The Flag in the Wind
Scottish Education - Schools and University, from early times to 1908
The Scottish Nation
The Celtic Monthly
Memoirs of Peter Henry Bruce
History of the Burgh of Dumfries
A Group of Scottish Women
The Scottish Country Dance Book
Scots Humour and Heroism (new book)
Family Tree DNA
Bits of Electric Scotland - Gift Ideas for Special Occasions
Ended up being a busy week. I did get to Guelph although I didn't get as
much done as I had hoped. I was all set to leave early... well early for me
anyway :-) I did an email run in the morning with the intention of heading
out right after dealing with anything that had come in over night. I noted a
wee icon saying that Microsoft had downloaded updates and did I want to
install them. I thought... why not it won't take long! And how wrong I
was... there were 14 of them and it took three quarters of an hour to do
them <grrr>. Anyway... after that was all done I headed out the door for the
around 2 hours 15 minute drive. Got to Guelph no problem but I went and took
the wrong turn off the 401 and so it took me around half an hour to find the
I did manage to photograph The Book of the Club of the True Highlanders. The
book is much taller and wider than would fit on my A4 scanner so
photographing it was the only way to do this. Took me ages to sort it all
out when I got back home as every picture had to be rotated and some effort
needed to make the pages readable. I did manage it however and now have both
volumes up for you to read. There are some excellent illustrations in this
I had some problems deciding how to present this book as to make this
readable the pages needed to be at least 1000 pixels in width. I am thus
doing one web page for each volume and presenting them as thumbnails on the
page so I hope you'll find this reasonably easy to read. At the top of each
page you'll also find a link to download a .pdf file of the whole volume and
I'd recommend that as the best way to read it despite it being a large 30Mb
or so download. You can see this book at
Having only about 10 minutes left after doing this book I managed to also
photograph the part of the other book that dealt with the Auld Alliance with
France. I've decided just to publish this as a .pdf file and that way it is
more readable and at 8.4Mb not too bad if you are on dial up. In the book
they seem to go back to 848 as to relations between the two countries. You
can read this at
Also attended a talk given by Dr. Brad Patterson of New Zealand who was
visiting Guelph University. He's promised to get in touch once he gets back
to New Zealand. He did leave me a leaflet about his Irish-Scottish Studies
Program which you can see at
So all in all this was a busy week but hope you enjoy some of my efforts :-)
Now... I need a bit of help from any Aussies reading this. I have acquired
the book "Scots Wha Hae", History of the Royal Caledonian Society of
Melbourne by Alec H. Chisholm. It was published in 1950 which means it is
still in copyright. I have tried emailing the Society to see if I can get
permission to publish this book on the web site but not getting any replies.
The only contact information I have is
Contact: David Thomson 03 9524 6244 firstname.lastname@example.org and
I just wondered if any of you might be able to contact someone for me that
might be able to give me permission to use this book on the site. If I can
get permission this will certainly add some excellent information about the
Scots in Australia.
Also meant to tell you last week that due to a lot of you saying you were
interested in Genealogy I have put links in the left border of the site to
familytreedna.com and also to ancestry.com resources. I might also add that
I am talking with familytreedna with a view to doing some projects with them
which will be featured on the site in the coming weeks.
ABOUT THE STORIES
Some of the stories in here are just parts of a larger story so do check out
the site for the full versions. You can always find the link in our "What's
New" section at the link at the top of this newsletter and pick up poems and
stories sent into us during the week from Donna, Margo, Stan, John and
THE FLAG IN THE WIND
This weeks edition is by Ian Goldie and as he is in a bit of a rush this
week we'll need to wait until his next issue to follow his Independence
pitch. That said he's included Alex Salmond's speech at the recent SNP
conference so if you want to learn what the SNP's leader thinks of the
upcoming elections you can get to read his full speech.
Peter has reminded us about the Scots having a "Sweet Tooth" and here is his
article this week...
The Scots, as we have noted previously, are famous, indeed infamous, for
having a sweet tooth. This is sadly reflected in both dental and heart
problems but does not stop Scots 'soukin awa' on all types of sweeties. The
Border towns are particularly famous for having their own local brand of
sweets - Hawick for Hawick Balls; Jedburgh for Jeddart Snails; Peebles and
Galashiels for Soor Plooms; if we take back the town of Berwick, then
Berwick Cockles can be enjoyed again; and Moffat gives us Moffat Toffee.
Melrose, in the past, gave as Coltart's Candy ( pronounced Coolter ) which
is still remembered in a song written by Robert Coltat ( an early form of
advertisement ! ) himself. The chorus of 'Coulter's Candy' goes -
'Ally bally, ally bally bee,
Sittin' on yir mammy's knee,
Greetin' for anither bawbee,
Tae buy some Coulter's Candy.'
Melrose based Robert Coltart was a colourful travelling man whose famous
candy attracted bairn as if he was a Scottish Pied Piper. The candy was
aniseed-flavoured but the recipe and custom seem to have been lost following
Coltart's death in 1890. The recipe for Coltart's Candy might no longer be
available but we are able to provide a splendid recipe for Creamy Toffee
which will delight bairns of all ages!
