for a quarter of a year, which was all the instruction he ever received in penmanship. He then proceeded to Edinburgh, and obtained employment with a gentleman of the name of Charles Hay, Esq., with whom he remained for several years, and who indulged him with free access to his extensive library. Hence, he soon became acquainted with the best English writers, particularly in the departments of history and the drama. On quitting Edinburgh, Mr. Crawfurd next engaged in the family of Leith Hay, Esq., at one time member of parliament for Perth, in whose service he continued for upwards of five years. It was on a daughter of this gentleman that he wrote his popular song of ‘Bonnie Mary Hay,’ set to music by R. A. Smith. It originally appeared in the Ayr and Wigtonshire Courier, and he afterwards introduced it into his tale of ‘The Huntly Casket.’ This sweet little lyric was composed as a grateful acknowledgment of the kindness experienced at the hand of the young lady, while the author was suffering under typhus fever.

      Having saved a little money from his earnings, about 1811 he returned to Ayr, and entered into business as a grocer. This speculation, however, proved unsuccessful, and after struggling for a year or two, he was compelled to compound with his creditors. He then became an auctioneer, took a small shop for the sale of furniture, got married, and soon saw his children growing up around him. It was not till a late period of his life that he ventured on authorship. during the political excitement of 1819, he produced a satirical pamphlet, published anonymously, entitled ‘St. James’ in an uproar,’ of which not less than three thousand copies were sold in Ayr and the neighbourhood. This production having attracted the notice of the authorities, the printer was apprehended, and compelled to give bail for his appearance, but luckily no prosecution followed. To the columns of the Ayr and Wigtonshire Courier, a journal of moderate politics commenced in 1819, Mr. Crawfurd contributed several pieces both in prose and verse, and particularly his ‘tales of my Grandmother,’ the principal portion of which first appeared in that newspaper. At this period he occupied a small furniture shop in the High Street of Ayr, with a single apartment in the back premises for the accommodation of his family. In this room, under the most discouraging circumstances, were the greater part of his tales and poetry composed. Urged by his friends, Crawfurd commenced taking the names of subscribers for a volume of his ‘Tales of my Grandmother,’ which was printed at the press of the ‘Ayr Courier’ in 1824. This edition being cancelled, the work, with some additional tales, was published by Messrs. A. Constable and Co. of Edinburgh, with whose imprint is appeared in 1825 in two volumes 12mo. It was well received by the public, and flatteringly noticed in most of the literary journals of the day. The tales are chiefly founded on traditions familiar in the west of Scotland, told in a brief sketchy style, and with considerable dramatic effect. Scattered through the volumes are some very pretty verses. The crisis of 1826 having caused the bankruptcy of Messrs. Constable and Co., their bill for payment of his portion of the profit was unpaid, and instead of making a profit he lost twenty-four pounds by the transaction.

      Shortly after, Mr. Crawfurd, in conjunction with one or two literary friends, commenced a small weekly periodical in Ayr, under the title of ‘The Correspondent,’ the price of which was three halfpence, being among the first of the modern cheap publications. It met with great encouragement, but a misunderstanding amongst the parties concerned led to its discontinuance. He subsequently brought out a periodical on his own account, entitled ‘The Gaberlunzie,’ which continued for a few months. This little production contained several interesting tales and some poetry of a superior order from his pen. Amongst the latter of these, the song ‘Scotland, I have no home but thee,’ afterwards set to music, soon became popular. His later years were spent in the exercise of his business as an auctioneer, while in his leisure hours he continued to indulge his fancy in tale-writing, with an occasional poetical production. He died in Ayr in 1843.

2nd Jan, 2008

Dear Mr. McIntyre,

On the following web-page under your management
there is a text quoting Anderson's The Scottish Nation on the origin of Crawfords. It is patently erroneous since there is significant research which supports George Crawfurd's (the 17th century historian) description of the origins of the surname Crawford, including our descent from Thorlungus, the Anglo-Danish warlord who came to Scotland from Northumbria in the wake of William the Conqueror's bloodbath in that land. The early history of the Crawford cadet lines is likewise most authoritatively presented by him (George Crawfurd). George Crawfurd's work is based on old documents, many of which are no longer in existence and to which Anderson only had access through Crawfurd's writings. In effect, Anderson's genealogy of the Crawford family (as do Robertson and Paterson) follows George Crawfurd's publications and manuscripts quite closely. Only in the matter of origins does Anderson contradict Crawfurd. 

The attribution of Crawford arms to the Earl of Richmond is based on a spurious comparison of the two arms. In fact, the arms of Crawford (Gules, a fess ermine) originated with the Loudoun Baron Jacobo filio Lambini or his son James, a knight during the times of Kings David I and William the Lion of Scotland. James de Loudoun of Loudoun was father to Margaret Loudoun who married Reginald Craufurd in the early 1200s, when the Barony of Loudoun passed to an heir of the Crawfordjohn branch of Crawfords. Sir Reginald Craufurd took the arms of Loudoun as his own as was not uncommon at the time since arms were usually associated to estates or baronies. Jacobo appears to have been a Flemish knight who may have come come north when King David (son of Malcolm Canmore) took the throne. He might have been among the knights he brought with him back to Scotland. Thus if anyone was a descendant of the Earl of Richmond it might have been him. However, he is not related to that gentleman historically since the 1st laird of Loudoun was likely Flemish and certainly not Norman. In fact, the name Lambini appears to be Greek, and relates to the Byzantine Empire. There was no regulation of the arms of nobles and gentry at that time, so it is very spurious to relate one to another based on similarities of design. There were only a few variants used in that time, and so design in arms tended to be repetitive.

Thorlungus appears to have been a cousin of Margaret of England who married Malcolm Canmore. Queen Margaret was later canonized and known historically as St. Margaret. Thorlungus likely received the lands of Crawford from King Malcolm since there are documents naming him as the Overlord of Craufurd back in the late 11th century. His grandson was confirmed in the Barony by that name by either King Alexander or Kind David, sons of Malcolm. 

In my capacity as member of the Executive Council of the Clan Crawford Association, l would like to request that if you are to post anything on our House and surname, that you consult with us to assure its historic validity. I would also like to refer you to our website ( where a review of the history of our House is posted. We are one of the oldest noble families of Scotland tracing our descent back to the advent of surnames and even further back. We would appreciate an accurate representation of our history.

Sincerely yours,

Joanne Crawford

C. Joanne Crawford, Ph.D.
Clan Crawford Association

Joanne has sent us in a couple of adobe .pdf files about William Wallace and Queen/St. Margaret and their Crawford connection.

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