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Weekly Mailing List Archives
26th September 2008


Alastair McIntyreElectric Scotland's Weekly Email Newsletter

Electric Scotland - The No.1 Scottish History Site Aois - The Celtic Community
The Electric Scotland Article Service

Dear Friend

It's your Electric Scotland newsletter meaning the weekend is nearly here :-)

You can view what's new this week on Electric Scotland at http://www.electricscotland.com/rss/whatsnew.php and you can unsubscribe to this newsletter by clicking on the link at the foot of this newsletter.

See our Calendar of Scottish Events around the world at http://www.electricscotland.com/familytree/calendar_help.htm

CONTENTS
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Electric Scotland News
The Flag in the Wind
The Scottish Nation
Clan and Family Information
Poetry and Stories
New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Book of Scottish Story
Merchant and Craft Guilds
History of Glasgow
Scottish Banking Practice
The Glengarry McDonalds of Virginia
Reminiscences of a Highland Parish (New Book)
The Scottish Historical Review
Were the Scots Irish?


ELECTRIC SCOTLAND NEWS
---------------------
Not a lot going on this week. I am off to the meeting at the University of Guelph on Friday/Saturday so I'll report on that next week.

Steve seems to have settled his divorce and so the move to Michigan is now on and we hope to have a date shortly. The first target date is 17th October but that depends on how soon we can get the new leased line contract sorted.

-----

Haven't mentioned this for a while but I do maintain Ian Hudghton's web site for him. Ian is the SNP Member of the European Union Parliament and is also the Chairman of the Scottish National Party. He posts up items from time to time to do with the European Union that has impact on Scotland and so you can view his site at http://www.hudghtonmep.com/

-----

I'm recommending to my Doctor that she gets one of those vending machines. It's usually 3 or more hours before she gets to you. Was talking to some others today and one couple went out to have lunch and came back and still waited an hour. She could likely make a fortune as everyone I spoke to said they would use it :-)


ABOUT THE STORIES
-----------------
Some of the stories in here are just parts of a larger story so do check out the site for the full versions. You can always find the link in our "What's New" section at the link at the top of this newsletter or on our site menu.


THE FLAG IN THE WIND
--------------------
This weeks Flag is compiled by Jennifer Dunn is which I found an article about visas to the USA which is a genuine problem for those in Scotland wanting to get a visa to get into the USA. We have to travel all the way down to London, England to get one which is a considerable expense for most. Here is what the article says...

Campbell Calls for US Visa Service to Return to Scotland

Aileen Campbell, SNP MSP for South of Scotland, has called on the US Consul General in Edinburgh to return to issuing visas and has proposed a pilot scheme for musicians travelling to work in the United States.

Her call came after a meeting with representatives from Creative industries highlighted the costs of travelling to London for visas as a major expense when trying to tour and promote Scottish music in the USA .

In response to Ms Campbell's call, the U.S. Embassy in London indicated it is "exploring other options to ease the burden on our Scottish visa applicants".

Commenting Ms Campbell said:

"Having talked recently with business people who represent aspiring bands in the music industry, it has been brought to my attention that they face prohibitive costs in acquiring visas to travel and perform in the United States.

"Considering the number of people who may be in a band and who are needed to ensure concerts and tours run smoothly, the costs of travelling to the American Embassy in London to get individual visas can be prohibitive.

"The Scottish Government's Year of Homecoming in 2009 which will encourage people of Scots descent to return and celebrate their shared heritage provides a great time to facilitate any return visits by Scottish artists to the US by securing such a visa service in Scotland.

"I'm encouraged by the response from the U.S. Embassy as it shows they have not simply forgotten about Scotland and its residents. I will continue with these discussion in the hope of returning the visa service to Scotland as soon as possible."

In Peter's cultural section he tells us about...

Many Scottish towns have given their names to foodstuffs and confectionery popular in their locale eg Aberdeen for Aberdeen Butteries, Dundee for Dundee Cake, Edinburgh for Edinburgh Rock, Moffat for Moffat Toffees, Jedburgh for Jeddart Snails, Selkirk for Selkirk Bannocks and this week the column enjoys a visit to Forfar, home of the Forfar Bridie.

The Royal Burgh of Forfar is situated at the north-east end of the Howe of Angus, the site is said to have witnessed one of the last battles between the Picts and the Scots in 845. The Burgh was founded in the reign of David I whose father, Malcolm III, "Canmore", is said to have held a parliament in Forfar in 1057 at which he conferred surnames and titles on the Scottish nobility.