Ingredients: Half-pound sugar; quarter-pound margarine; 4 tablespoons syrup;
1 small tin condensed milk
Method: Put sugar, margarine and syrup in pan, heat until melted, then add
condensed milk, bring to boil, stirring all the time. Keep stirring for 20
minutes after it comes to boil. Test ball in cold water and pour into
MSP Linda Fabiani has fallen ill after her trip to Malawi so still haven't
heard from her. Calum told me she is scheduled to be back at work this
Scottish Education - Schools and University, from early times to 1908
by John Kerr, M.A., LL.D. (1910).
Have now completed this book and so now working on the appendixes which are
also very informative. Here is the one...
Appendix I. Primary Schools
(By JOHN WATSON, B.A. (Lond.), Headmaster of Broughton Higher Grade School,
SCHOOL PREMISES, 1873-1907.
Nothing can more strikingly show the inadequacy of the school premises in
1872 than the fact that in 34 years (1873-1907) the School Boards of
Scotland spent upwards of ten and a half million pounds on the erecting,
enlarging and improving of school buildings. Of this vast sum £578,000 was
contributed from the imperial funds the rest was from the local rates, on
which £5,740,000 yet remain as a burden. The building activity still (1908)
continues; but it takes the form of providing Higher Grade and Supplementary
Schools, and of improving existing buildings, providing shelter-sheds,
supplying pure water, improving lavatories, and, generally speaking, making
the schools more comfortable and more in accordance with modern educational
and sanitary requirements. In such directions, as well as in providing for
the natural increase of the population, and for the shifting-especially in
mining districts-from one industrial centre to another, building is likely
to continue for some time to come. In it there seems to be no finality. It
has not been confined to School Boards. The Roman Catholic Schools in
Scotland in 1872 numbered 22; in 1907 there were 208.
ACCOMMODATION AND STAFF.
The Schools under inspection in 1872 had room for 281,688 scholars. In 1907
accommodation was provided for well over a million. In the same year the
army of Scottish teachers was 21,220 strong, of whom over 15,000 were
trained; 2,614 untrained; and 3,585 Juveniles (Pupil Teachers). A comparison
with 1906 shows a remarkable change in the composition of this force. The
trained teachers had increased by 835; whilst the untrained and Pupil
Teachers had decreased by 180 and 738 respectively. Since then the
diminution in the number of Pupil Teachers employed has been greatly
accelerated. Many of the larger Boards, such as Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee
and Aberdeen, have ceased to employ them, and smaller Boards have not been
slow to follow their example. The system is doomed. The day appears to be at
hand when only trained, adult teachers will be employed in our Scottish
CHANGES IN THE TYPE OF EDUCATION.
The type of education in recent years has been gradually changing. There is
less striving after mechanical accuracy. Greater efforts are being made to
render the pupils intelligent and self-reliant. In arithmetic, for instance,
long sums are discarded ; but much time is devoted to mental arithmetic and
to the working of short sums of a practical nature. The time allotted to
Parsing has been greatly reduced. The teaching of Composition has vastly
Promotion is no longer a yearly occurrence--regulated by H. M. Inspector's
visit-for duxes and dunces alike. Bright pupils may be advanced at any
period of the year. Many schools aim at bridging the gulf between the Infant
Department and the Qualifying Examination in five years. Under the old
regime the normal period for doing this would have been six years. H. M.
Inspectors, as a rule, favour the shortened time. Children of more than
average ability can easily do it those with less should not attempt it.
This has assumed a kindlier aspect. Mutual confidence between teacher and
pupil is very common, and will probably become more so as the size of
classes is reduced, and other conditions of teaching are made more
By the Act of 1890 provision was made for the instruction of blind, and
deaf-mute children ; and powers were given to School Boards by the Education
of Defective Children (Scotland) Act (1906) to deal with children who are
epileptic, crippled, or defective. Some of the larger School Boards have
made profitable use of these powers.
EDUCATION (SCOTLAND) ACT, 1908.
'The educational event of 1908 was the passing of the long-looked-for
Education (Scotland) Act, which came into force on the 1st of January, 1909.
Many of the defects of the old system, notably cumulative voting, 'small
areas,' the lack of correlation between the various classes of schools, and
the inequalities of rating in different districts, have been allowed to
remain. The time available was too limited for the discussion of such
controversial subjects. Much, however, has been done. The physical welfare
of the children occupies a prominent place. School Boards may provide for
the accommodation, equipment, apparatus and service for preparing and
supplying meals to them; but the cost of the food itself (except in special
cases) must either be met by the parents or defrayed by voluntary
contributions. Where necessary, clothing also may be supplied ; and parents
who through neglect or carelessness send their children to school in a
filthy or verminous condition, may be prosecuted. Agencies may be
established and maintained for collecting and distributing information as to
employments open to children when they leave school. School Boards may,
and-when required by the Department-shall provide for the medical inspection
and supervision of the pupils in their districts, one-half of the cost being
paid out of the district education fund. Parents are required to provide
efficient education for their children between the ages of 5 and 14 years.
The dates of entering and leaving school, however, may not coincide with the
birthdays of the pupils. Power has been conferred on School Boards to
prescribe two or more dates per year at which scholars may be admitted to
school or leave it, and pupils must be enrolled on the prescribed date
succeeding the fifth anniversary of their birthday, and must not leave
(unless exempted by the Board) before the prescribed date after they have
reached the age of fourteen.
For young persons above that age suitable provision shall be made in day or
evening continuation classes or in both for physical training and for
instruction in the laws of health and in the crafts and industries practised
in the district. School Boards "have the power to make bye-laws to enforce
attendance at these classes up to, but not beyond, the age of seventeen.
TENURE OF OFFICE AND PENSIONS.
The position of the teachers has been distinctly improved by the Act. The
right of appeal to the Department in the case of dismissal gives them
greater security of tenure. The repeal of the restriction to grant retiring
allowances imposed on School Boards by the Elementary School Teachers'
(Superannuation) Act, 1898, is in itself a great gain. But the greatest is
the prospect of a satisfactory solution of the superannuation problem for
teachers in all classes of schools. The Department has been instructed to
prepare a Superannuation Scheme applicable to teachers and to constitute and
administer a Superannuation Fund for Scottish teachers, which fund shall
consist of six per cent. of the teachers' yearly salaries (four per cent.
payable by teachers and two per cent by School Boards) with an additional
yearly sum payable from what is henceforth to be known as the Education
(Scotland) Fund. The retiring allowances to teachers are to be in proportion
to their salaries and length of service.
The Education (Scotland) Fund just referred to, shall consist of nearly all
sums payable for education in Scotland except university grants, the school
grants under the Code, and a fee grant of twelve shillings per child in
average attendance at non-fee-paying schools. It is to be distributed by the
Department and not by local bodies. The Fund is to be applied to providing
for the expenses of inspection of intermediate and secondary schools, to
payments to the Universities and central institutions such as Technical,
Agricultural and Art Colleges, to Provincial Committees for the Training of
Teachers, and to the Superannuation Fund already mentioned.
DISTRICT EDUCATION FUNDS.
The balance is to be allocated for education in districts under local
management, and is to be known as `The District Education Fund.' From it
payments are to be made to School Boards and other governing bodies for
pupils attending Intermediate or Secondary Schools within their districts
but residing outwith them; and bursaries are to be provided to enable duly
qualified pupils to obtain education at approved supplementary courses,
Intermediate and Secondary Schools, Training Centres, Agricultural,
Technical, and Training Colleges, and the Universities.
The Act of 1872 provided specially for children of average strength and
ability; the Act of 1908 descends farther and soars higher. It cares, on the
one hand, for the feeble in mind or body as well as for the hungry and the
naked; and, on the other, for the strong in intellect who promise to become
captains of industry, or leaders in the world of Commerce, Science, Art,
Literature, or Thought. If it is carried out in the spirit in which it has
been conceived no Scottish lad of `pregnant pairts' need lack his
It may be added that the School Boards elected since the passing of the Act
of 1908 have entered on their new duties in a most praiseworthy spirit. They
have fixed dates for entering and leaving school, made arrangements for the
appointment of medical officers, and, as a rule, granted additional
allowances to teachers who had retired under the Superannuation Act of 1898.
The Scottish Nation
My thanks to Lora for transcribing these volumes for us.
We are now on the C's with Crail, Cramond, Cranston, Craw, Crawford and
Creech added this week.
Mostly shorter entries this week but a good account of Crawford and here is
how that name started...
CRAWFORD, CRAUFURD, or CRAUFORD, a surname derived from the barony of
Crawford in Lanarkshire, of which the origin is unknown.
The family of Crawford is of undoubted Norman origin. The site of the ruins
of Crawford castle is still called Norman Gill, and the early names of this
family are all pure Norman. The account of their descent from an
Anglo-Danish chief, as given by George Crawfurd, and adopted by Robertson in
his Ayrshire Families, is altogether erroneous. Burke, [History of the
Commoners, vols. ii. and iii.,] conjectures that they are descended from
that old and distinguished race, the earlier earls of Richmond, with whose
armorial bearings theirs nearly correspond, being Gules, a fesse ermine in
the former, and a bend on the latter. According to his hypothesis, Reginald,
youngest son of Alan, fourth earl of Richmond, who died in 1146, and great
grandson of Galfridus, duke of Brittany, who died in 1008, obtained large
grants of land from King David the First in Clydesdale, being one of the
thousand Norman knights whom he established in his dominions. These grants
may have originated in his (Reginalds) connection with the royal family of
Scotland, as his brother Conan le Petit, fifth earl of Richmond, married a
grand-daughter of David, namely, Margaret, daughter of Prince Henry, and
sister of King William. In connection with this relationship and settlement
of Reginald in Scotland, Theobaldus the Fleming, the reputed ancestor of the
Douglases, who held lands in Yorkshire under the earls of Richmond, appears
to have followed his fortunes into that kingdom, as also Baldwin of Biggar,
formerly of Multon in Yorkshire, under that family, who afterwards married
the widow of Reginald. He is presumed to be the party who assumed the
surname of Crawford, according to the practice of that age, from his barony
of Crawford in Clydesdale. He is alluded to, in a charter of William de
Lindsey, afterward confirmed by King William, early in that princes reign,
wherein mention is made of Johannis de Craufurd, filius Reginaldi. In 1127
there were two brothers of this name, knights, sons must probably of this
Reginald, namely, Sir John Crawford and Sir Gregan Crawford, both in the
service of King David the First. On the foundation of the abbey of Holyrood
by that monarch, Sir Gregans arms were placed therein, as he was
instrumental in saving his majestys life from a stag that had unhorsed him
whilst hunting on that spot on Holyrood day, in 1127. [Nisbets System of
Heraldry, vol. i. p. 334.] The old stones on which his arms were emblazoned,
taken from the ruins of Holyrood Abbey, were built over the lintels of the
Canongate church porch; this church having been a dependency of the Abbey.