Forfar has long been a centre of local government which continues to this day. The late Arthur Donaldson, National Chairman of the Scottish National Party, 1960-1969, gave many years service as a Forfar Councillor and sitting SNP MEP and President of the Scottish National Party Ian Hudghton represented a ward in Forfar and served as SNP Council Leader in Angus prior to his election to the European Parliament.

No visit to Forfar would be complete without enjoying the local delicacy, the famed Forfar Bridie - a meal fit for a king!

Forfar Bridies

Shortcrust pastry: 4 cups flour; 1/4 teaspoon salt; 1/2 pound salted butter (2 sticks), cut into small pieces; Cold water

Filling: 1 pound ground beef; 1 small onion, peeled, ends removed, chopped; 1/4 teaspoon salt; 1/8 teaspoon pepper; 1/4 cup water; Nonstick cooking spray or 1/2 teaspoon shortening; 1 beaten egg

To prepare pastry: In a large mixing bowl, sift together the flour and salt. Add the butter and cut into flour until the mixture resembles fine bread crumbs. Mix in enough cold water to hold mixture together. Form into a ball. Wrap in wax paper or plastic wrap and place in the refrigerator for 30-45 minutes.

To prepare the filling: In a large bowl, mix together the uncooked ground beef, onion, salt, pepper and water. Set aside.

Assembly: Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Spray a baking sheet with nonstick cooking spray or grease with shortening.

Remove pastry from refrigerator. Lightly sprinkle work surface with flour. Roll out pastry to about 1/8-inch thickness. Cut into 6-7 circles approximately 5 to 6 inches in diameter. Evenly divide the filling among the 6 circles, placing the meat mixture on one half of the circle. Brush the edge lightly with the beaten egg. Fold the pastry over the filling and seal by lightly crimping the edge. Brush the top with beaten egg. Repeat with remaining filling and dough circles.

Place on prepared baking sheet and bake for 50 minutes or until golden brown on top.

Makes 7 Forfar Bridies.

I might add that I enjoy these myself with Baked Beans and Fries. Not a meal if you're on a diet :-)

You can read the Flag, listen to the Scots Language, enjoy the Scots Wit and lots more at http://www.scotsindependent.org

Christina McKelvie MSP's weekly diary for this week can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/mckelvie/080925.htm


The Scottish Nation
-------------------
My thanks to Lora for transcribing these volumes for us.

We're now onto the S's with Stair, Stark, Stedman, Steuart, Stevenson, Stewart and
Stirling.

A large account of Stewart this week and here is how it starts...

STEWART, a surname derived from the high office of steward of the royal household, and distinguished as being that of a race of Scottish kings which occupied the throne of Scotland for upwards of three hundred, and that of England for more than one hundred years. The name is sometimes written Steuart, and by the later royal family of Scotland, Stuart. As various families throughout Scotland, as well as in England and Ireland, bear this surname, some of the principal branches having diverged from the main line at a period antecedent to its becoming royal, it may be assumed that those who retain the original spelling belong to some one or other of these branches, that the families who adopt the spelling of Steuart are offshoots, generally illegitimate, of the royal house previously to Queen Mary, and that the form of Stuart, which was only assumed, for the first time, when that ill-fated princess went to France, is exclusively that of the royal blood. In the death-warrant of Charles I. the name is spelled Steuart.

The first of the family of Stewart is said by Pinkerton to have been a Norman baron named Alan, who obtained from William the Conqueror the barony of Oswestry in Shropshire. He was the son of Flaald, and the father of three sons, William, Walter and Simon. It is from the second that the royal family of Scotland descend.

The eldest son, William, was the progenitor of a race of earls of Arundel, whose title, being territorial, and lands, ultimately went by an heiress into the family of the duke of Norfolk. The two younger sons, Walter and Simon, came to Scotland. Walter was by David I. appointed dapifer, that is, meat-bearer or steward of the royal household; sometimes called seneschallus. Simon was the ancestor of the Boyds, his son, Robert, having been called Boidh, from his yellow hair.

The duties of high-steward comprised the management of the royal household, as well as the collection of the national revenue and the command of the king’s armies, and from the office Walter’s descendants took the name of Stewart.

From David I. (1124-1153) Walter obtained the lands of Renfrew, Paisley, Pollock, Cathcart, and others in that district, and in 1157, King Malcolm IV. granted a charter of confirmation of the same. In 1160, he founded the abbey of Paisley, the monks of which, of the Cluniac order of Reformed Benedictines, were brought from the priory of Wenlock in Shropshire. Walter died in 1177, and was interred in the monastery at Paisley, the burying-place of the Stewarts before their accession to the throne, Renfrew being their usual residence.

Walter’s son and successor, Alan, died in 1204, leaving a son, Walter, who was appointed by Alexander II. justiciary of Scotland, in addition to his hereditary office of high-steward. He died in 1246, leaving four sons and three daughters. Walter, the third son, was earl of Menteith. The eldest son, Alexander, was, in 1255, one of the councilors of Alexander III., then under age, and one of the regents of Scotland. He married Jean, daughter and heiress of James, lord of Bute, grandson of Somerled, and, in her right, he seized both the Isle of Bute and that of Arran. The complaints made to the Norwegian court by Ruari or Roderick of Bute, and the other islanders, of the aggressions of the Scots, led to Haco’s celebrated expedition, and the battle of Largs, 2d October 1263, in which the high-steward commanded the right wing of the Scots army, and the Norwegians were signally defeated. In 1265 the whole of the western isles were ceded by treaty to Scotland.

You can read the rest of this account at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/nation/stewart.htm

You can read all these entries at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/nation/s.htm


Clan and Family Information
---------------------------
Got in more pictures from the Clan MacIntyre gathering from John McIntyre from Australia which can be seen at http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macintyre/2008post.htm


Poetry and Stories
------------------
Another poem from John Henderson called "Bleck Affrontit" which you can read at http://www.electricscotland.com/poetry/doggerel280.htm

John has also sent in another pdf file in his "Village Cricket" series at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/sport/village_cricket.htm

We also have some new poems and articles from Donna, Alastair and others in our Article Service at http://www.electricscotland.com/article/


New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
------------------------------------------
The first volume I am dealing with is the one on Aberdeenshire. There are some 85 parishes in this volume and a write up on each.

Have now added the final chapter of this volume on The Marischal College and University of Aberdeen

The account starts...

As soon as the Reformation had received a legal establishment in Scotland, an attempt was made to improve the three Universities then existing in the country, and in the First Book of Discipline of 1560, many alterations in their government and teaching were proposed, with a view to accommodate them to the great change in religion which had taken place. In a few years afterwards, new charters or erections were given to these seminaries, and partially put in force; the University of Edinburgh was founded; and the city of Aberdeen, then ranking as the second or third in respect of wealth and population in the kingdom, received a similar establishment. A grammar-school, which had produced many eminent scholars, had existed in it for nearly two centuries; and the magistrates and citizens appear to have been exceedingly desirous of propagating the principles of the reformed faith, in connection with the advancement of learning and science. In the principal Protestant family of the north of Scotland, they were fortunate in finding a nobleman, who seconded them warmly in this design, and became the founder of the fifth and last University which has been established in the country.

This eminent person was George Keith, the fifth Earl Marischal, who succeeded to the large estates and influence of his grandfather, William, in 1581. His ancestor had been an eminent promoter of the reformed cause from its commencement, and paid great attention to the education of his grandson in the principles which he had himself adopted. After receiving the best education Scotland afforded, the young nobleman spent nearly seven years on the continent, during which he visited most of its courts, and studied under eminent masters, particularly at Geneva, under the learned Beza. He afterwards rose into great favour with James VI., and was sent to Denmark as ambassador extraordinary, to arrange the King's marriage with the Princess Anne. Soon after his return, he received a commission of Lord-lieutenancy over all the counties of the north of Scotland, with the view of checking the Roman Catholic party opposed to the government; a task which he accomplished without bloodshed. [The following account of his character is from a short "Opinion of the present State, Faction, Religion, and Power of the Nobility of Scotland," written in1583, and evidently intended for the information of Queen Elizabeth or her ministers. -"George Keith, Marshall, a young nobleman, of good commendation; his lynnige ancient, and revenow greatest of any Erle in Scotlande. * * * He was left very wealthye, and is esteemed honest, religious, and favouringe the best parte. — Banna-tyne Club Publication, 1842, p. 58.]