He carried in his armorial bearings, argent, a stags head erazed, with a
cross crosslet, between his attires, gules, laying aside his paternal
bearing; gules, a fesse ermine, carried by some branches of the Crawfords.
On the abbey of Holyrood are the arms of Archibald Crawford, treasurer to
James IV., and brother of Crawford of Henning, as shown in the subjoined
cut, viz., a fesse ermine with a star in chief, and the shield adorned on
the top with a mitre. Sir Gregan had a grant of lands from King David in
Galloway, called after him, Dalmagregan. This appellation is most probably a
corruption of De la Mag Gregan, and implies the lands of the chief Gregan,
and is an instance of the adoption of the prefix Mac in connection with the
Romanesque Dal, as well as in reference to a Norman knight.
Galfridus, styled Dominus Galfridus de Crawford, frequently occurs among the
magnates Scotiae, as a witness to the charters of King William inter 1170 et
1190. He married the sister of John le Scot, earl of Chester, and niece of
the king. She was the daughter of David earl of Huntingdon, second son of
David the First of Scotland by his queen Maud. He is termed kinsman by John
le Scot earl of Chester, nephew of the king, in a charter quoted by George
Crawford, along with John le Scots two natural brothers, where they are all
styled fratribus, in accordance with the practice of that age in the use of
Reginald de Crawford, probably the son of Galfridus above mentioned, is
witness in 1228, to a charter of Richard le Bard (the original of the name
of Baird) to the monastery of Kelso. Reginald was succeeded by his second
son, Sir John de Crawford, designed dominus de eodem, miles, in several
donations to the monasteries of Kelso and Newbottle. He died, without male
issue, in 1248, and was buried in Melrose Abbey. He is said to have had two
daughters, the elder of whom, Margaret, married Archibald de Douglas,
ancestor of the dukes of Douglas, and the younger became, about 1230, the
wife of David de Lindsay of Wauchopedale, ancestor of the earls of Crawford.
There is, however, no proof of this latter marriage, and William de Lindsay
of Ercildun possessed the barony of Crawford long before the date assigned
to it. (See LINDSAY, name of.) The Lindsays held it till the year 1488, when
David duke of Montrose was deprived of it, and it was given to Archibald
Bell the Cat, earl of Angus. Others say that the duke exchanged it with Earl
Archibald for lands in Forfarshire.
Memoirs of Peter Henry Bruce, Esq
A Military Officer, in the services of Prussia, Russia and Great Britain
Added Book 7 this week which contains...
The reason for the Persian expedition. - Embark on the river Moscow. - Nismi
Novogorod. - Embark on the gallies. - The Ceremiss Tartars. - Casan Tartars.
- Manner of fishing in the Wolga. - Kinds of Fish. - Alabaster quarry. -
Bulgarian Tartars, and the Maiden-Hill. - Kalmuch Tartars. - Astrachan. -
Nagayan Tartars. - Short account of the Tartars in general. - The Nagayan
Tartars manner of life. - Desarts near Astrachan rich with salt. - Fruits at
Astrachan. - The Banyan woman's burning herself at her husband's death. -
The inhabitants of India. The Banyans.
Here is how Chapter 44 starts which tells us about Bonnie Prince Charlie...
THE year 1745 is a memorable one in the history of Scotland, on account of
the attempt then made by Charles Edward, son of the Chevalier de St. George,
to recover the crown of his ancestors. In the flush of youth, in the glow of
ardent hopespurred by ambition, and sustained by an idea that the claims of
his family were sanctioned by heaven, and must eventually be admitted by the
nation-Charles, who had vainly waited for assistance from France, landed at
Moidart, Inverness-shire, on the 25th of July, relying for success on his
own resources and the pecuniary assistance of some private friends. He was
attended by the Marquis of Tullibardine (outlawed for his share in the
insurrection of 1715); Sir Thomas Sheridan, the Prince's tutor; Sir John
MacDonald, an officer in the Spanish service;
Francis Strictland, an English gentleman; AEneas MacDonald, a banker in
Paris; Kelly, who had been implicated in what was called the Bishop of
Rochester's plot; and Buchanan, who had been intrusted with the duty of
summoning Charles to proceed from Rome to Paris when the movement was
resolved upon. These "Seven Men of Moidart" did not constitute a very
influential company; and if their chief had been a commonplace individual,
the enterprise would, at its very first start, have proved a failure. But
Charles Edward had a graceful appearance and engaging manners. With a fine
oval face, the individual features of which indicated a rare combination of
martial energy, lofty enthusiasm, and courtly polish, he exercised a
personal influence which few, on whom the charm fell, were able to resist.
No wonder that the Jacobites likened him to Bruce, and fancied they saw the
figure and countenance of the hero-king reproduced in "the young Chevalier."
But for this marvellous power of impressment possessed by the Prince, he
could never have invested his desperate undertaking with the rosy hue of
success; and when it did end ruinously, he could never have come to be
mirrored in that beautiful minstrelsy of his country, which "breathes and
burns" with "Bonnie Prince Charlie," and is the best evidence of the
interest he awakened amongst his followers. Abstract Jacobitism doubtless
did much for him; but it was chiefly because that principle was so
attractively represented in its youthful champion, that the Rebellion of
1745 was not nipped in the bud.