The plan of establishing a college in Aberdeen having been communicated to him by the magistrates, and the royal authority ha ing been obtained, an appropriate site was found in the buildings and garden which had belonged to the Franciscan friars. This property, having passed into other hands, was purchased by the magistrates for 1800 merks, and, by a vote of the community, presented to the Earl, who had obtained from the crown a right to the property of the other monastic bodies in the city.

You can read the rest of this account at
http://www.electricscotland.com/history/statistical/marishal.htm

On the index page of this volume you can see a list of the 85 parishes and also a map at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/statistical/volume12.htm 


Book of Scottish Story
----------------------
Our thanks to John Henderson for sending this in for us.

This week have added...

The Vacant Chair - Part 2

Here is how it starts...

"I ken by mysel, friends," said Adam Bell, a decent-looking Northumbrian, "that a faither’s heart is as sensitive as the apple o' his e’e ; and I think we would show a want o’ natural sympathy and respect for our worthy neighbour, if we didna every one get his foot into the stirrup without loss o’ time, and assist him in his search. For, in my rough, country way o’ thinking, it must be something particularly out o’ the common that would tempt Thomas to be amissing. Indeed, I needna say tempt, for there could be no inclination in the way. And our hills," he concluded, in a lower tone, "are not ower chancy in other respects, besides the breaking up o’ the storm."

"Oh!" said Mrs Elliot, wringing her hands, "I have had the coming o’ this about me for days and days. My head was growing dizzy with happiness, but thoughts came stealing upon me like ghosts, and I felt a lonely soughing about my heart, without being able to tell the cause ; but the cause is come at last ! And my dear Thomas—the very pride and staff o’ my life—is lost-lost to me for ever!"

"I ken, Mrs Elliot," replied the Northumbrian, "it is an easy matter to say compose yourself for them that dinna ken what it is to feel. But, at the same time, in our plain, country way o’ thinking, we are always ready to believe the worst. I’ve often heard my father say, and I’ve as often remarked it myself, that, before anything happens to a body, there is a something comes ower them, like a cloud before the face o’ the sun; a sort o’ dumb whispering about the breast from the other world. And though I trust there is naething o’ the kind in your case, yet as you observe, when I find myself growing dizzy, as it were, with happiness, it makes good a saying o’ my mother’s, poor body.

‘Bairns, bairns,’ she used to say, ‘there is ower muckle singing in your heads tonight; we will have a shower before bedtime.’ And I never, in my born days, saw it fail."

You can read the rest of this at http://www.electricscotland.com/books/story/story62-2.htm

The other stories can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/books/story/index.htm


Merchant and Craft Guilds
-------------------------
A History of the Aberdeen Incorporated Trades by Ebenezer Bain (1887)

More chapters up this week including...

PART II. THE RISE OF THE ABERDEEN CRAFTS.

Chapter I
Special Privileges of Craftsmen—Early Trading Charters—Trades of Old Aberdeen—The "Wise Men of the Craft"—The Deacon-Convener —List of Deacon-Conveners

Chapter II
The Crafts and the Church—Before the Reformation—Pageants and Miracle Plays—Abbot and Prior of Bon-Accord—Offerand of our Ladye—Corpus Christi Day—Order of Precedence—Robin Hood and Little John—Religious Processions—The Reformation Period —Cordiners' Altar--After the Reformation

Chapter III
Differences among the Burgesses—Representation at the Council—Composition and Entrant Dues—New Charter of Privileges

Chapter IV
The Common Indenture—Renewal of Differences—Election of Magistrates—Convention of Royal Burghs—The "X"

Chapter V
A Fourteen Years' Litigation—The Composition—The Funds of the Trades—Decision by the House of Lords—Settlement of the Dispute

Chapter VI
Constitution of Aberdeen Crafts—Jurisdiction—Seals of Cause—The Freedom—Burgess' Oaths—Patrimony—Rates of Composition" Mastersticks or Essays"

Chapter VII
The Craftsmen as Citizen Soldiers—Providing Arms—The Rebellions of 1715 and '45

PART III. THE SEVEN INCORPORATED TRADES.

Chapter I
Introductory — Formation of Separate Societies — The Litstars —The Barbers—The Masons—Exclusion of Burgesses of Guild

Here is a but from Chapter VII...

THE obligations imposed upon craftsmen under their burgess oath, "to watch and ward the town," was no empty meaningless phrase—at least in Aberdeen. Few towns in Scotland passed through so many troublous epochs, and none suffered more from the ravages of war than this very town which boasts for its motto the peaceful sentiment of "Bon-Accord." From the days of King William the Lion, when he established his palace in the Green, to the Rebellion of '45, Aberdeen was an important centre of action during the many troublous periods of Scotland's history. In 1179 it was a town of such size as to be considered worthy of being pillaged by Esteyn, one of the kings of Norway; its castle was seized by the English in 1292; when Sir William Wallace marched his army of relief from Dunnottar to Aberdeen in 1297, the enemy plundered and set fire to the town, and at a later stage Aberdeen had to suffer at the hands of the English for the support and shelter it gave to the Scottish champion. In the days of Robert Bruce, Aberdeen was the scene of many a bloody conflict; the castle was retaken from the English, and King Robert rewarded the citizens by bestowing on them a number of charters. Then came the historic battle of Harlaw, in which the citizens of Aberdeen, under Sir Robert Davidson, offered a determined resistance to Donald, Lord of the Isles; but it would take us out of our way to recount even the leading disturbances that occurred in Aberdeen during several centuries. It was favoured with many a royal visit, from the Jameses, Queen Mary, Charles II., and the leading notables in the country, and these marks of royal favour brought the town into a prominence that was not without its disadvantages. Then again, during the Covenanting days, and the rebellious periods of 1715 and 1745, Aberdeen bore the brunt of many a sanguinary conflict.

At all these eventful epochs the craftsmen, in their capacity of citizen soldiers, had to play their part. Down to the time of the second rebellion it was imperative that every free craftsman should be fully equipped with the weapons of war. On being admitted a free burgess he had to appear before the Magistrates clad "sufficentlie in armour, with an hagbute, bandaleire [wooden powder case], and sword," as a guarantee that he was able to "watch and ward;" besides having to contribute arms money towards the maintenance of the town's magazine. In token of their prowess at the battle of Harlaw in 1411, tradition says that each of the deacons brought back as a trophy a sword taken from the enemy. Three of the crafts—the Hammermen, the Tailors, and the Weavers—have still in their possession swords which are said to be the veritable weapons brought back from Harlaw, and their make and appearance do not belie the tradition.

You can read the rest of this chapter at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/guilds/part2chapter7.htm

We now have 5 chapters up for you to read at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/guilds/index.htm


The History of Glasgow
----------------------
By Robert Renwick LL.D. and Sir John Lindsay L.D. in 3 volumes (1921)

We are now making progress with these volumes and this week we have up...

Chapter XLVI
Bailieship of Regality—Earls of Lennox and Arran—Succession of Provosts—Bonds of Manrent—Craftsmen—Seals of Cause to Tailors, Weavers, and Hammermen—Acts of Parliament

Chapter XLVII
Legislation Relating to Burghs—Accounting for Common Good —Sailing of Ships—Foundations of Religious Services—Song School—Spread of Reformed Doctrines—Martyrs

Chapter XLVIII
Protocol Book for City Properties—Traffic on River Clyde—Liberties of Glasgow, Rutherglen and Renfrew—Tax Roll of Burghs

Chapter XLIX
Disaster of Solway Moss—Beginning of Queen Mary's Reign—Earl of Arran, Regent and Governor—Insurrection of Lennox and Others—Siege of Bishop's Castle—Battle of the Butts—Additions to Castle

Chapter L
Archbishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow—Their Rivalry—Archbishop Dunbar—Vicars-General during Vacant See—Archbishops Gordon and Beaton—Privilege of Sanctuary Claimed for Place of Blackfriars—Seals of Cause to Masons and Other Craftsmen

Chapter LI
Mode of Election of Glasgow Magistrates—Royal Commission on Archbishop's Rights—Dues Claimed by Archbishop—Convention of Burghs

Chapter LII
Privileges of Burghs—Liberties and Privilegestsmen—aftsmen—Deacons Discharged and Visitors Substituted—These Conditions Dispensed with—Trading in West Seas—Exactions on Herring Fishing—Summer Plays

And here is a bit from Chapter LII...