A few clansmen joined Charles soon after his arrival at Moidart; but many
who fully sympathized with his movement, waited to see what the leading man
in all the Highlands, Cameron of Lochiel, intended to do. He went to
Charles, for the purpose of counselling him to abandon his rash undertaking.
"If such is your purpose," said his brother, Cameron. of Fassefern, "write
to the Prince your opinion; but do not trust yourself within the fascination
of his presence." Lochiel, however, ventured on an interview with the
Prince, and left him with the resolution to take part in his fortunes, even
though ruin should be the result. His decision to that effect aroused the
North; "for," says Scott, "it was generally understood at the time that
there was not a chief in the Highlands who would have risen, if Lochiel had
maintained his pacific purpose." [Tales of a Grandfather, royal octavo ed.,
p. 383.] On the 19th of August the Jacobite flag was unfurled in the lone
vale of Glenfinnan ; and before a month elapsed, it was waving in triumph
over the proud towers of Holyrood Palace-the Government commander, Sir John
Cope, having hurried off to Inverness, in an erratic search for the rebels,
at the time when they marched southward and took unmolested possession of
the capital. Cope, transporting his force by sea from Aberdeen to Dunbar,
marched towards the city, and the Highland troops having gone out to meet
him, a battle ensued on the 20th of September, at Prestonpans, which
terminated in the utter rout of the royal army. By this victory Charles
became virtual master of the whole of Scotland, except the Castles of
Edinburgh and Stirling, and a few unimportant Highland forts. "To England!
in the flush of our triumph, and before the enemy has time to recover from
the stunning blow we have struck!" was the bold resolution of the Prince.
"Not so, your Royal Highness," remonstrated his Council; "stay here and keep
Court, and revel for awhile in the halls of your ancestors:" and Charles,
holding "silken dalliance" for upwards of a month in old Holyrood, instead
of at once hurrying forward, as his first impulse prompted, did not start on
his sadly romantic expedition to South Britain till the 31st of October, by
which time the friends of the Government had recovered in some degree from
their alarm, and had made ample arrangements to counteract the invaders.
Early in September, messengers were sent by the magistrates of Dumfries to
Edinburgh and Glasgow, for the purpose of obtaining reliable information
regarding the rebel movement; and about the same period, Mr. John Goldie,
[The first of the Goldies, or Gowdies, who settled in Scotland, were carpet
manufacturers from Flanders. The Goldies of Marbrack and of Stenhouse, their
descendants, became allied to some of the leading gentry of Dumfriesshire.]
Commissary and Sheriff-Depute of Dumfriesshire, entered into a
correspondence on the subject with Dr. John Waugh, chancellor of the diocese
of Carlisle, the latter of whom communicated the reports he thus received of
the insurrection to a clerical dignitary in London, and also, it is
believed, to the Government. By means of their own expresses and copies of
the Edinburgh Evening Courant, which had superseded the manuscript
news-letters, the magistrates obtained intelligence from the North three or
four times a week; and it appears the Courant had a correspondent in the
Burgh or neighbourhood who sent to it despatches from the South. The
following paragraph appeared in its impression of 10th September:- "There
are letters from Dumfries yesterday morning, dated the 7th instant, advising
that there is not the least stir, but every thing is as quiet and peaceable
as usual ; that the Erskinites (friends of the Earl of Mar) have been
stocking themselves with arms, and got a .standard made for them : and as
these letters mention not ing of any cannonading being heard on the coast
there, 'tis believed the story told with respect thereto must be
groundless." Mr Goldie, writing to Dr. Waugh on the 12th of September, gives
the origin of the above alarming report. "The firing mentioned," says, "was
heard on our coast on Sunday was se'enight; but, upon the most diligent
enquiry, it came from a West India ship belonging to the sugar-house at
Whitehaven, which that day cane into port. However, from this letter and
others, it was firmly believed at Edinburgh that an engagement had happened
on the coast of Galloway, and it was even given out that General Keith was
landed with an army at Wigtown : so easy is it to alarm at such a
conjuncture." [Carlisle in 1745, by George Gill Mounsey. A highly
interesting work, embodying, among other curious matter about the Rebellion,
the correspondence of Mr. Goldie and Dr. Waugh regarding it
A Group of Scottish Women
by Harry Graham (1908).
We now have more chapters up and here is a bit from the Anne, Duchess of
Buccleuch and Monmouth entry...
It cannot be denied that in the world of Art or of Literature, Scottish
women have never occupied a very prominent place. Scotland has yet to
produce a Rosa Bonheur, a Georges Sand, and Charlotte Bronté. It is
impossible to compare Joanna Baillie with Elizabeth Barratt Browning, or
Miss Ferrier with Jane Austin or George Eliot. The Scotswomans genius is
not of a creative or speculative kind. But for sheer individuality she
cannot be rivalled. Looking back at the history of the past six centuries,
it is not difficult to find many examples of Scottish women whose
personalities have had a profound influence upon their times. Scotswomen of
strong if occasionally eccentric character, of shrewd intelligence, of
active wit, have again and again inspired the men of their day to heights
which the latter would never have reached without feminine assistance. The
great ladies of the court, in particular, were fully sensible of the
responsibilities attaching to their high social position, and for the most
part worthily upheld the traditions of their rank.