IN the Queen-regent's first parliament many wise and useful acts were passed for improving the administration of justice throughout the country and there was also some experimental legislation specially affecting the burghs. It is understood that on these subjects the regent was chiefly guided not by her French advisers but by the sage counsel of Henry Sinclair, dean of Glasgow, a man of profound legal knowledge and eminent as a scholar and statesman. [Tytler, iii. p. 76; where the more important statutes are alluded to. Henry Sinclair, second son of Sir Oliver St. Clair of Roslin was educated for the church at the university of St. Andrews. He was highly esteemed by James V. and was for years in his family. On 13th November, 1537, he was admitted an ordinary lord of session, and on 16th December, 1538, he was appointed rector of Glasgow primo. The commendatorship of Kilwinning he held from 1541 till 1550 when he exchanged that benefice for the deanery of Glasgow, then held by Gavin Hamilton. On being appointed bishop of Ross, in 1560, he had to resign the deanery, but was allowed to retain the prebend of Glasgow primo. Sinclair was lord president of the court of session from 1558 till his death in 1565. (Senators of the College of Justice (1836) pp. 58-60; Dowden's Bishops, p. 228.)]

By one of the burgh statutes it was recalled that for many bygone years, through trouble of wars, the estate of burgesses had suffered both in their lands and goods, and also that their privileges constituted by royal grants and acts of parliament, had not been duly observed and kept, and parliament there-f ore ratified all these privileges to burghs, burgesses and merchants, and ordained the lords of council to exercise their authority in enforcing the statutes. The act of James IV. requiring ships coming to free burghs in the west seas to observe certain rules [Antea, p. 244.] was ordered to be renewed, with an addition requiring that no one should purchase merchandise from strangers but only from freemen at free ports of the burghs.

All the burghs of the west country, such as Irvine, Ayr, Dumbarton and Glasgow, had been in the practice of resorting yearly to the fishing of Loch Fyne and other lochs in the North Isles, for the herring and other fishing, and hitherto they had been subject to no other exaction than the payment of the fishermen. Nevertheless some countrymen, dwelling beside Loch Fyne, had begun to charge custom on every last of herring taken in the loch, as high as the Queen's custom. On hearing of this new exaction parliament ordained that it should be discharged and not taken from the burgesses in respect of any herring or fishes taken by them in the lochs, for furnishing of their own houses and the country. This provision does not seem to have applied to fish caught for export, but perhaps home supply was mainly looked for at that time. On the same day as the fishing act was passed, parliament, referring to the increasing dearth in the country, of victuals and flesh, caused by the export of these, prohibited their removal from the country, except in so far as might be necessary for victualling ships and vessels during their voyage. But it allowed the inhabitants of the burghs of Ayr, Irvine, Glasgow and Dumbarton, and others dwelling at the west seas, to take baken bread, brewed ale and aquavitae to the Isles to barter with other merchandise. [Clyde Burghs, p. 23.]

You can read the rest of this chapter at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/glasgow/glasgow57.htm

The index page of the book is at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/glasgow/historyndx.htm


Scottish Banking Practice
-------------------------
Have now completed this book with the following chapters...

Chapter V
Deposits

Chapter VI
Lending

Chapter VII
Control of the Banking System

Chapter VIII
Branches

Chapter IX
Banking Services

Chapter X
The Staff

Chapter XI
Scotland and World Banking

Here is how Chapter X starts...

Such has been the rate of change in the activity and organisation of Scottish banks in the post-war years that the banker who retired before the war returning to a branch or head office would have great difficulty in recognising many of the jobs being done. In particular he would be surprised at the numbers of women working in the bank, for, pre-war, women were the exception rather than the rule. He would also notice changes in the pattern of recruitment, training, salaries, hours and holidays.

In the 18th century banking was a relatively simple business and bank staffs were commensurately small. The number of staff employed by one of the banking companies at their main office might be as low as four and branches might have only two or three. The head office of one of the big Edinburgh banks might employ twenty or thirty people. Typically a provincial bank might employ an agent (later called a manager), an accountant, a teller, one or two clerks and a porter. But even a very busy office like the Glasgow branch of the Royal Bank (the busiest office outside London) would only have seven or eight staff. The reason that staffs were so small was that the range of services was so limited compared with today.

The recruitment of experienced staff was always a problem for the banks. Such was the degree of expansion in the banking system especially with the coming of joint-stock banks in the 1830s that experienced staff were at a premium and were often enticed away to work for another bank in some other part of the British Isles or perhaps overseas. The recruitment of Scottish bankers to serve abroad continued at a high level for many years. The result of this was that promotion was often rapid. Even very young clerks with only a few years experience were very mobile and to counter this some of the banks introduced an indentured apprenticeship scheme which bound young clerks to their bank for four or five years. Another manifestation of this problem is that banks began to require notice of staff resignations. In some cases six months' notice was required.

In the branches agents were appointed from amongst the local business community. Often a lawyer was encouraged to take up a bank agency and this profession was followed in tandem with his legal practice and perhaps with an insurance agency. Branch agents were made responsible for recruiting and paying their own staff. Such was the expansion of branch networks in the 19th century, however, that suitable agents became increasingly difficult to recruit and so the banks began to appoint staff from their head office and sometimes other branches to be agents. These were really the first examples of staff transfers and mark a further step in the increasing professionalisation of banking for in this way a career and promotion structure began to open up in banking. The transfer from agents to branch managers was a slow one and was not completed until the middle of the 20th century.

You can read the rest of this chapter at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/banking/handbook10.htm

And these can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/banking/handbookndx.htm


The Glengarry McDonalds of Virginia
-----------------------------------
By Mrs Flora McDonald Williams (1911)

Have now completed this book with the following chapters...

Chapter 26
Roy McDonald

Chapter 27
Donald McDonald

Chapter 28
Hunter McDonald

Chapter 29
Glengarry To-day, By Rev. Peerce Naylor McDonald

Appendices

Here is a bit from Glengarry To-day...

History paints for us in vivid colors the old life at Glengarry, but time has brought radical changes to the land of the McDonalds'; and the old ruined castle, once the home of their renowned leaders, looks down upon a much changed country. With the setting of the star of the Stuart's hopes, darkness and vicissitude rested upon Scotia's fair lands. Over those moors and glens at Glengarry, which once resounded to the shrill call of the bagpipe, we see feeding to-day droves of deer and various kinds of game. They have little fear of a chance intruder, for the shooting on the estate is leased to Lord Burton of England, for which he pays $25,000 a year, and any one who dares to touch one of the deer out of season will be severely dealt with. Glengarry can now be approached from two quarters, one by way of the Invergarry and Fort Augustus R. R., the time table of which bears on the outside an attractive picture of "Invergarry, Old Castle," and the other is by means of a popular line of steamers which runs from Oban to Inverness. In addition to this there are now splendid roads through this section which are very popular for motoring. But doesn't it seem like sacrilege to be motoring through such historic ground?

The post oflice at Glengarry is called "Invergarry," and the castle of the famous clan of Glengarry is also called "Invergarry." It is located on Loch Oich ("Queen of Highland Lakes"), at the mouth of the Garry River which heads in Loch Garry five miles away. Glengarry properly speaking derives its name from the valley along the river of the same name.

The place is now owned by an English family named Ellice. Mr. Ellice told me that his family had made their money fur-trading in Canada, and that on one occasion when the Indians had attacked the home of his ancestors, the Glengarry men who were then living in Canada came to their rescue and saved their lives. In appreciation for what they had received at their hands, these Ellices bought Glengarry and have ever after that made it their home. Mr. Ellice himself is a charming man, has taken a great deal of interest in the place and its people and has written a book in regard to the traditions of the place. As the old castle is in ruins he has built nearby a handsome new home and has done much to improve and preserve the estate.

The main revenue from the estate is in the hunting and the fishing, both of which are leased to the English nobility. The numerous hills are entirely without trees, but during the month of August are purple with the blooming heather. Trees grow luxuriantly in the glens, and the proprietor is planting forest trees on a large scale and hoping eventually to have the hill sides covered with them. There are on the estate about twenty-five families, all employees of Mr. Ellice. They look after the game and the fishing, also do some little farming and tree planting.

You can read the rest of this chapter at http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macdonald/glengarry29.htm

The other chapters can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macdonald/glengarryndx.htm


Reminiscences of a Highland Parish
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By Norman MacLeod D.D. (1871)

The start of another book and here is the Preface...

I AM for many reasons peculiarly gratified by the reception which has been given to these sketches of Highland life and manners in several of their least-known aspects, and these reminiscences of a state of society which has almost passed away with the old people of the land.

Several mistakes in the earlier chapters, of a local and personal kind,—in no way, however, affecting the truthfulness of the narrative, or the impression intended to be conveyed by it,—have been pointed out to me. I have, in this edition, corrected as many of them as possible.