An excellent example of a woman of title whose life and conduct earned
universal respect, and who exercised a beneficial influence upon her
contemporaries, in Anna, Duchess of Buccleuch and Monmouth, whom Sir Walter
Scott was proud to number among his distinguished ancestry.
Of the many Scottish families which rose to greatness upon the ruins of the
mighty house of Douglas, the Scotts were by no means the least important.
When the last Earl of Douglas died in retirement about 1491, some years
after he had been handed over as a prisoner to King James III., his vast
estates were divided among those who had remained loyal to the crown. Sir
Walter Scott of Kirkurd and Buccleuch had assisted in the downfall of the
Douglasses at the battle of Arkinholme in 1455, and his services were
rewarded by grants of lands in the forests of Ettrick and Selkirk and in the
shire of Roxburgh. He acquired also the lands of Branxholm, and in his time
Branxholm Castle was first established as the residence of the Buccleuch
family. His descendant Walter, Lord Scott, was created Earl of Buccleuch in
the year 1619.
Francis, 2nd Earl of Buccleuch, died in 1651 without male issue, and his
title and estates passed to his daughter Mary, who at once became the
greatest heiress of her day in Scotland. At the early age of eleven this
unfortunate child was married to a kinsman, one Walter Scott of Highchester,
a boy of fourteen. Vainly did some of the girls relations and her tutor,
Sir John Scott of Scotstarvet, seek to have this scandalous marriage
annulled. They were not strong enough to counteract the influence of the
little countesss mother, Lady Margaret Leslie, only daughter of John, Earl
of Rothes, and widow of Lord Balgonie, a clever and determined woman who,
after her second husbands death, married David, 2nd Earl of Wemyss. The
dowager-countess had her way, and as soon as the heiress reached the age of
twelve, at which she could legally effect a marriage of her own free will,
the girl was persuaded to approve of the proposed match, and went to
Dalkeith to commence married life with her boy husband.
Mary was a delicate child. Her premature marriage cannot have had a
beneficial effect upon her health; and having been taken up to London by her
mother to be touched by the King for the cruels, she died there, after a
short two years experience of matrimony, and was succeeded by her sister
Anna, (or Anne, as she is generally called), Countess of Buccleuch, was born
in the year 1651 at Dundee, where her mother is supposed to have gone to act
as an intermediary between General Monck and the Scottish nobility. Her
early life was spent at Dalkeith, and later on, when her mother married
again, at Wemyss Castle. She was, of course, as great an heiress as her
sister had been, and the question of providing her with a suitable husband
was one that immediately occupied her mothers mind. General Monck is
supposed to have wished his son to marry her. But Lady Wemyss was, as has
been seen, an ambitious and designing woman, and, after taking note of all
the possible suitors for her daughters hand, fixed her final choice upon
James, Duke of Monmouth, the natural son of Charles II. and Lucy Walters. To
this arrangement, supported as it was by the powerful Earl of Lauderdale,
the King offered no objection, and on 20th April 1663, when little Anne was
in her twelfth year and Monmouth but a trifle older, the marriage between
the two children was duly solemnised at Wemyss Castle in the presence of the
King and Queen. Monmouth at once assumed his wifes name of Scott. On the
day of their wedding he was created Duke of Buccleuch, and, two days later,
his newly-acquired honours were celebrated by a banquet given by the King to
the Knights Companion of St. George on the name-day of their patron saint.
Have now made a start at getting up some songs from the 5th volume of this
publication where all songs have the sheet music to go with them. This week
I got up...
Keen Blaws The Wind Owre Donacht Head
Lassie Wi' The Lint-White Locks
Polwart on the Green
Come Under My Plaidie
My Dear Highland Laddie, O
Flora MacDonald's Lament
Scots Humour and Heroism
by Cuey-Na-Gael (1902).
A new book this week and here is the first chapter for you to read here...
Chapter I - Is Scotland the Best Country in the World to be Born in?
Long ago, it is said, the people of Athens were asked to record two votes,
one for the best man in the State the man most suited for high position in
respect to character, ability, energy and so forth and the second vote for
the second best. The citizens all voted, we are told, each giving the first
place to himself, as the cleverest and most trustworthy man in the State.
But the second votes were all registered for Themistocles, who thus came
victoriously into office.
Something like this would very likely happen if the inhabitants of all
civilized countries were invited to name what they deemed the best land to
be born in; and were to give another vote to decide which was the second
We ought all to give our suffrages for our own country first. That would be
only fair and right. Anything short of that would savour of lack of
patriotism on our part. But no doubt the great majority of people would
agree to accord Scotland the second vote - which would bring in the Land of
Cakes at the head of the poll.
And yet, is Scotland so exceedingly popular? Yes, and No. Occasionally
people here and there awaken to the "pervasiveness" of Scotland, and write
to the papers. Quite recently someone discovered that all holders of high
office in England but six were connected with North-Britain. Then some one
else wrote to the Times that these six were of Scottish descent or were
married to Scotswomen.
Objection is sometimes taken to the Scot as being masterful and
enterprising, that he is always found, as they put it, "carrying on the
affairs of the Empire." That phrase expresses a mysterious principle which
has been at work for centuries. If ever you see an enterprise specially
successful anywhere - "a going concern" - no matter where, in Tibet, or
Peru, or at the sources of the Nile, there is certain to be a gentleman from
the North of the Tweed at the helm of affairs. In politics, or law, in
commerce, or in science it is just the same.