If I have recorded little in these pages regarding the inmates of the manse during the later years of its history, it is only because delicacy to the living forbade my doing what otherwise would have been prompted by affection, and by happy memories, which connect the past with the present. Indeed, so mingled in my thoughts are my earlier and later days in "the Parish," that some incidents recorded here as having belonged to the one, I find belong in reality to the other.

It is alleged—with what truth it is not for me to determine—that a Scotchman cannot understand a joke; but, judging from the grave manner in which allusions made by me to the bagpipes, peat-reek, &c., have been commented on by some of the southern newspapers, I am disposed to think that this dullness of apprehension is not always confined to one side of the Tweed.

I have only further to add, that the translations from the Gaelic were made by my brother-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Clerk, minister of Kilmallie, one of the best Gaelic scholars living.

July, 1867.

This book can be read at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/hparish/index.htm


The Scottish Historical Review
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I have added several more articles from these publications...

The Scottish Ancestors of President Roosevelt
President Roosevelt, whose name is unmistakably of Dutch origin, has nevertheless a more decided ancestral connection with Scotland than with Holland.

The Templars in Scotland in the Thirteenth Century
Information from a Charter Deed from 1354 held in the General Registry House in Edinburgh.

Scottish Students in Heidelberg, 1386-1662
Lots of Scottish names in this article and amazing how far it goes back.

You can read these at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/articles/review


Were the Scots Irish?
---------------------
An article by Ewan Campbell.

An interesting article and here is how it starts...

The author attributes the claimed migrations of the Irish into Argyll to a set of elite origin myths finding no support in archaeological evidence. He goes on to ask how the Iron Age populations of Argyll established and changed their personal and group identity.

Traditional historical accounts of the origin of the Scotttish kingdom states that the Scots founded the early kingdom of Dal Riata in western Scotland having migrated there form north eastern Antrim, Ireland. In the process they displaced a native Pictish or British people from an area roughly equivalent to modern Argyll. Later, in the mid 9th century, these Scots of Dal Riata took over the Pictish kingdom of eastern Scot­land to form the united kingdom of Alba, later to become known as Scotland. To the classical authors of late antiquity, the peoples of Ireland were Scotti, probably a derogatory term mean­ing something like 'pirates'. The name was used by early medieval writers in Latin for all speakers of Gaelic, whether in Ireland or Scotland. Much later the usage became associated exclusively with the peoples of Scotland, whether speak­ers of Gaelic or not. In this paper I will use the term Goidelic for the Irish/Scottish Gaelic, branch of Celtic (Q-Celtic), and Brittonic for the Brit­ish group including Welsh, Pictish and Cumbric (P-Celtic).

After a period of virulent sectarian debate on the origins of the Scots in the 18th and 19th centuries (Ferguson 1998), the idea of a migra­tion of the Scots to Argyll has become fixed as a fact in both the popular and academic mind for at least a century. Present-day archaeologi­cal textbooks show a wave of invasive black arrows attacking the west coast of Britain from Ireland in the late 4th/5th centuries (e.g. Laing 1975: figure 1). Even the tide of anti-migrationism as explanation for culture change which swept through British prehistory in the 1970s and washed into Anglo-Saxon studies in the 1980s left this concept remarkably intact. Irish histo­rians still regularly speak of the 'Irish colonies in Britain' (Ò Cr òinin 1995: 18; Byrne 1973: 9), and British anti-invasionist prehistorians seem happy to accept the concept (e.g. Cunliffe 1979:163. figure). The insistence on an explicitly colonialist terminology is somewhat ironic given the past reaction of many Irish archaeologists to what they perceived as intellectual crypto-colonialism of British archaeologists and art historians over the origin of the Insular Art illus­trated manuscripts and items such as hanging bowls. Exactly why colonialist explanations should have survived in the 'Celtic West' while being hotly debated in eastern Britain is of con­siderable interest, but not the purpose of this paper, which is to provide a critical examina­tion of the archaeological, historical and lin­guistic evidence for a Scottic migration, and provide a new explanation for the origins of Dal Riata.

You can read the rest of this at http://www.electricscotland.com/history/articles/scotsirish.htm

And that's it for now and hope you all have an enjoyable weekend :-)


Alastair
http://www.electricscotland.com 

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