Other nationalities - English, Welsh, Irish - get a look in now and then;
still for the actual working of any money-making business you will find
matters entrusted either to a Lowlander or a Highlander, but assuredly to
some kind of a Scot.
A. G. Gardiner, the author of those lively sketches "Prophets Priests and
Kings", of ten years ago, was scarcely exaggerating when he said
"To be born a Scotsman is to be born with a silver spoon in the mouth. It is
to be born, as it were, into the governing family. We English are the hewers
of wood and drawers of water for our Caledonian masters. Formerly they used
to raid our borders and steal our cattle, but they kept to their own soil.
In those happy days an Englishman had a chance in his own country. To-day he
is little better than a hod carrier. The Scotsmen have captured not our
cattle, buth, the British Empire. They sit in the seats of the mighty.
Westminster is their washpot, and over Canada do they cast out their shoe.
The head of the English Church is a Scotsman, and his brother of York came
out of a Scotch Presbyterian manse. The Premier is usually a Scotsman and,
if not Scotch, he sits for a Scotch constituency, and the Lord Chancellor,
the keeper of the King's conscience, is a Scotsman too.
London has become an annexe of Edinburgh, and Canada is little more than a
Scotch off-hand farm. Our single satisfaction is that whenever we want a
book to read we have only to apply to Skibo Castle and Mr. Carnegie will
send a free library by return. It is a pleasant way he has of reminding us
that we want educating."
Underneath this playful badinage there lurks a great deal of truth. The
details are, of course, a trifle out of date at the moment ; but the
When Tammas Buchanan returned from a week's stay in London, whither he had
been sent by his firm to carry out some delicate business negociations, the
neighbours were eager to know what he thought of the people in the South.
"Tell us, Tammas, hoo (1) did ye fin' (2) the English? What like warr' they,
"English!" exclaimed Tammas. "Mon, A (3) dinna ken onything about them. A
had naething to do with the English. A only had to deal with the heids (4)
o' the departments."
(1) hoo = how. (2) fin' = find. (3) A dinna ken = I do not know. (4) heids =
The other chapters added this week are...
Some Misconceptions Removed
Lyric Poetry in Scotland
Some National Characteristics Illustrated
Religion and Patriotism
Some Scotch Words Explained
Minister and Parish
Family Tree DNA
While I've been talking to Leah Wark she sent me in this quick
Since its inception, in April of 2000, Family Tree DNA has been associated
with the Arizona Research Labs, led by Dr. Michael Hammer, one of the
world's leading authorities in the field of genetics. Family Tree DNA is the
world leader and only organization in the field of genetic genealogy that
has been constantly developing the science that enables many genealogists
around the world to advance their families' research.
We offer two types of testing: Y-DNA and mtDNA. The mtDNA test looks at your
mitochondrial DNA which is passed virtually unchanged from a mother to her
children with no influence from the father. This means the mtDNA tests look
at your direct maternal line (your mother's mother's mother's...etc.) with
no input from spouses. Both males and females can take this test.
The Y-DNA test looks at the Y-chromosome which is passed mainly unchanged
from father to son with no outside influence. This means this test looks at
your direct paternal line or your father's father's father's...line with no
input from any spouses along the way. Because only males have a Y-chromosome
only males can take this test. Here is a link to an inheritance chart on our
website that illustrates the direct paternal and direct maternal lines:
The tests provide information regarding the single origin of the direct line
being tested in broad geographic terms (Asia, for example). We also compare
you against our database. If there are others with similar results to you we
list what they have entered for their country of origin. By way of
comparison this can provide hints as to more probable countries for your own
origin. Additionally, we connect you with individuals whose test results
For males this can be particularly useful because the Y-chromosome is passed
down from father to son just like last names. So two Warks, for example, can
compare against one another to determine whether or not they are likely to
share a common ancestor. This is particularly useful when you encounter a
genealogical roadblock. We currently have over 3,500 different surname
projects in which participants of the same or similar surnames can compare
mtDNA tests are not as useful genealogically. They are more of
anthropological tests. In other words, my mtDNA can tell me whether or not
my direct maternal line is Native American in origin, for example, but it's
not going to be as good at telling me whether others with similar results to
me are relevant matches.
And so there you have it and more articles to come soon :-)
Bits of Electric Scotland
It was suggested that I might highlight bits of the site that I thought
might be of general interest.
This page came about as I was working with Jeanette Simpson on her Tea
recipes. Jeanette suggested it might be fun to put up some gift ideas where
at little cost you can make up gifts for special occasions. I thought this
would be great fun so we proceeded over some months to add ideas and that
resulted in this page.
When you go there you will find...
Gold Boxes with Pajamas
Family Reunion - Cookbook, Calendar, Address Book, Ornaments, Napkin Rings,
Memories Cassette, Family History Photo Album, Ancestry Research,
Sightseeing, Ladies Tea, Family Bowl-a-thon.
Old Quilt Stockings
Tea Break Muffins
Bowl of Ornaments
Anytime or Occasion
Tea Time Basket
Tea Towel and Goodies
Cookies in a Jar
Fresh Bread and Jams
Travel Pamper Basket
Afternoon Tea Basket
Ladys Pamper Basket
Tartan Decorated Towels
Tartan Throw Pillows
Victorian Terra Cotta Pots
Photo Albums and Picture Frames
Lighted Potpourri Container
Hot Dish Carrier
As an example here is the page on Family Reunion...
This gift is neither quick, easy or inexpensive, but it is a treasure to
those who receive it. Several years ago our family decided to have a
Christmas reunion. We notified everyone two years in advance so plans could
be made for Christmas 1998. As children we spent Christmas at our
grandparents home with great aunts and uncles and great-grandparents,
aunts, uncles, and cousins all crowding into the house. Through the years
the older ones have died and the rest of us are middle-aged, or just past
it, and have all gone our separate ways and are in different parts of a vast
country. We had grandchildren our cousins had never seen, and we just hated
for them to lose the connections with their roots. So, we planned a
traditional Christmas dinner for 62 (only two of the great-grandchildren
couldnt attend because of work obligations) people at the fellowship hall
of my cousins church back in our hometown. This was in a gymnasium and we
left one end open so the men and children could shoot baskets, and there
were side rooms where the children could play or sleep, as well as the large
kitchen where we could cook.
Several months ahead of time, we asked everyone to contribute favorite
recipes for a cookbook. Some had recipes from our grandmother and some from
our great-grandmothers also. We included our memories of the person whose
recipe we were using or told how we got our recipes. I typed the recipes in
with the computer page set to 8 1/2 X 5 1/2-inch size; we had nearly 200
recipes. I took a picture of blue and white china on shelves with pictures
of our grandparents on the shelves and a picture of a picnic outdoors with
our tartan showing from the wicker basket then copied and laminated these
for front and back covers. I printed a set then my aunt took the original to
a printer and had them bound. We sold them for $5 at the reunion. One cousin
worked on a family calendar, collecting pictures from each family group to
use on each page, and putting in birthdays and anniversaries of all of us
and of those who had gone before us. She also put together an address book
with pictures of our homes and churches included. We bought special
tablecloths, had napkins printed with the occasion and the date, and had
lovely centerpieces of roses made by one cousin. I made napkin rings out of
small grapevine wreaths to which I glued a spray of silk holly and berries.
Each family member was asked to put a picture of himself/herself in a small
picture frame which could be tied to the Christmas tree as an ornament, and
there were photos of our ancestors on there too. Another cousin made special
Victorian ornaments for the tree. I made special ornaments with each
persons name on them. Another cousin had a cassette tape of some of those,
who are no longer living, talking about their ancestry, so she made copies
to put in a gift bag for each family group present. One person had some old
Christmas ornaments that had belonged to our grandmother so brought them
that we each might choose one to keep. Others made small gifts for each gift
bag. One cousin had done the research on the family ancestry and made copies
of that for each gift bag.
I seemed to be the person who had all of the old family pictures, so I began
copying pictures on a color copier to get the tones of the old tintypes and
brown tones just right. I also had our great-grandmothers Bible in which
she had pressed a flower and had a special poem. I took pictures of the
Bible and made copies of the pressed flowers and poem. I had pictures also
of the tombstones of many of our ancestors. The first page of the album
listed all the family surnames and told where they originated. I used paper
that had a large tree on it and put a quote about a family at the bottom of
the page. I began putting together the album beginning with a picture of our
great-grandparents in their store then working forward using pictures from
my grandfathers family and then went to my grandmothers family which
included a picture of our great-great-grandparents, used our grandparents
wedding picture then had pictures of them with their four sons from whom the
rest of us came. I did sections on each son and his family, pictures of the
sons as children then up to the present, some with wedding pictures and
invitations, and used the most recent pictures of the three sons who are now
deceased to end their section. The pictures continued on to include the
great-grandchildren of those four sons. Then there were pictures of past
Christmases and other family activities, which included all or some of us.
The album was done in the scrapbook style with borders around pictures,
quotes, decorative stickers, a picture of the last quilt our
great-grandmother pieced and a picture of a cup and saucer from her china
set. One cousin and I took the original pages to a printer and had copies
made which we could slide down into plastic protector sheets in a three-ring
binder. We included some extra pages so family members could insert the
pictures they took at the reunion. Each family group received one of these
albums in their gift bag. One cousin read the Christmas story and gave the
prayer before we ate. The wife of another cousin sang before the meal. We
took pictures of each family group and generational pictures. After the
dinner, our one remaining uncle played his ukelele and sang then told us the
things he remembers about his parents and grandparents.
The next morning one cousin took whoever was interested down to another
county to the cemetery where many of our ancestors are buried. That
afternoon we had a tea for the women and little girls at the home of an
aunt. We dressed up and wore our hats, even the smallest little girls. Each
woman got a velvet bag with a gold teaspoon inside and the little girls got
tea party cookbooks and a gold spoon. That night we had a family bowl-a-thon
at a bowling alley in town. Everyone went home with a bag full of goodies
and memories to last the rest of his/her life. And, we all had such a
wonderful time that we are planning to do it again soon, perhaps not at
Christmas next time, but Im sure we will have all of the little extras to
make it special whatever the season. This is a great family gift each can
give to everyone else, but it must be planned well ahead as it isnt the
most inexpensive thing to travel a great distance and stay in a hotel for
One cousin had shopped for months on eBay and bought a number of teapots.
Each adult guest at the ladies tea was allowed to choose a teapot to take
home as a memento, and each child was given a miniature teapot. The aunts
were each given a tea set purchased on eBay.
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